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Nationalandorganisationalculture 110131043222-phpapp01 (1)


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Nationalandorganisationalculture 110131043222-phpapp01 (1)

  1. 1. National and Organisational Culture Group presentation Baoping, Raksha & Umesh
  2. 2. Culture ‘the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another.’ --- Hofstede (2001) ‘Culture consists in patterned ways of thinking, feeling and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human group, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values.’ --- Kluckhohn, 1951
  3. 3. Specific to individual Inherited and learned PERSONALITY Specific to group or category Universal Learned CULTURE HUMAN NATURE Inherited Three levels of uniqueness in human mental programming
  4. 4. Hofstede’s Dimensions in culture • • • • • Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Individualism Vs Collectivism Masculine Vs Feminine Short term Vs Long Term
  5. 5. Layers of Culture • • • • • • National Level Regional-Ethnic-Religious-Linguistic Level Gender Level Generation Level Social Class Level Organisational / Corporate Level
  6. 6. National Culture •Culture, in this sense, includes systems of values; and values are among the building blocks of culture. • Although national culture grows with generations, but still stabilising in patterns across generations using some mechanisms
  7. 7. Outside Influences Nature Man - trade - scientific discovery - dominations Origins Social norms Consequences Ecological factors -geography -history -demography -economy -technology -urbanisation Value systems of major groups of population Structure and functioning of institutions: -family patterns -role differentiation -educational systems -religion -political systems The Stabilizing of Culture Patterns
  8. 8. • Models of National culture: – Single Dimension models • Countries are classified culturally on the basis of one variable – Multiple Dimension models • Nationalities are classified on the basis of more than one varilable – Historical-social models
  9. 9. Organisational Culture • “an objective entity, consisting a set of behavioural and cognitive characteristics” – Schein • includes the organizational structure and rules, values, feelings, norms, the organizational ‘climate.’ - Lewis(1998) • Why is it required? • How it is dependent on National Culture?
  10. 10. • Brown’s model divides organisational culture into three layers: – Outer layer: values about the strategies, mission and objectives of organisation – Middle layer: beliefs and issues of the organisation which employees talk about – Inner Layer: things which people find it difficult to talk about
  11. 11. 3 aspects of organizational culture • The general relationship between employees and their organization; • The vertical or hierarchical system of authority defining superiors and subordinates; • The general views of employees about the organization’s destiny, purpose and goals and their place in it.
  12. 12. • Hofstede defines six dimensions to differentiate between organizational cultures that have similarities with the dimensions of Schein: – Process Vs results-oriented; – Employee Vs joboriented; – Parochial Vs professional dependent; – open Vs closed systems of communication; – loose Vs tight control; – normative Vs pragmatic organization
  13. 13. Differences in national and organisational culture • ‘A nation is not an organisation’ • External signs are usually considered and people think that National cultures are becoming same as Organisational cultures • National cultures and Organisational cultures are two different phenomena
  14. 14. Symbols Heroes Rituals Values
  15. 15. Place of socialisation Level Nation Family Values Social Class School Occupation Industry Organisation Practices Workplace
  16. 16. • National Culture – Shared meanings – Unconditional relationship – Born into it – Totally immersed • Organisational Culture – Shared behaviours – Conditional relationship – Socialized into it – Partly involved
  17. 17. Questions for discussion • Share an example where national culture have impacted the organisational culture of a company and in what way. • Share an example where organisational culture has diluted the national culture. • What influence the values and behaviour of employees more in an organisation – National Culture or Organisational Culture?