Malaysian Literature


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Malaysian Literature

  1. 1. Malaysian Literature Panganiban, Erika A.
  2. 2. TRIVIA!  The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia“.  The word "melayu" in Malay derived from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively.  "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula
  3. 3. Brief History of Malaysia  A busy seaport for European and Far East traders for many hundreds of years.  Starts with the history of Melaka, founded in the 13th century by a Sumatran prince  Became the most influential port city in Southeast Asia 1511  A Portuguese fleet led by Alfonso de Albuquerque sailed into Melaka harbor  He captured the city with canon fire
  4. 4. Brief History of Malaysia 1641  The Dutch captured the city from the Portuguese  They controlled the spice trade 1819  British administration replaced the Dutch and established a trading post in Singapore  Penang and Melaka – “Straits Settlements”  The British Administration lasted 138 years.  The British granted independence to Malaya in 1957 in Kuala Lumpur.  Tunku Abdul Rahman – first prime minister of Malaya
  5. 5. Government  A federal constitutional monarchy  Currency: Ringgit Yang di-Pertuan Agong  Current king  Head of state and serves in a ceremonial role Najib Tun Razak  The head of government is the prime minister, presently.
  6. 6. Government  Malaysia has a bicameral parliament, with a 70-member Senate and a 222-member House of Representatives. Senators are elected by state legislatures or appointed by the king; members of the House are directly elected by the people.  General courts, including the Federal Court, Court of Appeals, high courts, session courts, etc., hear all types of cases. A separate division of sharia courts hears cases pertaining only to Muslims.
  7. 7. Did you know?  About two thirds of Malaysia is covered in forest, with some forests believed to be 130 million years old.  Rafflesia genus, the largest flower in the world, with a maximum of 3 ft. Malaysia is the 42nd most populated country.
  8. 8. RELIGION
  9. 9. Religion  Malaysia has three main religions: Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism.  practiced in Malaysia is known as Islam Hadhari, which encourages an open mind, tolerance, inclusivity, honesty, and hard work. THE QUR'AN  the complete book of guidance for mankind
  10. 10. “Whosoever performs good deeds, whether male or female, and is a believer, we shall surely make him live a good life, and We will certainly reward them for the best of what they did."(Qur'an, An-Nahl 16:97)
  11. 11. ISLAMIC PRINCIPLES Five Pillars of Islam 1. Shahadah: declaring there is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is God's Messenger 2. Salat: ritual prayer five times a day 3. Zakat: giving 2.5% of one’s savings to the poor and needy 4. Sawm: fasting and self-control during the holy month of Ramadan 5. Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime if one is able
  12. 12. History of Literature  Malaysian literature is typically written in any of the country’s four main languages: Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil.  It portrays various aspects of Malaysian life.  Early Malays literature was influenced by Indian epics, such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.  begins with the coming of Islam in the late 15th century; no literary works dating from the Hindu period (4th to late 15th centuries) have survived
  13. 13. History of Literature  The earliest works of Malaysian literature were transmitted orally in the absence of writing scripts.  By the 19th century, written literature occurred.  Traditional Malay poetry was used for entertainment and the recording of history and laws.
  14. 14. Three Forms of Traditional Malay Poetry Mantera  sacred message of a text; repeated word or phrase in meditation (e.g “Om”, “Om Namo”) Pantun  a traditional oral form of expression  consists of a quatrain which employs an abab rhyme scheme Syair  can be a narrative poem, a didactic poem, or a poem used to convey ideas on religion or philosophy, or even one to describe historical event
  15. 15. Other types:  Seloka – a poem, similar to pantum  Madah – rhyming speech; a discourse through poetry  Gurindam – poetry that sets to music Fables in Malaysia:  Kancil (mouse deer) - serves as the main character in a number of stories - regards as the humble animal in the highest esteem
  16. 16. Famous Writers Abdullah Abdul Kadir  a Malayan writer of Indian origin  most cultured Malay who ever wrote  one of the greatest innovators in Malay letters  the father of modern Malay literature  He wrote Hikayat Abdullah, an autobiography
  17. 17. Famous Writers Ee Tiang Hong  was a Malayan poet of Chinese ancestry  wrote poetry in English  His first book of poetry appeared in 1960
  18. 18. Some New Perspectives Race, language, religion, birthplace — the categories do not satisfy; what do they say of you and me, the space, the silences between? Not always negative, I am more or less than your images, the truth is always partly, a few hints here and there. That's how it is — conceptual smithereens, in spurts and starts, a world view, the twentieth century's, ours.
  19. 19. Famous Writers Usman Awang  best poet in the Malay language  did not produce a very large corpus of poetry, only about 200 of them  poems are simple, clear, often romantic, and beautiful  a master at weaving words into striking phrases, sentences and verses that are of exceptional classical beauty and sometimes appear to be nostalgic and even escapist.
  20. 20. Famous Writers Huzir Sulaiman  a Malaysian actor, director and writer based in Singapore  One of Malaysia's leading dramatists  His plays, often charged with dark humor, political satire, and surrealistic twists, have won numerous awards and international recognition
  21. 21. Famous Literary Text
  22. 22. Terima kasih!
  23. 23. References  prof.htm      n/malaysia-demographics-and-literature