Issues in Late Woodland Period Subsistence on the Delaware River

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John Lawrence, AECOM

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Issues in Late Woodland Period Subsistence on the Delaware River

  1. 1. Issues in Late Woodland Period Subsistence on the Delaware River:Results from the Scudder Falls Bridge Project John W. Lawrence Dr. William Hilgartner Byways to the Past July, 2012
  2. 2. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Geographic Setting ECOTONE Riparian At limits of tidal zone Terrestrial Margin of Coastal Plain and Piedmont
  3. 3. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Topographic Setting Common characteristics in site location: T2 terrace Confluence of small feeder stream and river Differences: Temporal (Late Woodland River Road) All phases between Middle Archaic and Late Woodland represented at the RCW site Deep Excavation at River Road
  4. 4. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Terrace Structure
  5. 5. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Rear Terrace Levee
  6. 6. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Feature 11, Pit Feature, AD 1200-1270 Faunal remains Fish Turtle Mammal Macrobotanical  Chenopodium album  Blackberry  Pokeweed Residue analysis  Tobacco  Oak nutmeat  Sunflower nutmeat  Hickory nutmeat  Cocklebur seed  Mussel Fall Occupation
  7. 7. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Front Terrace Levee
  8. 8. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Center Terrace Swale Feature 4 Tool cache Chipping station Woodworking Living Surface Dense artifact concentration Fossil pollen, phytoliths, protein residue Seeds and other plant remains
  9. 9. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Late Woodland Cache Feature 4 Tool cache Chipping station Tools Used for Woodworking
  10. 10. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Late Woodland Living Surface Living Surface and buried A-horizon Living Surface Flags marking artifact locations Soil staining Three separate clusters of artifacts  3-D View Vertical perspective
  11. 11. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Buried A-horizon and Late Woodland Living Surface Subsistence Indicators: Maize pollen Wild grape pollen Sunflower nutmeat Chenopodia seeds Blackberry seeds Hickory nut shells Ceramic Maize starch Sunflower phytolith Scraper Rodent antiserum Levanna point Fish antiserum Pestle Grape pollen Netsinkers
  12. 12. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Periods of Site OccupationOccupation Context Subsistence Remains Activities Season Fish, turtle, mammal, mussel Storage pit Chenopodium album, blackberry, pokeweed Maize, tobacco, oak, sunflower, hickory, cocklebur Storage, general Late summer,AD 1160-1270 Tool Cache N/A subsistence fall Maize Ceramic vessel Sunflower Squash (?) Shad, rodent, sunflower nutmeat, mussel;AD 1330-1440 Living Surface Fishing, general subsistence Spring, summer Net sinkersAD 1440-1660 Living Surface Net sinkers Fishing, general subsistence Spring, summer
  13. 13. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Middle Delaware River Settlement Pattern Winter-spring microband camp Summer-fall macroband camp Winter-spring transient camp Summer-fall transient camp Year round rockshelter and winter/spring microband camp Year round rockshelter
  14. 14. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Chenopodium album Lamb’s quarters or Goosefoot C. album seeds
  15. 15. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Examining Chenopodium album
  16. 16. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Reeder’s Creek West Site Feature 27, Hearth Early/Middle Woodland period C. album present Feature 44, Hearth Early/Middle Woodland period C. album present
  17. 17. Late Woodland Subsistence on the Delaware River Chenopodium album

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