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Bank & Lembaga Keuangan Non Bank 1 (Perbankan)

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Bank & Lembaga Keuangan Non Bank 1 (Perbankan)

  1. 1. BANK & LEMBAGA KEUANGAN NON BANK 1 Provided by Ari Raharjo
  2. 2. Asal Muasal • Transaksi keuangan: Barter (penjual & pembeli bertemu langsung) • Berkembang: muncul perantara (penjual & pembeli tdk bertemu langsung) • Muncul “uang” sbg alat pembayaran • Perantara “uang” adl lembaga keuangan
  3. 3. Sejarah • Sdh ada pd jaman babylonia (2000 thn sblm masehi) • Bank modern: Inggris, Belanda & Belgia (abad 16), masih berupa emas & perak sbg alat p’byran
  4. 4. Bank vs non bank Penghimpunan dana • Langsung mrpk simpanan masy • Tidak langsung berupa kertas berharga/penyerta an/pinjaman • Tidak langsung berupa kertas berharga/penyerta an/pinjaman
  5. 5. Bank vs non bank Penyaluran dana • Utk modal kerja, investasi, konsumsi • Utk badan usaha dan individu • Utk jangka pendek, menengah dan panjang • Terutama utk investasi • Terutama utk badan usaha • Terutama utk jangka menengah & panjang
  6. 6. Jenis Lemb Keu Perbankan (UU no. 10, 1998: Jenis: • Bank Umum • BPR Prinsip Usaha: • Konvensional • Syariah Non Bank: • Leasing • Asuransi • Modal ventura • Anjak Piutang • Pegadaian • Dana pensiun • Kartu kredit • Pasar modal
  7. 7. Klasifikasi uang Narrow Money (M1): • Uang kartal (uang kertas, koin) • Uang Giral/demand deposite (giro) • Broad Money: • M2 = M1 + Saving deposite (tabungan) + Time deposite (deposito) • M3 = M2 + simpanan dana di LKBB Tingkat likuiditas: •Kartal > giral > tabungan > deposito > Dana LKBB •M1 > M2 > M3
  8. 8. Fungsi Bank 1. Agent of Trust 2. Agent of Development (pemberian kredit utk pembangunan 3. Agent of services (jasa transfer, save deposite box, jaminan bank)
  9. 9. Financial Intermediaries Unit Defisit Borrowers Unit Surplus Lenders Bank & Non Bank Fund Fund Income Income
  10. 10. Otoritas Moneter UU no. 23, 1999 tentang Bank Sentral  BI Tugas BI: • Menetapkan & melaksanakan kebijakan moneter: laju inflasi, operasi pasar uang, menentukan tk diskonto, cadangan wajib minimum, kredit, kebijakan nilai tukar, cadangan devisa • Mengatur & menjaga kelancaran sistem pembayaran • Mengatur & mengawasi bank
  11. 11. Kesehatan Bank • BMPK (batas Maks Pemberian kredit/Legal Lending Limit) • Likuiditas Wajib Minimum/cadangan wajib minimum/reserve requirement • Posisi devisa netto (Net open position): selisih aktiva & pasiva dlm valas • Rasio kecukupan modal (Capital Adequacy Ratio): Penyediaan modal minimum thd Aktiva Tertimbang Menurut Resiko)
  12. 12. Kesehatan Bank • Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR): kredit berbanding dana pihak ketiga • Return on Asset & Return on Equity
  13. 13. Regulasi Sebelum thn 1980 • Belum ada peraturan yg jelas tentang perbankan • Kredit likuiditas BI hy utk bank2 tertentu (bank pemerintah) • Bank menanggung program pemerintah • Baru ada Surat Berharga Pasar Uang (SBPU) • Bank swasta relatif sedikit • Bank Pemerintah: BRI 1951, BEII 1968, BBD 1968, BDN 1960, BTN 1963, BNI 1946, Bapindo 1960
  14. 14. Regulasi Sejak 1980 – 1990 • Paket 1 Juni 1983: Penghapusan pagu kredit, pengurangan KLBI, kebebasan penetapan suku bunga • 1984: BI menerbitkan SBI • Paket 27 Okt 1988: Kemudahan membuka kantor bank, kemudahan pendirian bank swasta, boleh menyelenggarakan tabungan. Likuiditas min turun mjd 2%, tdk ada batas maks pinjaman, Penambahan modal BLBB dpt melalui pasar modal
  15. 15. Regulasi • Paket 20 Des 1988: Penyelenggaraan bursa efek oleh swasta, leasing, anjak piutang, modal ventura, kartu kredit, pembiayaan konsumen • Paket 29 Mei 1993: penyempurnaan aturan kesehatan bank (CAR, LLL, KUK, LDR)
  16. 16. Regulasi • Dampak: • Adanya kepastian hukum • Bank swasta bertambah • Tingkat persaingan bank naik • SBI & SBPU semakin populer • Mobilisasi dana melalui bank naik
  17. 17. Regulasi Sejak Krisis Ekonomi 1997 • Tingkat kepercayaan masy turun • Sebagian besar bank tdk sehat • Terjadi negatif spread (suku bunga tab/dep > kredit) • Muncul peraturan2 baru: UU no. 23 1999, UU no. 10 1998 dst • Jumlah bank menurun (237 bank sblm krisis mjd 89 bank)
  18. 18. Jenis Bank Menurut Kegiatan Usaha: • Bank Umum • Bank Perkreditan Rakyat
  19. 19. Bank Umum • Adl bank yg melaksanakan kegiatannya secara konvensional dan/atau syariah dan memberikan jasa dlm lalu lintas pembayaran • Kegiatan: menghimpun dana dari masy (giro, deposito berjangka, sertifikat deposito, tabungan), kredit, surat pengakuan hutang, transfer, save deposit box, dll
  20. 20. BPR • Adl bank yg melaksanakan kegiatannya secara konvensional dan/atau syariah dan tidak memberikan jasa lalu lintas pembayaran • Kegiatan: menghimpun dana masy (deposito berjangka, tabungan), kredit
  21. 21. MFIs MICROFINANCE IN INDONESIA Bank Non Bank Rural Banks (BPR/BPRS) Act = The Banking Act No.7/1992 as amended by the Act No.10/1998 License = Bank Indonesia, the Central Bank Supervision = The Central Bank Act No.23/1999 BRI Unit Act = The Banking Act No.10/1998 License = Bank Indonesia, the Central Bank Supervision = * BRI Branches * Bank Indonesia for BRI as a Whole (Commercial Bank) Village Credit Agency (Badan Kredit Desa/BKD) Act = Banking Act No.10/1998 License = Based on Decree of Ministry of Finance Supervision = BRI on behalf of Bank Indonesia Cooperatives (KOSIPA) Act = Cooperative Act No.25/1992 License = State Ministry of cooperative & SME Supervision = State Ministry of cooperative & SME Non Formal Formal LDKP (Village Fund and Credit Institutions) Act = --------- License = Governor of each Province Supervision = Local Government Level I • Non Government Organization (NGO) • Self Help Group • BMT (microfinance based on syariah/Islamic principles) Pawnshop: Owned by the government Supervision : Ministry of Finance
  22. 22. Institution No. of Unit Total Asset ( Billion Rp ) Total Saving (Billion Rp ) No. Depositors (thousand) Total Loan ( Billion Rp) No. of Debtors (thousand) BANK BRI Unit (Mar-07) 4, 229 48,535 44,389 30,090 27,789 3,443 Rural Bank (BPR) (Sep-07) 1.823 26,080 17,690 6,707 20,434 2,578 BKD (Aug--07) 5,345 372 71 460 237 383 SUB TOTAL 11,278 69,059 54,414 39,473 42,908 6,245 NON BANK A. FORMAL Saving and Loan Coop. (Apr-00) 1,097 85 85 Na 531 655 Village Credit Institution in Bali (LPD) (Dec-04) 1,296 1,437 1,117 970 966 317 Pawnshop (Dec-04) 850 3,474 Na Na 2,789 Na SUB TOTAL 3,243 4,996 1,202 970 4,286 972 B. NON FORMAL Cooperatives under Syariah Principles (BMT) (Sept-04) 3,043 Na 567 1,756 549 1,680 SUB TOTAL 3,043 Na 567 1,756 549 1,680 TOTAL 17,564 74,055 56,183 42,199 47,743 8,897 I. MICROFINANCE PROFILE *) Not including BPR under Syariah principles
  23. 23. II. THE HISTORY OF RURAL BANKS 1. 19th Century under the colonial period BPR (Rural Banks) were recognized as Bank Kredit Desa (Village Credit Bank), Lumbung Desa (Paddy Bank), Bank Desa (Village Bank), and Badan Kredit Desa (Village Credit Agency) 2. Bank Indonesia Deregulation Package, October 1988 : BPR could be established by a minimum capital requirements of 50 millions rupiahs 3. Rural Bank was legalized by the Banking Act No.7 of 1992. This Banking Act recognizes 2 type of banks : commercial banks and rural banks
  24. 24. II. THE HISTORY OF RURAL BANKS The Banking Act No. 7 of 1992 • Rural bank is established to extend financial services to low income level community especially in rural areas. • Non bank financial institutions had been granted licenses from ministry of finance might transform their businesses into banks max in 1 (one) year • Other non bank financial institutions could get license as rural banks by fulfilling requirement stipulated by government regulation No. 71 of 1992 with the deadline to fulfill the requirement was October 31, 1997.
  25. 25. III. RURAL BANK PERFORMANCES .(in billion Rp) No. Accounts 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Sep 2007 1 No. of Rural Banks 2,141 2,141 2,158 2,009 1,880 1,823 2 Total Asset 9,080 12,635 16,707 20,393 23,045 26,080 3 Loan: - total 6,683 8,985 12,149 14,654 16,948 20,434 - no. of accounts (in thousands) 1,825 1,993 2,167 2,478 2,471 2,578 4 Third party fund 6,126 8,868 11,161 13,178 15,771 17,690 a. Saving Deposit - Total 2,002 2,617 3,301 3,757 4,581 5,375 - No. of accounts (in thousands) 4,891 5,046 5,439 5,672 6,555 6,336 b. Time Deposit - Total 4,124 6,251 7,860 9,421 11,190 12,315 - No. of accounts (in thousands) 438 489 322 332 365 371 5 Current year profit/ loss 338 429 539 604 509 513 6 Non Performing Loan (NPL) Gross 8.7% 8,0% 7.59% 7.98% 9.73% 8.49% 7 Non Performing Loan (NPL) Net 5.9 5.6 5.3 5.8 6.83 5.06% 8 Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR) 77% 74.5% 80.7% 82% 87,37% 84.26% 8 Return on Asset (RoA) 3.72% 3.4% 3.2% 3.0% 2.96% 2.62% 10 Rural Bank Soundness - Sound 65% 67% 68% 71% 69.3% 69.6% - Fairly sound 16% 17% 16% 13% 14.3% 14,4% - Less sound 9% 8% 8% 9% 9.9% 11,2% - Unsound 10% 8% 8% 7% 6.5% 4,8%
  26. 26. RURAL BANK PERFORMANCES Trend of Rural Bank Total Asset, Loan, and Third Party Deposit 2001 - Sep 2007 - 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Total Asset Total Loan Total Third Party Deposit
  27. 27. RURAL BANK CHARACTERISTICS 1. LOCATION a. Close to its community b. Located primarily in rural areas 2. ORGANIZATION a. Community banking system within province b. Can be owned only by Indonesia citizen either individual or corporation 3. OPERATION a. Can only take deposits and provide loans b. Can not access to payment system c. Can not deal with foreign exchange 4. PROCEDURES - BPR implements simple and fast procedures in providing services to its customers (2- 3 days) - Loan analysis is done in one or two sheet evaluation form - BPR staff approach the customers for direct transaction (deposit, credit installment) 5. PRODUCTS a. Loan : - short term (weekly and monthly) - mostly for working capital b. Deposit : saving and time deposit 6. CUSTOMERS a. Micro, small enterprises and low level income people in villages, rural, urban and city b. Economic sectors : agriculture; small and home industry;trading, restaurant, hostel; services; and others
  28. 28. RURAL BANK CREDIT BASED ON ECONOMIC SECTORS - Sep 2007 6.4% 38.7% 10.2% 43.2% 1.6% Agriculture Small and Home Industry Trade, Restaurant, and Hostel Services Others
  29. 29. Jenis Bank Menurut Bentuk Badan Usaha • PT • Koperasi • Perusahaan Daerah Menurut target pasar: • Retail bank • Corporate bank • Retail-corporate bank
  30. 30. Aktiva Bank Giro (checking account): simpanan yg penarikannya dpt dilakukan sewaktu2 dg cek atau bilyet giro. • Cek: perintah membyr kpd bank pd saat penyerahan. Tidak dpt dibatalkan • Bilyet giro: perintah pemindahbukuan pd tgl tertentu dan pihak yg tercantum dlm bilyet. Dapat dibatalkan
  31. 31. Aktiva Bank • Deposito Berjangka: Simpanan pihak III yg pengambilannya berdasarkan waktu tertentu sesuai perjanjian • Tabungan: Simpanan pihak III yg pengambilannya dpt dilakukan sewaktu2.
  32. 32. Aktiva Bank • Sertifikat Deposito: Simpanan pihak III yang pencairannya pd waktu tertentu dan bunganya dibayar didepan serta dpt diperjual belikan • Deposit on call: Penarikannya hy dpt dilakukan dg pemberitahuan terlebih dahulu
  33. 33. Aktiva Bank • Rekening Giro terkait Tabungan: menjaga saldo giro minimal • Call Money: pinjaman jk pendek yg bisa diperoleh bank dr interbank call money market (kalah kliring / rush) • Pinjaman antar bank: utk jk pendek & menengah
  34. 34. Aktiva bank • KLBI: digunakan utk membantu bank yg kalah kliring / rush • Setoran Jaminan: digunakan utk LC atau Bank Garansi • Jasa Transfer • SBPU
  35. 35. Aktiva bank Sumber lain: 1. Setoran jaminan (Storjam) Biasanya utk LC atau bank garansi 2. Dana Transfer Dana transfer dr masy yg belum dikeluarkan oleh bank 3. SBPU Beli dg harga discount dan dpt diperjualbelikan pd saat bank kurang likuid
  36. 36. Jenis Kredit • Kredit Modal Kerja • Kredit Investasi • Kredit Konsumsi
  37. 37. Jasa-jasa Bank • Bank Garansi • Letter of Credit (LC) • Pengiriman uang • Kliring & inkaso • Kartu plastik • Money changer • Telebanking • Custodian • Wali amanat • Safe deposite box • Traveller check
  38. 38. Mekanisme LC Bank di Indonesia Bank Asing PT Ekspor PT Asing 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 56 6 1. Kontrak jual beli 2. Buka LC 3. Klarifikasi antar bank 4. Info LC sdh dibuka 5. Kirim brg & dok 6. Pembayaran
  39. 39. Kliring: • Adl pertukaran warkat atau data keuangan elektronik antar bank baik atas nama bank maupun nasabah yang perhitungannya diselesaikan pada waktu tertentu • Warkat / data keuangan bukan uang tunai
  40. 40. Bank Umum Syariah • Dasar hukum: UU no. 10 thn 1998 • Pengertian: Bank yg dlm aktifitasnya baik penghimpunan dana maupun penyaluran dana memberikan imbalan atas dasar syariah yaitu jual beli dan bagi hasil.
  41. 41. Prinsip Kegiatan usaha Hiwalah: • Akad pemindahan piutang nasabah (muhil) kpd bank (muhal’alaih) dari nasabah lain (muhal) Ijarah: • Akad sewa menyewa barang antar bank (muaajir) dg penyewa (mustajir).
  42. 42. Istisha: • Akad jual beli brg antara pemesan dg penerima pesanan Kafalah: • Akad pemberian jaminan yg diberikan satu pihak kpd pihak lain sbg pemberi jaminan bertanggungjawab atas pembayaran kembali suatu hutang
  43. 43. Mudharabah: • Akad antara pemilik modal dg pengelola utk memperoleh keuntungan. Murabahah: • Akad jual beli antara bank dg nasabah Musyarakah: • Akad kerjasama usaha patungan
  44. 44. Qardh • Akad pinjaman dari bank kpd pihak tertentu yg wajib dikembalikan dg jml yg sama sesuai pinjaman Al Rahn • Akad penyerahan brg harta dr nasabah kpd bank sbg jaminan Sharf • Akad jual beli suatu valuta dg valuta lain
  45. 45. Wadi’ah • Akad penitipan brg/uang antara pihak yg memp brg dg pihak yg diberi kepercayaan utk menjaga keselamatan/keamanan/keutuhan brg Wakalah • Akad pemberian kuasa dari pemberi kuasa kpd penerima kuasa
  46. 46. • Modal disetor Rp. 3 trilyun

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