Problems and issues in curriculum development and factors affecting curriculum development in Pakistan
Problems and Issues in curriculumDevelopment
What is Education?• Tanner & Tanner (2007:121) offers the followingdefinition, derived from Dewey’s definition ofeducation;• “That reconstruction of knowledge and experiencethat enables the learner to grow in exercisingintelligent control of subsequent knowledge andexperience•• “Dewey viewed education as a generative process –that is, a process through which the learner extendsand deepens the capability of exercising intelligentcontrol over changing conditions in life.
What is curriculum?• John Franklin Bobbitt said that curriculum, asan idea, has its roots in the Latin word forrace-course, explaining the curriculum as thecourse of deeds and experiences throughwhich children become the adults theyshould be, for success in adult society.
Curriculum• Curriculum is the set of ideals followed bythe institutions philosophical views. Itspeaks about courses, and their content,which is generally offered ata school or university (Pinal, Reynolds et.al).
“Problem",• The word "problem" is connected with theword "solution". A problem is somethingnegative that needs to be solved. Some badthings that happen cant be called "problems"because theyre unsolvable.• . A problem is something that has a clearanswer
"Issue"• "Issue" is associated withdifficult decisions and disagreements. A issueis something that causes debate and dividespeople.
Problems and Issues• They are similar because both problems andissues cause debate, concern, and conflict. Someissues can be broken into smaller problems thatcan be solved by asking questions that can beanswered easily. Problems typically can besolved by asking, how can something be solved.If it can be answered then the problem is solved.If the problem cannot be answered easily andpeople are divided over the problem then itbecomes an issue.
Curriculum development• Problems of planning an effective andintegrated curriculum are not simple. A goodcurriculum involves out of hard dedicated andintelligent work conducted on continuousbases.
Curriculum development• A curriculum development is continuous work. Itmust have philosophical psychological, social andeconomic basis. The curriculum planners have toinvestigate carefully and thoroughly the natureand qualification of those for which curriculum isto be planned.• Fundamental principle of curriculum planning is“student must either be selected to fit theplanned curriculum or curriculum must beplanned to fit the level of the studentsenrolled”(Kelly jr.,1971p.115)
Curriculum development• Developing or revising a curriculum one isfaced a number of problems and issues. Thecurriculum is planned set of activities.• The process of curriculum is a web of moraland intellectual purposes and beliefs whichultimately define the political economic andsocial arrangements of any society..
Curriculum development• If the society is relatively stable, the plannercan answer of many crucial questionsunderlying the curriculum It simple to shapethe personality and character of an individual.• Straight hair and wan face that had seeminglynever known cosmetics.
Curriculum development• In highly dynamic societies curriculumproblems are more complex.• Decisions about aims, goals objectives,selection of major areas of curriculumchoosing learning experiences and evaluationprocedures are reached after input of variousgroups.
Curriculum development• The people concerned in curriculum planninggathering without conflicting points onfoundations. They may be able to work faster. Ifpersonals involved have no agreement on these.This would create confusions.• Societal and ideological problems facingcurriculum have broadened the cultural andphilosophical dilemma. These may have indirectbut powerful relevance with curriculum.
Societal and ideological problemsfacing by curriculum• Authority• Poverty• In-equality• Indoctrination• Ill health• Suppression of inquiry and expression• Regionalism• Provincialism• Nationalism
Societal and ideological problemsfacing by curriculum• Dissolution of family• Ecological imbalance• Prejudices• Alienation• Threat• Fear• Control• Coercion• War and greed
Institutional and Instructionalproblems• Apathy• Discipline• Individual differences• Science and high technology• Basic standards• Jobs• Instructional packages• Teacher effectiveness• Life skills• Drug abuse Education
Institutional and Instructionalproblems• Death Education• Family life• Sex Education• Consumers Education• Accountability• Global Education• Mind and body study• Feminist studies(Schubert 1986. pp 344,345-62)
Issues to Consider• globalization is a constant• In a world of ever-increasing complexity, what areour obligations to teach “how the world works”?• How does faculty adapt or change educationalparadigms to be more responsive to anincreasingly interconnected world and far-reaching economic, social, political andtechnological changes resulting fromglobalization?
Issues to Consider• Looking at demographic trends, how can youmeet educational needs, demands &expectations of its stakeholders?• Educational challenges: anticipating theknowledge, skills, critical thinking abilities &wisdom needed for the globalized future• Goal today: to begin working on a curricularscaffold for faculty to work collaboratively inshaping the future of education at yourinstitution.
Factor Effecting CurriculumDevelopment in Pakistan1. Lack of Sequence2. Economic Problems3. Political Interference4. Inadequate Evaluation5. Disapproval of society6. Curriculum more Urbanized7. Lack of Teaching Material8. Lack of In-services TrainingTeacher Reluctant to Accept Change9. Lack of commitment of National Philosophy
Lack of Sequence• There is a little coordination among thecommittees working for curriculumdevelopment at various stages. When astudent completes his studies at a particularstage enters the next stage, he finds himselfhelpless. The concepts being taught at thisstage are quite strange. It needed thatlearning experiences selected and organizedfor every stage should follow the pervious oneand should be sequential in form.
Economic Problems• Change in curriculum, needs financial support.• New teaching materials are required.• Teachers are needed to be provided with in-services training and equipped with newteaching materials textbooks are to be revisedto fulfill the changing needs of the society.• Supportive personal are required to assist theteachers for effective implementation of newcurriculum designs.
Political Interference• It would be tempting, to argue that educationshould be taken out of politics. An educationalwill expect political parties to clarify theirgeneral educational aims and policies, whichconcern broad social issues.• Every person coming into power brings withhim his vested interests and few educationalplans for the nation, in such atmosphereeducationist is likely to suffer from frustration
Inadequate Evaluation• If evaluation is to be of any education worth, itcannot be regarded, as it is in Pakistani schools,evaluation must become an integral part of thetotal learning process and not an appendage to it.• The general practice in Pakistanis that curriculumreshaped but the evaluation system helps theteacher to concentrate on teaching the student,the examination tricks rather that on bringing adesirable change in student’s behavior.
Disapproval of society• The school curriculum according to Lawton isessentially a selection from the culture of society.Certain aspect of our ways of life, certain kinds of“knowledge”, certain values and attitude areregarded as so important that their transmissionto the next generation is very necessary.• Pakistan inherited its curriculum patterns fromthe colonial rulers. The same pattern is beingsocial need it is often disapproved by the society.The school to public members of the societyshould have much to say about the curriculum.
Curriculum more Urbanized• Uniformity has always been misinterpreted inPakistan.• About seventy percent of the total population issettled in rural areas. But the same coursed arebeing offered in rural and urban schools, whenurban children come with a certain backgroundof language, particularly Urdu with either subjectsuch as social studies, general science etc. Theneed is to design a separate curriculum for ruralareas.
Lack of Teaching Material• Many of the educational programmers are faindue to lack of teaching materials. Thesemester system was introduced in theinstitution of higher education.• It faced many problems due to lack oftextbooks and other teaching material.Though teacher too, takes a little interest butmajor factor for its failure is shortage ofinstructional materials.
Lack of In-services Training• When new curriculum was design are broughtinto practice the teacher are not properlyintroduced to new learning actives and teachingstrategies.• If teacher are to be mobilized in support ofcurriculum change, both initial and in-serviceteacher education must convince them for theircrucial role in promoting innovation.• It provide a place where teacher could findsolutions to practice they have encountered inthe classroom.
Teacher Reluctant to Accept Change• It is universal phenomena that teacher areconsidered to be conservative.• They have reasons for beings unwilling to changetheir approaches, not least because they have aninvestment in knowledge and skills, which lend tobe devalued by the passage of time; they face thenatural human temptation to resist any changewhich may render their stock in trade obstacle.Secondary always opposed new curriculum asthey are supposed to pay more attention to newconcepts and ideas
Lack of commitment of NationalPhilosophy• When Pakistan came into being it was stressedhat our educational system will be reshapedaccording to the teaching of Islam. Islamic way oflife will be the focus of our political, social andeconomic thinking. But soon after the death ofQuaid-e-Azam, this motto was set aside.• A workable educational policy is always based ona philosophy. Every nation has a philosophicalway of life. Due to lack of philosophy we areunable to derive consistent educationalobjectives.