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Spanish Period

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Songs,games & etc. during spanish period

created by Karen Ongcol

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Spanish Period

  1. 1. (1521 – 1898)
  2. 2. O In 1521, Spaniards came to Philippines and brought European influence which marked the beginning of the cultivation of music as a fine art in the Philippines. O Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the establishment of separate parochial schools for boys and girls was promulgated. O “Kastilang Pilipino”, the decree provided for formal education for teachers where vocal music was one of the subjects to be taught. O Sacred music was given importance because Christianity was the main goal of Spanish Colonization. O Passion song was the events leading to the death of Jesus Christ which became very popular among the people. O Fray Geronimo de Aguilar held the distinction of being the first Spanish priest to teach music in the Philippines.
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS O More conservative style of sacred music. O Minor key at the beginning shifts to a major key in the 2nd-half Kundiman. O Canto Ilocano, monophonic unmeasured style notated utilizing note shapes diferrent from the neumes of Gregorian chant (composition of the Kirial). O Canto de Oregano, simple polyphonic settings in to two or more vocal portraying. O Religiosity and Musicality – salvation of self- expression
  4. 4. 1. Tagulaylay - a melody depicting grief. - comes from the words “taghoy” (lament) and “alalay’ (sustain). - sung in monotone. Lamentation – the counterpart of tagulaylay which is sung in two voices of thirds and sixths
  5. 5. 2. Palimos - a song of the blind asking for alms or in short, a song for begging. 3. Kumintang - the oldest and most popular song among Christian Filipinos. - it was a war song, then later became a plaintive song. - it is a nocturnal song sung to the accompaniment of violin or guitar. - it originated in Balayan, Batangas ( province of Kumintang)
  6. 6. The kumintang is the name given to several distinct styles, techniques and forms in music and dance originating in the areas used by early Spanish cartographers and chronicles to denote a large province centering around what is known as Batangas. Early 19th-century travelers' accounts often mention the kumintang as a Tagalog "chant national", describing them as dance-songs performed by pairs of men and women, with texts concerning love and courtship.
  7. 7. According to Retana, there are three kinds of Kumintang : 1. Kumintang of the conquest – music of pristine beauty, coquettish and romantic 2. Kumintang of the Balayan – tagalog bridal song 3. Kumintang with which Awits are (narrative song) are accompanied. Examples: La Tagala -Jose Estella Amihan -Antonio Molina Auras del Terruno -Juan Hernandez Pagdilidili -Lucino Sacramento
  8. 8. 4. Awit - A recitative written ¾ time and in minor key. - it is set freely to verses about a Philippine legendary hero or to a heroic poem also called “awit” Examples: Awit – F. Santiago Ang Ulila – Antonio Molina Batingaw na Pilak – Antonio Molina Recuerdo de Filipinas y Sus Cantares - Diego Perez
  9. 9. 5. Balitaw - is a visayan folk song, derived form Malayan word “berita” means narration or balita in Tagalog. - it is a dance and song, the counterpart of kundiman. - according to Banas, balitaw is often sung than danced. Two Classes: Balitaw Menor – Visayan love song Balitaw Mayor – French slow waltz
  10. 10. Balitaw Mayor - derived from the graceful French slow waltz. a. Visayan balitaw – counterpart of the Tagalog kundiman. It is lively and possess more syncopation. Ex. Sa Kabukiran – Manuel Velez b. Tagalog balitaw – humorous melody and lively as European waltz. Ex. Paru-parong bukid Tinikling “Inday sa Blitaw” - the original balitaw
  11. 11. Balitaw Menor/ Dansa Menor/ Pangharana - a dance piece composed in the minor key. - traditionally it is the “Philippine Serenade” or “Pananapatan” in 2/4 time. - it is called “Dansa Pilipino”. Examples: Hating Gabi – Antonio Molina Sampaguita - Dolores Paterno Ay, Ay, Kalisud – Visayan Folksong Bukang Liwayway – Antonio Molina Ti Ayat Ti Maysa Nga Ubing – Ilocano Folksong
  12. 12. Sampaguita - Dolores Paterno Hating Gabi – Antonio Molina
  13. 13. 6. Kundiman - comes from the words “ kung hindi man”. - derived from the lively Spanish bolero a typical ¾ waltz. Abdon Bonifacio – is the Father of Modern Kundiman Nicanor Abelardo Francisco Santiago wrote immortal kundimans Antonio Molina
  14. 14. Abdon Bonifacio Kundiman Francisco Santiago Kundiman
  15. 15. • Coffee is served before the duplo begins. • a judge (referee) uses a slipper called “palmatorya” with which he beats the palm of the loser. • Sometimes, the loser is asked to recite a long piece of prayer for the soul of the departed. Duplo - the beginning of the present Balagtasan - an impromptu competition in reciting a poem, a sort of entertainment to console the relatives of the deceased Participants: Duplero – boy bilyako on the actual Duplera – girl bilyaka duplo
  16. 16.  There are 175 folk dances in the Philippines in which Jose Rizal was all praise for these.  Filipinos enjoyed European dances like the: (next slides)
  17. 17. LA CUCARACHA
  18. 18. FANDANGO
  19. 19. SAPATEDO
  20. 20. TANGO
  21. 21. RIGODON
  22. 22. These dances reflect almost all facets of the people’s lives such as: Religious Occupational Entertainment Recreational Courtship Marriage Baptism War
  23. 23. Best exports of the Philippines and propagandize of the country’s vast reservoir of inalienable heritage: • Bayanihan Dance Troupe • Barangay Dance Troupe
  24. 24. The well-known choreographer of the world famous Bayanihan Dance Troupe, Philippine indigeneous music can be divided into three distinct groups: 1. Rondalla 2. Instruments of the Muslims 3. Instruments of the mountain region tribes Lucrecia Urtula
  25. 25. First group (the Rondalla) - best known Philippine instrument groupings which exemplifies Spanish influence in the music and dance of the lowland, Christian rice-growing Filipino - it is a string band consisting of plucked instruments as the guitar, banduria, octavina, laud, and banjo.
  26. 26. Second group ( the instruments of the Muslim Filipinos) - basically an assortment of the brass instruments like the gansa and the kulintangan. Thrid group ( the instruments of the mountain region tribes) - includes gong, flute and drums
  27. 27. O The Ilocanos had songs and recitations. O Visayas had the corrido and the awit. O Pampanga had poetry recitations. O During Holy Week, there were cenaculos and passion plays. O The most popular vernacular presentations were the moro-moro and the carillo.
  28. 28.  Tondo Theatre – was erected mainly to stage Tagalog plays in 1841. Spanish dramas were acted also there.  Teatro Castellano – better known as Teatro de Binondo was built by Engineer Jose Bosch for Manuel Ponce de Leon of where a variety of songs and plays are exhibited.  Teatro Comico in Manila – Wenceslao Retana y Gamboa mentioned the existence of these theatre in 1790.
  29. 29.  Arroceros Theatre - near the Mehan garden presented Tagalog plays according to Juan Atayde.  Casino in Intramuros – here, evening parits were held by social gatherings particularly the Recreational Society.
  30. 30. CENACULOS
  31. 31. PASSION PLAYS
  32. 32.  Performances were held in vacant lots or fields.  During celebrations such as town fiestas, performers used provisional stage of nipa and bamboo.  Later, theatre bodegas, as those seen over cockpits appeared.
  33. 33.  In 1841, Tondo Theatre was erected mainly to stage tagalog plays.  Teatro Castellano or Teatro de Binondo was built by Jose Bosch.  In 1790, Teatro Comico de Manila was mentioned by Wenceslao Retana Y Gamboa  Social gatherings were held at the Casino in Intramuros by the Sociedad de Recreo. There were dancing, singing and instrumental performances. THEATERS
  34. 34. Moro-moro  Depicts the battle between the Christians and the Muslims and the adaptations of the legends about knight- errant and princesses.  It was one of the most popular theatrical presentations during the Spanish time.
  35. 35. Carillo  A shadow play using puppets made from cardboard.  The play was skillfully manipulated by a narrator behind the screen.  Themes were derived from the libretto from “Don Quixote”, “Buhay ng Mahal na Panginoong Hesuskristo” (“Life of the Beloved Jesus Christ”), and “Don Juan Tenorio”.
  36. 36. Zarzuela  The name La Zarzuela evolved from “Zarza”, the common bramble on European blackberry bush.  It was originally a hunting lodge built by the Infante Don Fernando in the royal domain of the Pardo near Madrid.  Piece of entertainment with improvised plots that used in comic, tragic, fantastic,, melodramatic or a combination of all. Later, these “Fiestas de Zarzuelas” were simply called Zarzuela that involves singing and dancing in it. It has no definite form. Singing was free and imaginative. Audience swapped comments with the artists called Piscatory Eclogue.
  37. 37. Piscatory Eclogue is preceded by loa and mojiganga. Loa - Is a prologue, spoken by two of more actors. Mojiganga  -a popular festival and carnival time, a sort of burlesque masquerade accompanied by flute, castanets and side drums.  After middle of the 17th century the mojiganga was replaced by the “Fin de fiesta”.  The best zarzuelistas are from Pampanga
  38. 38. O The pride of the town of Las Pinas, Rizal. O Father Diego Cera dela Virgen del Carmen - the man who conceived the idea of building the bamboo organ. In making the bamboo organ; O cut 902 pieces of bamboo poles O 121 pipes of tin plates O Constructed the keyboard, pedals, stops and bellows to supply air. 1816-1824 – 8 years the organ was done. Overall dimensions of the organ; O 5.17 meters hihg O 4.17 meters wide O 1.45 meters deep O 121 horizontal pipes O 832 vertical bamboo tubes O 23 stops O 51 notes is the range of keyboard Bamboo Organ of Las Piňas
  39. 39. O The organ has undergone repairs in the years 1863, 1872, 1880, 1891, 1909,1917, 1962, and 1967. O Hans Gerd Klais in Bonn - famous German organ builder. Early musicians: O Marcelo Adonay – initiator and first director of church orchestra. O Fr. Ignacio de Jesus – wrote choir books for the St. Augustin convent. O Juan Bolivar – celebrated chanter who mastered the harp, organ, fiddle, and flute. O Father Marcelo- an organist and voice teacher. O Father Lorenzo Castillo – composed two volumes of classical masses.
  40. 40. THANK YOU!!

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