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Mali Country Plan


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Original work and design created by 10th grade DSA students as part of the 'Legacy of Imperialism' Project.

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Mali Country Plan

  1. 1. Mali Country Developement Plan the W.O.M.A.N. foundation Zach Asuncion•Gabby ArevaloFelicia Mateo•Chris Jimenez•
  2. 2. Mali Summary Executive Mali is located in the North resources are gold, phos- gest cause of injury and death also help them by teaching this is have the women be West of Africa. Over 40% of phate, kaolin, salt, lime stone, to women in Mali. Female them to be literate and stand better educated and be able the country is desert, and the uranium, gypsum, granite genital mutilation is also com- up for themselves. Women to stand up for themselves. rest is not suitable for agricul- and hydropower. The envi- mon. Children do not receive would be learning primary Then, in the long run, more ture. It has a dry atmosphere ronmental issues in Mali are protection against traficking skills and also some craft women could join the govern- and lacks rain. Mali has two deforestation, desertification, and have a high mortality rate. skills that they could use to ment or start an association main languages. One is soil erosion, drought, and not 2/3 of the children denied an start a business. We will also that will bring women equality French, which is the official enough potable water. education are girls. The most be expecting the women to and better treatment. language, and the other is critical human rights issue is bring their children and we Bambara. About 90% of the Women in Mali are more likely about women. will have teachers so that the people in Mali are Muslim, 5% to be poor. According to sta- children will not be losing any are Christian, and the others tistics, women also do more So what we want to do is education. Another thing we are animist believers. Mali work. They only earn 10% of make a shelter for the women, would have for the children is gained its independence on Mali’s income, and they work where they can get away from a daycare. September 22, 1960 from 2/3 of the working hours. their abusive husbands, and the French. Mali’s natural Domestic violence is the big- segregated environment, and What we hope to do by doing
  3. 3. Mali Narrative Historical Before imperialism in Mali, it Songhai empire. trol. It was named the French many more negative effects. they gained independence economy, but it didn’t happen was once part of the three Sudan in 1920, and became Malian farmers were forced to from France on June 20, because of a drought bewt- famed West African empires The French started coming part of the French Union in sell their land to the colonial 1960. After that, Senegal ween 1968 to 1974, that killed which controlled trans-Sa- into Mali around 1880. Ten 1946. government. Because there separated from the federa- a lot of people from famine. haran trade in gold, salt, years later, the French tried to was no stability of govern- tion in August 1960, which They continued to attempt slaves, and other precious occupy everything within Mali. While the French were in ment, the people of Mali were allowed the Sudanese Repub- economic reforms. In 1991, commodities. Mali expanded A French civilian governor Mali, they had some positive turned into refugees. The lic to form the independent anti-government protests led throughout West Africa from was selected in 1893, but the and some negative effects. French officials pressured the nation of Mali on September to a coup and a new consti- the 8th century until 1078, resistance to French control One of the positive effects is workers for more production. 22, 1960. Modibo was the tution. When Alpha Oumar when it was conquered by a didn’t end until 1898. Mali that the French built roads Farmers could hardly earn first president, and made Konare got reelected as the dynasty of Sahara, the Al- was just one of many other for transportation of goods their living. And last, the coun- a one party state. He then president, he pushed through moravids. The empire of Mali colonial territories the French to the sea in Mali. They also try was going towards poverty started owning the economic political and economic re- later formed on the upper managed as the Federation of constructed railways. Another and famine. resources. In November forms and fought corruption in Niger river. It reached height French West Africa. In 1904 positive effect was that the 1968, Keïta’s leadership was 1997. Today, Mali is one of the of power in the fourteenth the land of Mali became a cotton production succeeded. By 1959, Mali and Senegal overthrown in a military coup most politically and socially century. Later, the empire de- colony. By 1905, most of the Although there were some came together to become led by Moussa Traore. Traore stable countries in Africa. clined mainly because of the area was under French con- positive effects, there were the Mali Federation. Together, attempted to reform the
  4. 4. Mali Timeline 11th century 1992 Empire of Mali becomes dominant force in the upper Niger basin, its period of greatness Alpha Konare wins multiparty elections to become Mali’s first democratically-elected presi- beginning under King Sundiata in 1235 and peaking under Mansa Musa who ruled be- dent. tween 1312 and 1337 and extended empire to the Atlantic. 1995 14th-15th centuries Peace agreement with Tuareg tribes leads to return of thousands of refugees. Decline of the Empire of Mali, which loses dominance of the gold trade to the Songhai Empire, which makes its base in Timbuktu - historically important as a focal point of Islamic 2000 February culture and a trading post on the trans-Saharan caravan route. Konare appoints former International Monetary Fund official Mande Sidibe prime minister. Late 16th century 2002 April Moroccans defeat the Songhai, make Timbuktu their capital and rule until their decline in Amadou Toumani Toure elected president by landslide. Poll is marred by allegations of the 18th century. fraud. 19th century 2002 September French colonial advance, and Islamic religious wars which lead to creation of theocratic France says it will cancel 40% of debts owed to it by Mali, amounting to some 80m euros states. ($79m, £51m). 1898 2004 April France completes conquest of Mali, then called French Sudan. Prime Minister Mohamed Ag Amani resigns and is replaced by Ousmane Issoufi Maiga. 1959 2007 April Mali and Senegal form the Mali Federation, which splits a year later. President Toure wins a second five-year term in elections. 1960 2007 August Mali becomes independent with Modibo Keita as president. It becomes a one-party, so- Suspected Tuareg rebels abduct government soldiers in separate incidents near the Niger cialist state and withdraws from the Franc zone. and Algerian borders. 1968 2009 August Keita ousted in coup led by Lieutenant Moussa Traore. New law boosts women’s rights, prompts some protests. 1979 2010 March New constitution provides for elections; Traore re-elected president. Alicia Gamez, a Spanish woman kidnapped in Mauritania last year by al-Qaeda in the Is- lamic Maghreb, has been freed in Mali. 1991 Traore deposed in coup and replaced by transitional committee.
  5. 5. MDGoals Summary In Mali’s process of achieving there goals they have fallen short of there goals they have a ways to go they have below 50 percent of the country living off of below one us dollar a day. The same goes for there primary school plan that is at 43 percent they have to figure out a way to get more students to attend school so that they may complete a full course. Thankfully the ratios of girls to boys is high 87 percent, but in parliament its a low percentage 10%. Not only is getting women a better education and more seats in government one of there main priority’s but also reducing child mortality. Child mortality under five has been re- duced to 54% and immunization against measles have gone up to 87%. They have improved Goal 1: Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day 36.1% Children under 5 moderatly or severly underweight 33.2% Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Primary education completion rate 49% Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Seats held by women in national parliament 10.2% Women in nonagricultural sector 35% Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Children under five mortality rate per 1,000 live births 217 Children 1 year old immunized agains measles 86% Goal 5: Improve maternal health Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births 970 Goal 6: Combating disease Tuberculosis prevalence rate per 100,000 population 578.2 People living with HIV, 15-49 years old 1.5% Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Land area covered by forest 10.3% Proportion of population using improved drinking water sources 60% Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source 78%
  6. 6. Mali Rights Human According to the U.S Depart- didn’t have enough money to Children Rights: girls in the ages between 6 the south; girls were bought sons with disabilities. ment of human rights, Mali’s support themselves. In Mali, The government provided months and 6 years. They for involuntary domestic ser- government respects the prostitution is legal because welfare and rights for children. were legalized to marry at vices. Children were mainly The Right of Association: decisions the citizens make the law does not directly Education was open and free age 15 if their parents ap- trafficked for agriculture work, The law allows workers to on human rights. Violence specify sexual harassment, so to everyone, however boys proved, and men at age 21. domestic servitude, gold min- form or join a union of their against women including it occurred constantly. When percentage was higher than Some families arranged mar- ing, begging, and prostitution. choice. The only people that spousal abuse was tolerated women were attacked where girls in enrollment. The gov- riages for girls at the age of 9. were prohibited to not form or and common in Mali. Spou- child custody, divorce or ernment provides children Civil Liberties : join a union were the military, sal abuse is a crime, you get inherited rights were involved and also adults with medical The Law Prohibits trafficking There was no specific law and the National guard. punished in prison for one to in a family, family law favored care, it is distributed equally in children, but not in adults. protecting the rights of per- five years and they fine you the men. Due to woman’s lack amongst all citizens. Abuse of most trafficking occurred sons with disabilities in em- LGBT rights in Mali: with $1,000 or ten years in im- of information and education, children, though common, is within the country. Children ployment, education, access ( lesbian, Gay, BIsexual, prisonment. However, women woman’s legal services were rarely officially reported. were bought and forced to to health care, or in the provi- Transgender) persons in Mali hesitated to make a com- limited. For example, woman work in rice fields in central sion of other state services; may have to go through legal plaint about their husbands had to pay $60 to start pro- Female genital mutilation was regions. Boys were bought however, the government did challenges. Neither male or because of the fact that they cess, if they wanted a divorce. common, this happened to and forced to work in mines in not discriminate against per- female same sex is prohibited
  7. 7. Mali Rights Human in Mali. Public laws may be government had limited press of religion. The people in The government has made a a written decleration and a Violence and discrimination is used against LGBT persons. freedom during the year.Many order to have freedom of reli- system that provides protec- financial statement of their a problem. But, there was dis- A percentage of 98 people in people criticized the govern- gion, they had to register. tions to refugees. The govern- earnings. This information was crimination based on sexual mali said that homosexuality ment, and they had no other ment also provides protec- not publp-=ic. If the person orientation and persons with should be rejected by society. choice, but to put up with all Political Rights tion against refoulement. The refuses to give information, HIV/AIDS. There are no laws against the criticism. The constitution and law committee in charge of refu- the person questioning can Homosexuality. Same-sexual provide citizens with the right gees worked with institutional appeal to an admininstrative activity is legal. There is no Freedom of Assembly to change their government assistance for Refugees. court, which must be handled legal protection agaiinst dis- The constition and law pro- in peace. They had fair elec- immediately within three crimination that has to do with vide for the freedom of as- tions. They also practiced this Government Corruption and months. sexual orientation. sembly, the government highly right for free, based on the in- Transperancy respected this law. versal suffrage.Political parties The law provides criminal Discrimination Freedom of Speech and Press normally operated wothout penalties for official corrup- The constitution and law The law and the constitu- Freedom of Religion restrictions. tion. The constitution required prohibits discrimination that tion provided for Freedom of The constution and law Pro- cabinet members so submit has to do with social origin, speech and of the press, the vide the people with freedom Protection of Refugees to the supreme court to file sex,language,color,or race.
  8. 8. Mali Environmnental Status -The major environmental problem in Mali is the increasing desertification of the country. Soil -Mali is a country that depends on agro-pastoral activities. Rural area occupy over 95% of the erosion, deforestation, and loss of pastureland pose additional problems for the environment. national territory. The most dangerous pollutions in regard to the environment are: Mali also has an inadequate water supply: only 74% of city dwellers and 61% of people living in rural areas have access to pure water . Pollution of soil and foodstuffs caused by the use of pesticides and fertilizers . Pollution caused by solid and liquid waste. -The nation’s wildlife is threatened by drought, poaching, and the destruction of the environ- . Air pollution caused by smoke ment. Mali has a national park and four animal reserves -Mali animals are mostly of the sub Saharan type because of the geographical location of Mali -industry in Mali is basically geared to the importation of raw materials, semi-finished products -Some of the major Mali animals include: and spare parts, which tends to increase the harmful effects of an unsound use of chemical Lemurs, Crocodiles, Meerkat, Ball Pythons, Mandrill Baboons, Warthogs, Rock Pythons, products Giant Pangolins, Elephant, Leopard, Bush Baby, Giraffes, African Lions, Chimpanzee, Hippopotamus, Dromedary Camels, Black Rhinoceros, Spotted Hyenas. -Air pollution is caused by industrial activities, by heating systems (smoke) and motor vehicle traffic
  9. 9. Map of Mali Cotton Desert Semi Desert Semi Grassland Adrar des lfora Grasslands Lakes/Rivers Kidal Niger Capital Tombouctou Gold Gao Hombori Tondo Mopti Kayes Bamako Timbuktu, a city in Mali, is the home to Sankore University. This map shows all the cities and resources in Mali. One half of the country is desert. Sikasso There is very little land suitable for agriculture.
  10. 10. Mali of Need Description Women in Mali are not treated 1-5 years and they are fined Women are not allowed to cated they can’t start a busi- mately 95 percent of women der harsh conditions, where equal. They suffer major abus- $1,000. However, very few sit in the same table as their ness. An average women in had been through FGM. they take part in difficult farm es from their spouses in the women report spousal abuse husband to eat dinner. Values Mali works for 7 hours a day Mutilation happened to most work and do most of the par- form of physical abuse, sexual crimes. Research shows that have showed men to be head and spends 10 hours doing ethnic groups, but it was not enting on their own. Despite abuse, emotional abuse and although there are laws that of the families, therefore the chores at home; yet they are based on religion. There are giving women equal rights financial abuse. They don’t protect women, in reality the head is the only one allowed still not treated fairly. They do no laws prohibiting Genital regarding property, traditional have enough money to sup- police and government often to make a decision that are not get paid for their work, mutilation for woman. The law practice and ignorance of port themselves. They also side with the abusers. Women based on marriage and di- and they are prohibited to go criminalizes Rape. A small the law prevent women from lack education. are scared to come forward. vorce issues. to public places. percent of rape cases were being reformed. Women’s They are afraid they will be reported. because they didn’t access to employment and Women hesitate to file com- abused more severely if they Women in Mali do not attend Female Genital Mutilation have enough money to sup- to economic and educational plaints against their spouses, try to get help from the police. school as often as men. This (FGM) was common mainly port themselves. Again the opportunities was limited. even if they are beaten or means fewer women know in rural areas. It happened law does not prohibit domes- otherwise abused. Spousal 88% of women are illiterate. how to read and write, They to girls in between the ages tic violence. abuse is a crime. For punish- Many do not know there are have fewer opportunities be of six months and six years. ment men go to prison for laws that protect them. successful. If they are unedu- Statistics show that approxi- Women in Mali often live un-
  11. 11. Mali Proposal Project The W.O.M.A.N (Woman of give them a room with secu- women speak on their behalf self defense. We will train about Abusive concepts. As lians rights , otherwise they Mali Act Now) Foundation is rity. A nurse will be attending and help them speak up for the woman how to be liter- the children grow up, they will will still be victims of domestic going to build a shelter for the women in case they come their restraining orders that ate in order for them be able already have in mind what it is violence. while woman are survivors of domestic abuse. in with any wounds or broken they should have. Woman in to stand up for themselves to be abused or feel abused. being held in these shelters, It will be located in the capital bones. marriage will be helped with and know how to start their We believe that since these there will also be a school for city of Mali, Bamako. Statis- divorce, or child custody, and own business. After we start kids are the future, and that these children so that they tics show that 39% of women There will be teachers hired to make sure that the govern- increasing these woman’s they shall be taught intellectu- could learn their the basics in mali are being abused by teach these people all sorts ment does not take advantage knowledge they will be given ally. This way the percentage of education, so not only will their Spouses. our shelter will of things. We will teach the of them. We will help them the opportunity to have a in abusive relationships will they be taught about violence give women immediate secu- women what abuse is, and with any cost of financial pa- stable job. They will be held indecrease in the next genera- issues, but they will also be rity. Also that women will have explain to them that it is not per work. our shelter for about 6 months tion. Therefore in the com- taught curricular materials. the choice whether to stay or right and that it is not their to a year. ing years they wont have to leave their abusive homes and fault. We’ll teach them about We will have classes that deal with all the struggle that be brought into our shelter. financial, physical, emotional, will inspire the woman to do The children that are brought their parents or their relatives They will have ability to bring sexual abuse, and the cycle something about being un- into our shelter will have a went through. We have to do their children in, and we will of violence. Here we will help equal. We’ll have classes for class that will also teach them something about these ma-
  12. 12. Project Impact Analysis Implementation Year 1 Summary; -Find a good place where our shelter will be located There are many positives and negatives to our plan of action if careered out. The -Gather all materials needed negatives of our plan are thatwe will anger many people, mainly husbands, and with that in -Build the shelter mind we may have the problem of husbands searching for our center to take back there wives -Hire teachers, security, and child care providers, counselors, nurses and children. Positives of our plan are that we will help women become more independent so -Each the workers french and other Malian languages that they may have equal rights in society. Year 2 Positives; -Wives of abusive husbands will be away from the abuse. -Advertise and let the word out in a discreet way -Women and children will have a better life. -Start bringing in Women and children -Children will learn basic eduction in a safe environment. -Start intensive counseling for women and children -Women will learn transferable skills that will help them in jobs they may have once out -Job training, and basic education for children of our facility. -Women will becom more independent. Year 3 -Women are going to start reentering the community -They will be able to find jobs, take care of their children, be independent Negatives; -Government may not approve of it. -Husbands would not like having their wives and children leaving them. Year 5 -Husbands could start looking for us to take wives and children back. -Some women my revert to their old life with abusive spouse. -Our service will be having the women coming in and out of our center. -Women that come out of our center will be successful and we would have more help from previous clients.