O In 1521, Spaniards came to Philippines and brought
European influence which marked the beginning of the
cultivation of music as a fine art in the Philippines.
O Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the
establishment of separate parochial schools for boys and
girls was promulgated.
O “Kastilang Pilipino”, the decree provided for formal
education for teachers where vocal music was one of the
subjects to be taught.
O Sacred music was given importance because Christianity
was the main goal of Spanish Colonization.
O Passion song was the events leading to the death of
Jesus Christ which became very popular among the
O Fray Geronimo de Aguilar held the distinction of being the
first Spanish priest to teach music in the Philippines.
O More conservative style of sacred music.
O Minor key at the beginning shifts to a major key in
the 2nd-half Kundiman.
O Canto Ilocano, monophonic unmeasured style
notated utilizing note shapes diferrent from the
neumes of Gregorian chant (composition of the
O Canto de Oregano, simple polyphonic settings in
to two or more vocal portraying.
O Religiosity and Musicality – salvation of self-
- a melody depicting grief.
- comes from the words “taghoy”
(lament) and “alalay’ (sustain).
- sung in monotone.
Lamentation – the counterpart of
tagulaylay which is sung in two voices
of thirds and sixths
- a song of the blind asking for alms or in short, a
song for begging.
- the oldest and most popular song among Christian
- it was a war song, then later became a plaintive
- it is a nocturnal song sung to the accompaniment of
violin or guitar.
- it originated in Balayan, Batangas ( province of
The kumintang is the name given to several
distinct styles, techniques and forms in music
and dance originating in the areas used by early
Spanish cartographers and chronicles to denote
a large province centering around what is
known as Batangas. Early 19th-century
travelers' accounts often mention the
kumintang as a Tagalog "chant national",
describing them as dance-songs performed by
pairs of men and women, with texts concerning
love and courtship.
According to Retana, there are three kinds
of Kumintang :
1. Kumintang of the conquest – music of pristine
beauty, coquettish and romantic
2. Kumintang of the Balayan – tagalog bridal
3. Kumintang with which Awits are (narrative
song) are accompanied.
Examples: La Tagala -Jose Estella
Amihan -Antonio Molina
Auras del Terruno -Juan Hernandez
- A recitative written ¾ time and in minor key.
- it is set freely to verses about a Philippine
legendary hero or to a heroic poem also called
Awit – F. Santiago
Ang Ulila – Antonio Molina
Batingaw na Pilak – Antonio Molina
Recuerdo de Filipinas y Sus Cantares - Diego
- is a visayan folk song, derived form Malayan
word “berita” means narration or balita in
- it is a dance and song, the counterpart of
- according to Banas, balitaw is often sung
Balitaw Menor – Visayan love song
Balitaw Mayor – French slow waltz
- derived from the graceful French slow waltz.
a. Visayan balitaw – counterpart of the Tagalog
kundiman. It is lively and possess more syncopation.
Ex. Sa Kabukiran – Manuel Velez
b. Tagalog balitaw – humorous melody and lively as
Ex. Paru-parong bukid
“Inday sa Blitaw” - the original balitaw
Balitaw Menor/ Dansa Menor/
- a dance piece composed in the minor key.
- traditionally it is the “Philippine Serenade”
or “Pananapatan” in 2/4 time.
- it is called “Dansa Pilipino”.
Hating Gabi – Antonio Molina
Sampaguita - Dolores Paterno
Ay, Ay, Kalisud – Visayan Folksong
Bukang Liwayway – Antonio Molina
Ti Ayat Ti Maysa Nga Ubing – Ilocano
Sampaguita - Dolores Paterno
Hating Gabi – Antonio Molina
- comes from the words “ kung hindi man”.
- derived from the lively Spanish bolero a
typical ¾ waltz.
Abdon Bonifacio – is the Father of Modern
Francisco Santiago wrote immortal
Abdon Bonifacio Kundiman
Francisco Santiago Kundiman
• Coffee is served before the duplo begins.
• a judge (referee) uses a slipper called
“palmatorya” with which he beats the palm of the
• Sometimes, the loser is asked to recite a long
piece of prayer for the soul of the departed.
- the beginning of the present Balagtasan
- an impromptu competition in reciting a poem, a
sort of entertainment to console the relatives of
Duplero – boy bilyako on the
Duplera – girl bilyaka duplo
There are 175 folk dances in the
Philippines in which Jose Rizal was all
praise for these.
Filipinos enjoyed European dances like
the: (next slides)
These dances reflect almost all facets of
the people’s lives such as:
Best exports of the Philippines and
propagandize of the country’s vast
reservoir of inalienable heritage:
• Bayanihan Dance Troupe
• Barangay Dance Troupe
choreographer of the world
famous Bayanihan Dance
music can be divided into
three distinct groups:
2. Instruments of the
3. Instruments of the
First group (the Rondalla)
- best known Philippine
which exemplifies Spanish
influence in the music and
dance of the lowland,
- it is a string band
consisting of plucked
instruments as the guitar,
banduria, octavina, laud,
Second group ( the
instruments of the Muslim
- basically an assortment of
the brass instruments like
the gansa and the
Thrid group ( the
instruments of the
mountain region tribes)
- includes gong, flute and
O The Ilocanos had songs and
O Visayas had the corrido and the awit.
O Pampanga had poetry recitations.
O During Holy Week, there were
cenaculos and passion plays.
O The most popular vernacular
presentations were the moro-moro and
Tondo Theatre – was erected mainly to stage
Tagalog plays in 1841. Spanish dramas were acted
Teatro Castellano – better known as Teatro de
Binondo was built by Engineer Jose Bosch for
Manuel Ponce de Leon of where a variety of songs
and plays are exhibited.
Teatro Comico in Manila – Wenceslao Retana y
Gamboa mentioned the existence of these theatre in
Arroceros Theatre - near the Mehan
garden presented Tagalog plays according
to Juan Atayde.
Casino in Intramuros – here, evening
parits were held by social gatherings
particularly the Recreational Society.
Performances were held in vacant lots or
During celebrations such as town fiestas,
performers used provisional stage of nipa
Later, theatre bodegas, as those seen
over cockpits appeared.
In 1841, Tondo Theatre was erected mainly to stage
Teatro Castellano or Teatro de Binondo was built
by Jose Bosch.
In 1790, Teatro Comico de Manila was mentioned by
Wenceslao Retana Y Gamboa
Social gatherings were held at the Casino in
Intramuros by the Sociedad de Recreo. There were
dancing, singing and instrumental performances.
Depicts the battle between
the Christians and the
Muslims and the adaptations
of the legends about knight-
errant and princesses.
It was one of the most
presentations during the
A shadow play using
puppets made from
The play was skillfully
manipulated by a narrator
behind the screen.
Themes were derived from
the libretto from “Don
Quixote”, “Buhay ng
Mahal na Panginoong
Hesuskristo” (“Life of the
Beloved Jesus Christ”),
and “Don Juan Tenorio”.
The name La Zarzuela evolved from
“Zarza”, the common bramble on
European blackberry bush.
It was originally a hunting lodge built by
the Infante Don Fernando in the royal
domain of the Pardo near Madrid.
Piece of entertainment with improvised
plots that used in comic, tragic,
fantastic,, melodramatic or a
combination of all. Later, these “Fiestas
de Zarzuelas” were simply called
Zarzuela that involves singing and
dancing in it. It has no definite form.
Singing was free and imaginative.
Audience swapped comments with the
artists called Piscatory Eclogue.
Piscatory Eclogue is preceded by loa and
- Is a prologue, spoken by two of more actors.
-a popular festival and carnival time, a sort of
burlesque masquerade accompanied by flute,
castanets and side drums.
After middle of the 17th century the mojiganga
was replaced by the “Fin de fiesta”.
The best zarzuelistas are from Pampanga
O The pride of the town of Las Pinas, Rizal.
O Father Diego Cera dela Virgen del Carmen
- the man who conceived the idea of building the
In making the bamboo organ;
O cut 902 pieces of bamboo poles
O 121 pipes of tin plates
O Constructed the keyboard, pedals, stops and bellows to supply
1816-1824 – 8 years the organ was done.
Overall dimensions of the organ;
O 5.17 meters hihg
O 4.17 meters wide
O 1.45 meters deep
O 121 horizontal pipes
O 832 vertical bamboo tubes
O 23 stops
O 51 notes is the range of keyboard
Bamboo Organ of Las
O The organ has undergone repairs in the years
1863, 1872, 1880, 1891, 1909,1917, 1962,
O Hans Gerd Klais in Bonn
- famous German organ builder.
O Marcelo Adonay – initiator and first director of
O Fr. Ignacio de Jesus – wrote choir books for
the St. Augustin convent.
O Juan Bolivar – celebrated chanter who
mastered the harp, organ, fiddle, and flute.
O Father Marcelo- an organist and voice
O Father Lorenzo Castillo – composed two
volumes of classical masses.