ComparativesComparatives are used to show the difference betweentwo objects.Whichone ofthem isnew andfast ?OLD and SLOW NEW and FASTThe black car is newer and faster than the red car.The red car is older and slower than the black car.
• Rule 1. If an adjective has 1syllable we add the ending–er to the adjective.– i.e. small + er = smallerthan– i.e. hard + er = harderthanThe ant is smallerthan the hippo.Five basic rules for comparative :
• Rule 2. If a one syllableadjective ends with aconsonant + a vowel + aconsonant you must doublethe last consonant and thenad –er.i.e. big + er = bigger thani.e. fat + er = fatter thanThe elephant is fatterthan the giraffe.
• Rule 3. If an adjective endswith a “y”, remove the “y”and add –ier.i.e. happy –y + ier = happierthan•i.e. funny –y + ier = funnierthan The girl is happierthan the duck.
• Rule 4. If an adjective hastwo syllables then add theword “more” before theword.• i.e. beautiful + more =more beautiful thani.e. expensive + more =more expensive thani.e. satisfactory + more =more satisfactory thanThe butterfly ismore beautiful thanthe frog.
•Rule 5. There are a few exceptions.good = better thanbad = worse thanfar = farther than
•Remember, when using a comparative you must alwaysfollow it with the word “than”.The ant is smaller than the hippo.The elephant is fatter than the giraffe.The girl is happier than the duck.The butterfly is more beautiful than the frog.
SuperlativesIf we are compare more than two objects, places,people we use superlative forms.
Four cars and their delivery dates.1985 2013 19951945The newest car is black car.The oldest car is green car.The black car is the newestof all four cars.
Which one of the basketball player is the shortest andand which one of them is the tallest ?Number 1 is the shortest player between three of them.Number 3 is the tallest player between three of them.
Kızılırmak is the longestriver in Turkey.• Rule 1. If an adjective has 1syllable we add the ending –est to the adjective.i.e. small + est = the smallest• i.e. hard + est = the hardestBasic rules for superlatives
The Atatürk Airport is oneof the biggest airport inTurkey.• Rule 2. If a one syllable adjective endswith a consonant + a vowel + aconsonant you must double the lastconsonant and ad –est.i.e. big + est = the biggesti.e. fat + est = the fattest
The African elephant is theheaviest animal all over theworld.• Rule 3. If an adjective endswith a “y”, remove the “y”and add –iest.i.e. happy + iest = thehappiest• i.e. funny + iest = thefunniest
The diamond is the mostprecious stone in theworld.• Rule 4. If an adjective hastwo syllables or more thenadd the word “most” beforethe word.• i.e. beautiful + most = themost beautiful• i.e. expensive + most = themost expensive• i.e. satisfactory + most = themost satisfactory
• Rule 5. There are a few exceptions.good = the bestbad = the worstfar = the farthest
• Remember, when using a superlative you must always precede it with theword “the”.The Toyota is the smallest.The Ford is the biggest.Brad Pitt is the most handsome.The airplane is the most expensive.Jim Carrey is the funniest.
• Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets(comparative or superlative).• My house is……. (big) than yours.• This flower is ……. (beautiful) than that one.• This is the ……….. (interesting) book I have ever read.• Non-smokers usually live ……… (long) than smokers.• Which is the ………. (dangerous) animal in the world?• A holiday by the sea is ……… (good) than a holiday inthe mountains.• Who is the ……....... (rich) woman on earth?• The weather this summer is even ……… (bad) than lastsummer.• He was the ………. (clever) thief of all.