Pneumonia Marnelle Joy S. Pulmano, BSN, RN
OVERVIEW
Definition• An infection and/or inflammation  of the interstitial tissues of the  lung• Fluid, WBC, and cellular debris  f...
Incidence• Approximately 50% are  bacterial   25-30% of all CAP are     pneumococcal pneumonia   40,000 deaths annually•...
Onset• Varies according to type of  pneumonia
Etiology• Causes:  Viruses  Bacteria  Fungi  Inhalation of vomitus, food,   liquid, gases
• TB and other respiratory  diseases can also secondarily  cause pneumonia
Clinical Findings•   Fever•   Productive cough•   Substernal pain and discomfort•   Shortness of breath
Clinical Findings• Crackles on auscultation• Increased fremitus• Dullness on percussion over  affected lobe(s)
3 TYPES OF PNEUMONIA
Primary Pneumonia• Caused by inhalation or  aspiration of a bacterial or viral  pathogen into the lower  respiratory tract
Secondary Pneumonia• Results from lung injury that  was caused by the spread of  bacteria from an infection  elsewhere in ...
Aspiration Pneumonia• Caused by aspiration of foreign  matter such as food, vomitus, or  secretions into the bronchial  tr...
NURSING FOCUS
• Position patient to facilitate an  open airway and ease breathing   HOB: 30-45°• Encourage coughing and deep  breathing...
• Suction the airway to clear  secretions as needed• Encourage fluids as ordered• If antibiotic therapy is started,  close...
PATIENT TEACHING
• Provide patient and family with  literature on pneumonia• Explain the dosages, route,  actions, adverse reactions of  me...
• Explain that combined fluid  intake should be at least 3L/day   Liquid, soup, jello• Explain that coughing, deep  breat...
• Teach patient to eat small,  frequent meals to maintain  adequate nutrition• Provide literature on smoking  cessation to...
Pneumonia
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Pneumonia

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Pneumonia

  1. 1. Pneumonia Marnelle Joy S. Pulmano, BSN, RN
  2. 2. OVERVIEW
  3. 3. Definition• An infection and/or inflammation of the interstitial tissues of the lung• Fluid, WBC, and cellular debris from phagocytosis of the infectious agent accumulate in the alveoli
  4. 4. Incidence• Approximately 50% are bacterial 25-30% of all CAP are pneumococcal pneumonia 40,000 deaths annually• Mycoplasma accounts for 20% of cases
  5. 5. Onset• Varies according to type of pneumonia
  6. 6. Etiology• Causes: Viruses Bacteria Fungi Inhalation of vomitus, food, liquid, gases
  7. 7. • TB and other respiratory diseases can also secondarily cause pneumonia
  8. 8. Clinical Findings• Fever• Productive cough• Substernal pain and discomfort• Shortness of breath
  9. 9. Clinical Findings• Crackles on auscultation• Increased fremitus• Dullness on percussion over affected lobe(s)
  10. 10. 3 TYPES OF PNEUMONIA
  11. 11. Primary Pneumonia• Caused by inhalation or aspiration of a bacterial or viral pathogen into the lower respiratory tract
  12. 12. Secondary Pneumonia• Results from lung injury that was caused by the spread of bacteria from an infection elsewhere in the body• Inhalation of a noxious chemical, which can precipitate ARDS
  13. 13. Aspiration Pneumonia• Caused by aspiration of foreign matter such as food, vomitus, or secretions into the bronchial tree• Risk factors: Old age, decreased gag reflex, anesthesia and sedation, debilitation, ALOC
  14. 14. NURSING FOCUS
  15. 15. • Position patient to facilitate an open airway and ease breathing HOB: 30-45°• Encourage coughing and deep breathing every 2 hours
  16. 16. • Suction the airway to clear secretions as needed• Encourage fluids as ordered• If antibiotic therapy is started, closely monitor routine peak and trough levels
  17. 17. PATIENT TEACHING
  18. 18. • Provide patient and family with literature on pneumonia• Explain the dosages, route, actions, adverse reactions of meds• Stress the importance of limiting activity and resting frequently to avoid fatigue
  19. 19. • Explain that combined fluid intake should be at least 3L/day Liquid, soup, jello• Explain that coughing, deep breathing, incentive spirometry promote healing and help prevent recurrence
  20. 20. • Teach patient to eat small, frequent meals to maintain adequate nutrition• Provide literature on smoking cessation to patient who smokes• Advise patients over age 65 and those in high risk groups to receive pneumonia vaccine

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