SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 8
Download to read offline
BACK TO BASICS: definitions and 
processes of assessments 
Maddalena Taras* 
Abstract 
In a performance – and results – driven educational world the concept of formative assessment has inspired the educational community by its discourse and focus on learning and learners. However, a number of controversies have surfaced: primary among these are terminological opacities and disparities both within and across continents and sectors. (TARAS, 2007b, 2009). Among others, Perrenoud (1998) signals the importance of positioning theoretical and practical discourse on assessment within a wider pedagogic context and within theories of learning. Taras (2005) argues that concepts of assessment, including formative assessment, are best and more effectively understood firstly within the wider assessment framework and, secondly, within the relationships of summative, formative and self-assessment. This paper examines definitions of assessments. It begins with basic concepts of assessment, summative, formative, self-assessment and feedback and inter- relates these. The principles inherent in definitions set the parameters of both processes and practice as part of a logical sequence and framework. 
Keywords: Assessment. Formative assessment. Summative assessment. 
Resumo 
Num mundo educacional guiado pelo desempenho e pelos resultados, o conceito de avaliação formativa inspirou a comunidade da área com seu discurso e foco na aprendizagem e nos aprendizes. No entanto, várias controvérsias surgiram, destacando-se as nebulosidades e disparidades terminológicas entre os diversos setores de pesquisa e mesmo dentro de cada um deles (TARAS, 2007b, 2009). Perrenoud (1998), entre outros autores, assinala a importância de situar-se o discurso teórico e prático sobre a avaliação num contexto pedagógico mais amplo e no âmbito das teorias de aprendizagem. Taras (2005) argumenta que os conceitos de avaliação, incluindo-se a avaliação formativa, são mais bem entendidos e têm mais eficácia quando considerados numa estrutura mais abrangente e examinados segundo as suas relações, ou seja, quando se observam as relações entre avaliação somativa, avaliação formativa e autoavaliação. Este artigo, cujo propósito é examinar algumas definições de avaliação, apresenta primeiramente os conceitos básicos de avaliação, avaliação somativa, avaliação formativa, autoavaliação e feedback e em seguida os inter-relaciona. Os princípios implícitos nas definições determinam os parâmetros tanto dos processos quanto da prática como parte de uma estrutura e de uma sequência lógicas. 
Palavras-chave: Avaliação. Avaliação formative. Avaliação somativa. 
* University of Sunderland (United Kingdom). E-mail: maddalena.taras@sunderland.ac.uk 
Introduction 
This paper explores the principles of the process of assessment within any context or function (whether pre-selected or chosen after the assessment). It supports and develops the discourse and rationale for the centrality of the understanding of the process over the functions of assessment within all types of assessments, and particularly formative assessment. (TARAS, 2005). It does not present a historical time-line of the development of definitions of formative and summative assessment. Nor is it an analysis of different aspects of assessment seen in the light of a broad theory of pedagogy (eg PERRENOUD, 1998; BLACK; WILIAM, 2005), although it does inevitably situate assessment as part of the triumvirate of assessing, learning and teaching. In fact, this paper supports the position that there can be no real development to “expert” without assessment (ATKINS et al., 1993). 
Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br>
124 
Maddalena Taras 
Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> 
Theories of learning 
Within a social-constructivist theory of learning, the individual negotiates meaning with its surroundings and context and assimilates it by restructuring and reorganising individual knowledge and concepts. (JAMES, 2006; HAGER; HODKINSON, 2009). Therefore, the individual is both the product of the context and a direct challenge to it by bringing unique and specific interpretations. Similarly, assessment and learning will draw on the constant interaction between the individual and the collective experience and information base which has impacted on the individual and context. We are all constantly assessing our position, our position within the collective and the collective’s position. 
Therefore, each individual although learning and assessing within a socially constructed context will necessarily differ from others in similar situations. This uniqueness will require a continual negotiation of meanings, concepts and ideas. Even when working within the same definitions, criteria and processes, it would not be an aberration for different outcomes of learning, assessment and understanding to occur. Accepting this endless diversity within education is an important first step when hoping to work towards a relative harmonising of concepts and definitions, ideas, ideals and understanding. This, however, does not preclude the need for coherence and logical associations within these personal experiences of individual and collective educational “realities”. 
Language 
Language is not neutral. Meanings associated with different words and terms are not neutral. Assessment and related terms are heavily value and emotionally laden; therefore within collective and personal interpretations moral and ethical factors are also involved. (LAKOFF; JOHNSON, 1980, 2002; FAIRCLOUGH, 1994; TARAS, 2007b). Socially and politically, “assessment” is potentially dynamite: the very word is used sparingly. Assessment of research papers for journal publication is referred to as “peer review”. In the UK in 2008, the RAE (Research Assessment Exercise)1 
1 In the UK, the RAE is a process where individual universities put forward their best researchers’ articles to be assessed. This usually occurs every 4 years and each researcher presents a maximum of four academic articles. It is on the basis of these results that government grants for research are allocated, so a great deal of money and prestige are at stake. The reviewers making the judgements of quality on these in the 2008 RAE, were so concerned that their assessment integrity would be questioned, that they destroyed their notes explaining their decision. Surely, what they must realise is that even the categorisation of the papers, without caused turmoil by its potential lack of transparency when the feedback from reviewers was destroyed to protect their “professional judgement”. There is an annual furore when national exam results are announced and dissected by the media. On an individual level, idiosyncratic and personal histories will inevitably result in different interpretations. (TARAS, 2007b; COFFIELD; EDWARDS, 2009; HAGER; HODKINSON, 2009). 
Assessment or evaluation? 
In education, with a globalisation of research, this distinction is becoming increasingly complex. In Francophone literature (for example PERRENOUD, 1998), and languages of essentially Latin roots, where the distinction is generally not made, the use of ‘evaluation’ is often preferred. 
In the UK and much of the Anglophone world, the distinction is generally that evaluation covers the macro spectrum e.g. university, course, documentation of programmes, whereas assessment covers the micro i.e. the assignment, and assessment of smaller units of student work. This distinction is essentially one of context. 
Within the intentions of this paper, the distinction is perhaps artificial because it focuses on processes and principles and thus aims at englobing diverse and disparate contexts. Therefore, whether we are focusing on programme evaluation, as was Scriven (1967), or whether we are focusing on assessment product in complex, multi-criterion contexts, as was Sadler (1989), or on classroom interaction as does the work of Black and Wiliam on Assessment for Learning, what this paper claims and wishes to argue for and demonstrate is that a single assessment process can be used to represent each of these three very different contexts: i.e. that the process and basic parameters of assessment can be considered universal and technically similar for all contexts. 
Another distinction to consider is that of implicit versus explicit assessment. The implicit tends to cover areas of ad hoc, informal assessments, i.e. assessment of work in progress or classroom interaction, whilst the explicit tends to be of product assessment where criteria and standards are established and shared. 
In the literature, evaluation and assessment are seen as overlapping and not discrete making the distinction difficult in theory and practice. (SCRIVEN, 1967; CULLINGFORD, 1997; BLACK, 1998). The considering the notes, implicates their decision. The RAE is now going to be called REF (Research Excellence Framework): could this be linked to the phobia which surrounds the word assessment?
125 
Back to basics: definitions and processes of assessments 
Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> 
ubiquitous nature of assessment has long been recognised and the distinctions noted above are essentially a difference in scope and context and perhaps detract from the commonality of process. 
In order to coordinate and understand the fundamental principles of assessment, it is helpful to incorporate all aspects of ‘evaluation’ and ‘assessment’ into a single and coherent argument: this would cover both process and product, informal and formal. 
Definition of assessment 
The term usually refers to a judgement and it is a process that permeates most of our lives. Within the educational context, this also takes place at all levels and contexts and many names have been assigned to this process. However, it is perhaps pertinent to remember that assessment is assessment is assessment and that everything can be and is judged. 
The following definition of assessment or evaluation describes and refers to the process of assessment and it also explains how the judgement is reached: as noted, this judgement can be of both process and product, explicit or implicit, formal or informal or at any point along these continua. 
Evaluation is itself a methodological activity which is essentially similar whether we are trying to evaluate coffee machines or teaching machines, plans for a house or plans for a curriculum. The activity consists simply in the gathering and combining of performance data with a weighted set of goal scales to yield either comparative or numerical ratings, and in the justification of (a) the data-gathering instruments, (b) the weightings, and (c) the selection of goals. (SCRIVEN, 1967, p. 40). 
Scriven clarifies that these are universal principles and the paper illustrates with the specific example of programme evaluation. 
Functions of summative and formative assessment 
Summative and formative assessments, over the past 30 years have increasingly been defined and based on their functions. Functions or roles (used interchangeably in the paper) are the use or purpose the assessment will serve: this can be decided prior, during or after the assessment. In higher education, the distinction seems to have been dealt with pragmatically perhaps because all assessments are within institutional control and so not in direct conflict with external agencies. (TARAS, 2008c). Brown and Knight (1994) represent the trend: 
There are many blends of purpose, reflecting the multiple assessment audiences and the large number of ways of assessing learning. ‘Formative’ and ‘summative’ are useful tags, but no more. (BROWN; KNIGHT, 1994, p. 15-16). 
In the compulsory sector, where exams are controlled by external agencies, the conflict has been more evident (BLACK; WILIAM, 1998; SEBATANE, 1998). The work spearheaded by Black and Wiliam and much of the Assessment for Learning research in the compulsory sector is predicated on this distinction between summative and formative assessment, where summative assessment refers to externally accredited exams and formative assessment as being that which provides feedback within the classroom. The emphasis on the distinction and the separation of the two has been signalled as a weakness in their seminal paper of 1998 by Biggs (1998). 
This focus on functions of assessment was set in motion in part by Bloom et al. (1971) who were examining the consequences of assessment and concluded that they are as important as the processes or intentions. Whilst acknowledging the critical importance of consequences, this paper does not focus on this aspect, but limits itself to the processes of assessment. 
Summative assessment 
Summative assessment is generally equated with final test or exams. In HE the practice of providing feedback from graded work has meant that summative and formative assessment have worked together and supported each other to the same end i.e. supporting learners and learning. This is reflected in the literature which generally does not put a negative focus on summative assessment. (BROWN; KNIGHT, 1994; BIGGS, 1998). In the Assessment for Learning discourse, it is generally vilified as being the promulgator of the negative and destructive aspects of education which deflects from the support of learning (TARAS, 2007b, 2008c). Broadfoot (2002, 2007, 2008) calls it a Frankenstein’s monster. The headings she uses in the 2008 paper leave no doubt as to Broadfoot’s scathing view on the “functions” of summative assessment and as to its effect on the lives of learners and the educational community. However, summative assessment and external exams are not all negative since exam successes for students have traditionally been a route to a better future. The problem has been
126 Maddalena Taras 
Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> 
with all the corruption implications and practices that have lasted millennia. (BROADFOOT, 2007; STOBART, 2008). 
Assessment functions and processes 
An important question for this paper is: how do functions of assessment link to the process of assessment? Will a chosen function change or influence the process in any way? The answer is no. The process of assessment is not affected by the potential functions. Therefore, the two are separate. 
However, with the focus on functions, the processes of assessment have been eclipsed and the critical aspect of understanding and ensuring the process is transparent and ethical is difficult to monitor. Scriven (1967) had warned against this happening. A second problem seems to have arisen - that of separating the summative and formative assessment processes to mirror the recommendations of the literature supporting working with functions of assessment (TARAS, 2008c, 2009). This state of affairs requires the duplication of summative and formative assessment to respect the different functions (BLACK, 2003; WILIAM, 2000). Taras (2005, 2009) demonstrates that this duplication is unnecessary, time-consuming and confusing to tutors and learners alike. 
Functions 
Functions are considered a problem for this paper because they have, firstly, dominated the recent literature. Secondly, they are responsible for educationalists losing sight of both the processes of assessment and the essential neutrality of assessment itself. 
The first point of dominating the literature is in itself not necessarily a bad thing because it can contribute to reminding us that throughout history assessment has been used unjustly and ruined lives (STOBART, 2008). So, can we control how assessment is used? The answer is no. Even if we are prioritising positive, ethical functions such as supporting learning, we cannot ensure that the results of the process of assessment will be used as we intended (TARAS, 2005, 2007c, papers In: GARDNER, 2006). Therefore, focusing on functions will not contribute to ensuring that assessment is used ethically. 
For the second point, the consequences of losing sight of the process of assessment are very serious: if this is not monitored, it effectively means that we are not ensuring that how we assess and, subsequently, the results of the assessment are either carried out properly or transparently reported. This will contribute to making the essential neutrality of assessment (point three) even less neutral. It also has serious implications for the reliability and validity of assessment, but discussion of this area is beyond the scope of this paper. 
It could be argued that this discourse is creating a storm in a teacup. However, if this teacup is an individual’s assessment, it can have serious implications for their future. Furthermore, it can be argued that focus on formative functions will not impinge on the integrity, validity or reliability of summative work. The problem is, as noted above, that often assessments have multiple functions and what begins as a learning exercise which is informal, implicit and likely not to be rigorous, may be used for critical decisions. Therefore, the result could be that final, important judgements are made on the strength of ad-hoc, informal assessments. 
To avoid this, we need assessments to have the rigour and care attributed to summative work, but with the intentions to support learning and teaching, and have the positive attributes generally attributed to formative assessment. This aim is within our grasp if we focus on the processes as opposed to the functions of assessment. 
The process of assessment 
The process of assessment is inherent in the definition which will be repeated for expediency: 
The activity consists simply in the gathering and combining of performance data with a weighted set of goal scales to yield either comparative or numerical ratings, and in the justification of (a) the data-gathering instruments, (b) the weightings, and (c) the selection of goals. (SCRIVEN, 1967, p. 40). 
Therefore, the parameters are chosen i.e. (a) the data-gathering instruments, (b) the weightings, and (c) the selection of goals and these are justified. Assessment is a complex process with all the elements used to make the judgment in constant interplay. The result is the judgement that can be compared to a standard or a number on a standardised scale. 
Summative assessment provides information which Sadler (1989) calls “Knowledge of Results”. This information can be in the form of a summary grade or it can be “comparative”. Comparative here means the short-fall between the perfect or ideal and the performance that is being judged. Therefore, Scriven’s definition pre-empts part of Ramaprasad’s definition of feedback which signals a “gap” to be bridged (1983).
Back to basics: definitions and processes of assessments 127 
Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> 
Feedback and formative assessment 
The definition of formative assessment is perhaps the most contentious and varied of all the definitions of assessment proffered as is its relationship to summative and self-assessment. Formative assessment as a concept, and its close companion feedback, is not new: it focuses on means, techniques and procedures to support learning through feedback. Therefore feedback is a crucial aspect of formative assessment. But, whereas summative assessment produces feedback, formative assessment must use feedback. 
Sadler adopts Ramaprasad’s definition in his theory of formative assessment. This definition demonstrates that feedback as opposed to knowledge of results is a complex process which requires the active participation of learners in furthering their own development. It requires an understanding of the context of assessment, the parameters and for learners to understand their position and own knowledge base within this context “(feedback) requires knowledge of the standard or goal, skills in making multicriterion comparisons, and the development of ways and means for reducing the discrepancy between what is produced and what is aimed for” (SADLER, 1989, p. 142). 
Since feedback according to this definition is a first necessary step to formative assessment, it could be called formative feedback. However, if we look at Ramaprasad’s definition, it is more than just potential for improving: “feedback is information about the gap between the actual level and the reference level of a system parameter which is used to alter the gap in some wa.” (RAMAPRASAD, 1983, p. 4, emphasis added) 
In fact, Sadler’s definition of formative assessment is not greatly different from Ramaprasad’s definition of feedback (or formative feedback). 
Formative assessment is concerned with how judgements about the quality of student responses (performance, pieces, or works) can be used to shape and improve the students’ competence by short-circuiting the randomness and inefficiency of trial-and-error learning. (SADLER, 1989, p. 120, emphasis added) 
As Taras (2005) notes, the modal verb “can” shows that when the judgements are used this is formative assessment. If the judgement is not used, we are left with the judgement which is summative assessment. This leads us logically to examine the relationship between summative and formative assessment. 
Relationship between summative, formative assessment and feedback 
From the above, it is clear that making a judgement according to specific parameters is assessment, or summative assessment at that point in time. This assessment will produce feedback. The feedback may remain as an implicit judgement within the person’s head, otherwise, any manifestation or communication of this judgement will provide information. According to the definitions of assessment proposed in this paper, the parameters for making the judgement - that is the criteria, the standards and the goals - will be used to make the judgement and measure the short-fall from the ideal. Information produced will provide feedback which is required to improve the work. The use of this formative feedback by the learner will result in formative assessment and bring the work closer to the ideal. 
Taras (2005) represents this relationship in the equation: 
SA + feedback = FA (Summative assessment + feedback = formative assessment) 
More precisely, and perhaps more accurately, a summative assessment will produce feedback which when used results in formative assessment: 
SA → feedback 
Feedback use = formative assessment 
Far from showing summative and formative assessment as discrete items the above shows that the two are inseparably linked and that summative assessment is a necessary starting point for all assessment (TARAS, 2009). 
Therefore, summative assessment must come first: it is necessary to assess the quality of the work before feedback can be given for the learner to use. Feedback cannot come from thin air: examining the work with implicit or explicit criteria and standards will result in judgements. What differentiates summative and formative assessment is that the latter is used by the learner to update and improve the work (or, at the minimum, to understand what would need to be done and how). Summative assessment does not exclude feedback (or Knowledge of Results) and even a number grade or physical reaction will provide information no matter how minimal. Often, in higher education, graded work is the main source of feedback (TARAS, 2006). 
Using feedback is formative assessment, summative assessment can also and often does produce feedback which could be used. With formative assessment its use is mandatory, with
128 Maddalena Taras 
Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> 
summative assessment it is not. Because assessment is such a universal and constant process, with an infinite means of describing it, much of it is implicit, automatic and taken for granted. Perhaps we tend to forget the obvious and the basic premise of the process. Coffield and Edward (2009) illustrate how lack of engagement with the basic premises of ‘good’ assessment principles results in shoddy practice and research. I would add and “theory”. 
Relationship between summative, formative assessment and self-assessment 
We have examined the links between summative and formative assessment processes. This section will explore how self-assessment relates to them. The self-assessment literature considers it as being formative, indeed it is claimed to be the single most important aspect to support learning (BOUD, 1995; COWAN, 2006; BLACK et al., 2003). The literature discussed in this paper seems to make the same assumptions. However, both Scriven (1967) and Sadler (1989) implicitly demonstrate that self-assessment is in fact a summative process. 
Unless entirely ignorant of one’s shortcomings as a judge of one’s own work, he (sic) is presumably engaged in field-testing the work while it is being developed, and in so doing he gets feedback on the basis of which he again produces revisions; this is of course formative evaluation. (SCRIVEN, 1967, p. 43). 
From this citation, formative assessment is using feedback which summative assessment produces. However, since the same person is providing the feedback as is using it, it is self- assessment. Therefore, we can rationalise that producing feedback by the self is a summative process because it is not obligatory for the person to use this feedback: we can all admit to not updating to our best abilities due to time and logistical constraints (TARAS, 2003). 
However, it could be argued that any production process involves ongoing and ad hoc feedback by the person concerned where this is integrated at a cognitive level in addition to the work. Indeed, Sadler’s mandatory use of self-assessment as an integral part of formative assessment envisages such a process. Taras (2009) argues that technically and theoretically, self-assessment is a summative process and that any feedback that learners provide themselves would also require utilisation for it to be considered formative. Whether this use should be demonstrable in an educational context would however overlook mental processing, which is where real learning and assessing take place. 
Implications of assessment processes and functions 
This paper has demonstrated that understanding and focusing on the assessment process is necessary to support and sustain good practice. Assessment is far too important and with huge consequences for participants for it to be dependent on ad-hoc, implicit processing. We are all aware of the inherently subjective aspects of all judgements; however, making the parameters, processes, and products explicit and transparent goes a long way towards producing ethical and equitable assessments which are acceptable to all concerned. Furthermore, as noted at the start of this paper, assessment is a necessary and integral part of learning. Since learning is dependent on, and a product of, the context, assessment too is context specific and an understanding of which needs to be negotiated among protagonists. Also, and critically, feedback is only such if it is understood, accepted and integrated by learners into future work. 
Conclusion 
The above concepts have significant implications for learning, teaching and assessing. Specifically, the three are interdependent and require cooperation between all concerned. In any context, be it peers in reviewing programmes or articles, or interviewing for jobs, tutors and learners assessing their own or others’ work or their own ideas and ideals in classroom interaction, the basic assessment process is the same. Sharing parameters, practices and contexts will go a long way towards an equitable understanding to reduce injustice which has long blighted assessment (BROADFOOT, 2008; STOBART, 2008). Given the high stakes of all assessment, whether summative or formative, we need the courage and knowledge to be explicit and transparent. This paper shows that a focus and separation of functions of summative and formative assessment is not necessarily the answer if the process is eclipsed and ignored. 
References 
ATKINS, M. J.; BEATTIE, J.; DOCKRELL, W. B. Assessment issues in higher education. Sheffield: Employment Department, 1993. 
BIGGS, J. Assessment and classroom learning: a role for summative assessment? Assessment in education: principles, policy and practice, v. 5, n. 1, p. 103-110, 1998.
Back to basics: definitions and processes of assessments 129 
Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> 
BLACK, P.; WILIAM, D. Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in education: principles, policy and practice, v. 5, n. 1, p. 7-74, 1998. 
BLACK, P. Testing: friend or foe? - Theory and practice of assessment and testing. London: Falmer Press, 1998. 
BLACK, P. (with the King’s College London Assessment for Learning Group HARRISON, C.; LEE, C.; MARSHALL, B.; WILIAMS, D.). Formative and summative assessment: can they serve learning together? Paper presented at AERA Chicago 23 April 2003. SIG Classroom Assessment Meeting, Chicago, 2003. 
BLACK, P.; HARRISON, C.; LEE, C.; MARSHALL, B.; WILIAM, D. Assessment for learning: putting it into practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2003. 
BLACK, P.; WILIAM, D. Lessons from around the world: how 
policies, politics and cultures constrain and afford assessment 
practices. The Curriculum Journal, v. 16, n. 2, p. 249- 261, 2005. 
BLOOM B. S.; HASTINGS, J. T.; MADAUS, G. F. (Eds.). Handbook on the formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. 
BOUD, D. J. Enhancing learning through self assessment. London: Kogan Page, 1995. 
BROADFOOT, P. Editorial: Beware the consequences of assessment! Assessment in education: principles, policy and practice, v. 9, n. 3, p. 285-288, 2002. 
BROADFOOT, P. An introduction to assessment. New York, London: Continuum, 2007. 
BROADFOOT, P. Assessment for learners: assessment literacy and the development of learning power. In: HAVNES, A.; MCDOWELL, L. (Eds.). Balancing dilemmas in assessment and learning in contemporary education. New York, London: Routledge, 2008. p. 213-224. 
BROWN, S.; KNIGHT, P. Assessing learners in higher education. London: Kogan Page, 1994. 
COFFIELD, F.; EDWARDS, S. Rolling out ‘good’, ‘best’ and ‘excellent’ practice. What next? Perfect practice? British Educational Research Journal, v. 35, n. 3, p. 371-390, 2009. 
COWAN, J. On becoming an innovative university teacher: reflection in action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 
CULLINGFORD, C. (Ed.). Assessment versus evaluation. London: Cassell, 1997. 
FAIRCLOUGH, N. Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Press/Blackwell, 1994. 
GARDNER, J. (Ed.). Assessment and learning. London: Sage, 2006. 
HAGER, P.; HODKINSON, P. Moving beyond the metaphor of transfer of learning. British Educational Research Journal, v. 35, n. 4, p. 619-638, 2009. 
JAMES, M. Assessment, teaching and theories of learning. In: GARDNER, J. (Ed.). Assessment and learning. London: Sage, 2006. p. 47-60. 
LAKOFF, G.; JOHNSON, M. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. 
LAKOFF, G.; JOHNSON, M. The contemporary theory of metaphor. In: ORTONY, A. (Ed.). Metaphor and thought. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. p. 202-251. 
PERRENOUD, P. From formative evaluation to a controlled 
regulation of learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy and practice, v. 5, n. 1, p. 85-103, 1998 
RAMAPRASAD, A. On the definition of feedback. Behavioural Science, v. 28, p. 4-13, 1983. 
SADLER, D. R. Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, v. 18, p. 145-165, 1989. 
SCRIVEN, M. The methodology of evaluation. In: TYLER, R.; GAGNE, R.; SCRIVEN, M. Perspectives on curriculum evaluation. AERA Monograph Series – Curriculum Evaluation, Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1967. p. 38- 83. 
SEBATANE, E. M. Assessment and classroom learning: a response to Black and Wiliam. Assessment in education: principles, policy and practice, v. 5, n. 1, p. 123-130, 1998. 
STOBART, G. Testing times: the uses and abuses of assessment. New York/London: Routledge, 2008. 
TARAS, M. To feedback or not to feedback in student self- assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, v. 28, n. 5, p. 549-565, 2003. 
TARAS, M. Assessment – Summative and Formative – some theoretical reflections. British Journal of Educational Studies, v. 53, n. 3, p. 466-478, 2005. 
TARAS, M. Do unto others or not? Lecturers use expert feedback on research articles, why not likewise undergraduates on assessed work? Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, v. 31, n. 3, p. 363-375, 2006. 
TARAS, M. Terminal terminology: the language of assessment. In: REISS, M.; HAYES, R.; ATKINSON, A. (Eds.). Marginality and difference in education and beyond. Staffordshire: Trentham Books, 2007b. p. 52-67. 
TARAS, M. Assessment for Learning: understanding theory to improve practice. Journal of Further and higher education, v. 31, n. 4, p. 363-371, 2007c. 
TARAS, M. Assessment: sectarian divisions of terminology and concepts. Journal of Further and Higher Education, v. 32, n. 4, p. 389-397, 2008c. 
TARAS, M. Summative Assessment: the missing link for formative assessment. Journal of Further and Higher Education, v. 33, n. 1, p. 57-69, 2009.
130 Maddalena Taras 
Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> 
WILIAM, D. Integrating summative and formative functions of assessment. Keynote address to the European Association for Educational Assessment. Prague: Czech Republic, 2000. 
Received: 05/09/2009 
Accepted: 11/03/2010

More Related Content

What's hot

Learning theories in clinical education of OTs
Learning theories in clinical education of OTsLearning theories in clinical education of OTs
Learning theories in clinical education of OTsOT Clinical Supervisors
 
Grad Cert Final Assignment Presentation
Grad Cert Final Assignment PresentationGrad Cert Final Assignment Presentation
Grad Cert Final Assignment PresentationDanielle Hitch
 
Pnas 2014-freeman-1319030111
Pnas 2014-freeman-1319030111Pnas 2014-freeman-1319030111
Pnas 2014-freeman-1319030111telcalit2
 
Introduction to research
Introduction to researchIntroduction to research
Introduction to researchJosy Jomon
 
Techniques and tools of evaluation prabhuswamy m
Techniques and tools of evaluation prabhuswamy mTechniques and tools of evaluation prabhuswamy m
Techniques and tools of evaluation prabhuswamy mDr. Prabhuswamy Mallappa
 
Effective feedback practices in formative assessment recognizing the relevance
Effective feedback practices in formative assessment   recognizing the relevanceEffective feedback practices in formative assessment   recognizing the relevance
Effective feedback practices in formative assessment recognizing the relevanceAlexander Decker
 
Van der vleuten_-_twelve_tips_for_programmatic_assessment
Van der vleuten_-_twelve_tips_for_programmatic_assessmentVan der vleuten_-_twelve_tips_for_programmatic_assessment
Van der vleuten_-_twelve_tips_for_programmatic_assessmentcnmcmeu
 
Writing short and long answer exam questions, Liz Norman 2017
Writing short and long answer exam questions, Liz Norman 2017Writing short and long answer exam questions, Liz Norman 2017
Writing short and long answer exam questions, Liz Norman 2017Liz Norman
 
Assessments for Programs and Learning
Assessments for Programs and LearningAssessments for Programs and Learning
Assessments for Programs and LearningLisa MacLeod
 
Classroom research
Classroom researchClassroom research
Classroom researchCarlo Magno
 
Problem Based Learning In Comparison To Traditional Teaching As Perceived By ...
Problem Based Learning In Comparison To Traditional Teaching As Perceived By ...Problem Based Learning In Comparison To Traditional Teaching As Perceived By ...
Problem Based Learning In Comparison To Traditional Teaching As Perceived By ...iosrjce
 
Assessment of-clinical-competence-wass-van-der-vleuten-shatzer-jones
Assessment of-clinical-competence-wass-van-der-vleuten-shatzer-jonesAssessment of-clinical-competence-wass-van-der-vleuten-shatzer-jones
Assessment of-clinical-competence-wass-van-der-vleuten-shatzer-jonesPROIDDBahiana
 
Causal comparative research
Causal comparative researchCausal comparative research
Causal comparative researchDua FaTima
 
Journal raganit santos
Journal raganit santosJournal raganit santos
Journal raganit santosessayumiyuri
 
Experimental research design.revised
Experimental research design.revisedExperimental research design.revised
Experimental research design.revisedFranz Dalluay
 
Contemporary research handbook
Contemporary research handbookContemporary research handbook
Contemporary research handbookHajira Ghani
 
Selecting a research approach
Selecting a research approachSelecting a research approach
Selecting a research approachrodsazon
 
Non-Experimental Research Design
Non-Experimental Research DesignNon-Experimental Research Design
Non-Experimental Research DesignAsokan R
 
Experimental
ExperimentalExperimental
Experimentalwawaaa789
 

What's hot (20)

Learning theories in clinical education of OTs
Learning theories in clinical education of OTsLearning theories in clinical education of OTs
Learning theories in clinical education of OTs
 
Grad Cert Final Assignment Presentation
Grad Cert Final Assignment PresentationGrad Cert Final Assignment Presentation
Grad Cert Final Assignment Presentation
 
Pnas 2014-freeman-1319030111
Pnas 2014-freeman-1319030111Pnas 2014-freeman-1319030111
Pnas 2014-freeman-1319030111
 
Introduction to research
Introduction to researchIntroduction to research
Introduction to research
 
Techniques and tools of evaluation prabhuswamy m
Techniques and tools of evaluation prabhuswamy mTechniques and tools of evaluation prabhuswamy m
Techniques and tools of evaluation prabhuswamy m
 
Effective feedback practices in formative assessment recognizing the relevance
Effective feedback practices in formative assessment   recognizing the relevanceEffective feedback practices in formative assessment   recognizing the relevance
Effective feedback practices in formative assessment recognizing the relevance
 
Van der vleuten_-_twelve_tips_for_programmatic_assessment
Van der vleuten_-_twelve_tips_for_programmatic_assessmentVan der vleuten_-_twelve_tips_for_programmatic_assessment
Van der vleuten_-_twelve_tips_for_programmatic_assessment
 
Writing short and long answer exam questions, Liz Norman 2017
Writing short and long answer exam questions, Liz Norman 2017Writing short and long answer exam questions, Liz Norman 2017
Writing short and long answer exam questions, Liz Norman 2017
 
Assessments for Programs and Learning
Assessments for Programs and LearningAssessments for Programs and Learning
Assessments for Programs and Learning
 
Research Design
Research DesignResearch Design
Research Design
 
Classroom research
Classroom researchClassroom research
Classroom research
 
Problem Based Learning In Comparison To Traditional Teaching As Perceived By ...
Problem Based Learning In Comparison To Traditional Teaching As Perceived By ...Problem Based Learning In Comparison To Traditional Teaching As Perceived By ...
Problem Based Learning In Comparison To Traditional Teaching As Perceived By ...
 
Assessment of-clinical-competence-wass-van-der-vleuten-shatzer-jones
Assessment of-clinical-competence-wass-van-der-vleuten-shatzer-jonesAssessment of-clinical-competence-wass-van-der-vleuten-shatzer-jones
Assessment of-clinical-competence-wass-van-der-vleuten-shatzer-jones
 
Causal comparative research
Causal comparative researchCausal comparative research
Causal comparative research
 
Journal raganit santos
Journal raganit santosJournal raganit santos
Journal raganit santos
 
Experimental research design.revised
Experimental research design.revisedExperimental research design.revised
Experimental research design.revised
 
Contemporary research handbook
Contemporary research handbookContemporary research handbook
Contemporary research handbook
 
Selecting a research approach
Selecting a research approachSelecting a research approach
Selecting a research approach
 
Non-Experimental Research Design
Non-Experimental Research DesignNon-Experimental Research Design
Non-Experimental Research Design
 
Experimental
ExperimentalExperimental
Experimental
 

Viewers also liked

Performance Based assessment
Performance Based  assessmentPerformance Based  assessment
Performance Based assessmentMasrurin Lailiyah
 
American Dreaming: A Project-Based Assessment
American Dreaming: A Project-Based AssessmentAmerican Dreaming: A Project-Based Assessment
American Dreaming: A Project-Based AssessmentDenise Croker
 
PORTFOLIO/PRODUCT/PROCESS ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT, Ed8
PORTFOLIO/PRODUCT/PROCESS ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT, Ed8PORTFOLIO/PRODUCT/PROCESS ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT, Ed8
PORTFOLIO/PRODUCT/PROCESS ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT, Ed8Eddie Abug
 
Process oriented performance-based assessment
Process oriented performance-based assessmentProcess oriented performance-based assessment
Process oriented performance-based assessmentrenarch
 
Process and product performane-based assessment
Process and product performane-based assessment Process and product performane-based assessment
Process and product performane-based assessment Dianopesidas
 

Viewers also liked (6)

Learning journal
Learning journalLearning journal
Learning journal
 
Performance Based assessment
Performance Based  assessmentPerformance Based  assessment
Performance Based assessment
 
American Dreaming: A Project-Based Assessment
American Dreaming: A Project-Based AssessmentAmerican Dreaming: A Project-Based Assessment
American Dreaming: A Project-Based Assessment
 
PORTFOLIO/PRODUCT/PROCESS ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT, Ed8
PORTFOLIO/PRODUCT/PROCESS ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT, Ed8PORTFOLIO/PRODUCT/PROCESS ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT, Ed8
PORTFOLIO/PRODUCT/PROCESS ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT, Ed8
 
Process oriented performance-based assessment
Process oriented performance-based assessmentProcess oriented performance-based assessment
Process oriented performance-based assessment
 
Process and product performane-based assessment
Process and product performane-based assessment Process and product performane-based assessment
Process and product performane-based assessment
 

Similar to Journal Assessment

Action Research In Second Language Teacher Education
Action Research In Second Language Teacher EducationAction Research In Second Language Teacher Education
Action Research In Second Language Teacher EducationCynthia King
 
Forum2.collaborative work
Forum2.collaborative workForum2.collaborative work
Forum2.collaborative workEly Almeida
 
A Situative Metaphor For Teacher Learning The Case Of University Tutors Lear...
A Situative Metaphor For Teacher Learning  The Case Of University Tutors Lear...A Situative Metaphor For Teacher Learning  The Case Of University Tutors Lear...
A Situative Metaphor For Teacher Learning The Case Of University Tutors Lear...Sabrina Green
 
207 TMA-2_ManotaR,FusileroM,DumoM
207 TMA-2_ManotaR,FusileroM,DumoM207 TMA-2_ManotaR,FusileroM,DumoM
207 TMA-2_ManotaR,FusileroM,DumoMArem Salazar
 
A qualitative study of primary teachers classroom feedback rationales.pdf
A qualitative study of primary teachers  classroom feedback rationales.pdfA qualitative study of primary teachers  classroom feedback rationales.pdf
A qualitative study of primary teachers classroom feedback rationales.pdfMd. Shahriar Shafiq
 
Academic forum 2 curriculum design research
Academic forum 2 curriculum design researchAcademic forum 2 curriculum design research
Academic forum 2 curriculum design researchDaysi Lopez
 
Cosee manuscript for national journal on teacher learning
Cosee manuscript for national journal on teacher learningCosee manuscript for national journal on teacher learning
Cosee manuscript for national journal on teacher learningWilliam Kritsonis
 
ECR, Diversity Related Experiences of Students, Academic and Administrative S...
ECR, Diversity Related Experiences of Students, Academic and Administrative S...ECR, Diversity Related Experiences of Students, Academic and Administrative S...
ECR, Diversity Related Experiences of Students, Academic and Administrative S...NazlFidanDalkl
 
AIT National Seminar with Chris Rust Emeritus Professor "Redesigning programm...
AIT National Seminar with Chris Rust Emeritus Professor "Redesigning programm...AIT National Seminar with Chris Rust Emeritus Professor "Redesigning programm...
AIT National Seminar with Chris Rust Emeritus Professor "Redesigning programm...AITLearningandTeaching
 
Assessing Oral Presentation Performance
Assessing Oral Presentation PerformanceAssessing Oral Presentation Performance
Assessing Oral Presentation PerformanceSheila Sinclair
 
Innovative Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 2, Winter 2004 ( C© .docx
Innovative Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 2, Winter 2004 ( C© .docxInnovative Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 2, Winter 2004 ( C© .docx
Innovative Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 2, Winter 2004 ( C© .docxmaoanderton
 
Trends and methods of educational research in the uk
Trends and methods of educational research in the ukTrends and methods of educational research in the uk
Trends and methods of educational research in the ukmemogreat
 
Howard walters concept mapping
Howard walters concept mappingHoward walters concept mapping
Howard walters concept mappingWilliam Kritsonis
 
Howard walters concept mapping
Howard walters concept mappingHoward walters concept mapping
Howard walters concept mappingWilliam Kritsonis
 
Running head EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 1ED.docx
Running head EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH                      1ED.docxRunning head EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH                      1ED.docx
Running head EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 1ED.docxtodd271
 
ESERA Paper Exploring teacher's belief Sally Howard
ESERA Paper Exploring teacher's belief Sally HowardESERA Paper Exploring teacher's belief Sally Howard
ESERA Paper Exploring teacher's belief Sally HowardSally Howard
 
Culture Matters: Learners’ Expectations Towards Instructor-Support (Richter 2...
Culture Matters: Learners’ Expectations Towards Instructor-Support (Richter 2...Culture Matters: Learners’ Expectations Towards Instructor-Support (Richter 2...
Culture Matters: Learners’ Expectations Towards Instructor-Support (Richter 2...Richter Thomas
 
The Mismatch between EAP Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Practices toward For...
The Mismatch between EAP Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Practices toward For...The Mismatch between EAP Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Practices toward For...
The Mismatch between EAP Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Practices toward For...AJHSSR Journal
 
Assessing Service-Learning And Civic Engagement Principles And Techniques
Assessing Service-Learning And Civic Engagement  Principles And TechniquesAssessing Service-Learning And Civic Engagement  Principles And Techniques
Assessing Service-Learning And Civic Engagement Principles And TechniquesPedro Craggett
 

Similar to Journal Assessment (20)

Action Research In Second Language Teacher Education
Action Research In Second Language Teacher EducationAction Research In Second Language Teacher Education
Action Research In Second Language Teacher Education
 
Forum2.collaborative work
Forum2.collaborative workForum2.collaborative work
Forum2.collaborative work
 
A Situative Metaphor For Teacher Learning The Case Of University Tutors Lear...
A Situative Metaphor For Teacher Learning  The Case Of University Tutors Lear...A Situative Metaphor For Teacher Learning  The Case Of University Tutors Lear...
A Situative Metaphor For Teacher Learning The Case Of University Tutors Lear...
 
207 TMA-2_ManotaR,FusileroM,DumoM
207 TMA-2_ManotaR,FusileroM,DumoM207 TMA-2_ManotaR,FusileroM,DumoM
207 TMA-2_ManotaR,FusileroM,DumoM
 
A qualitative study of primary teachers classroom feedback rationales.pdf
A qualitative study of primary teachers  classroom feedback rationales.pdfA qualitative study of primary teachers  classroom feedback rationales.pdf
A qualitative study of primary teachers classroom feedback rationales.pdf
 
Academic forum 2 curriculum design research
Academic forum 2 curriculum design researchAcademic forum 2 curriculum design research
Academic forum 2 curriculum design research
 
Cosee manuscript for national journal on teacher learning
Cosee manuscript for national journal on teacher learningCosee manuscript for national journal on teacher learning
Cosee manuscript for national journal on teacher learning
 
ECR, Diversity Related Experiences of Students, Academic and Administrative S...
ECR, Diversity Related Experiences of Students, Academic and Administrative S...ECR, Diversity Related Experiences of Students, Academic and Administrative S...
ECR, Diversity Related Experiences of Students, Academic and Administrative S...
 
AIT National Seminar with Chris Rust Emeritus Professor "Redesigning programm...
AIT National Seminar with Chris Rust Emeritus Professor "Redesigning programm...AIT National Seminar with Chris Rust Emeritus Professor "Redesigning programm...
AIT National Seminar with Chris Rust Emeritus Professor "Redesigning programm...
 
Assessing Oral Presentation Performance
Assessing Oral Presentation PerformanceAssessing Oral Presentation Performance
Assessing Oral Presentation Performance
 
92 Critical-Reflection
92 Critical-Reflection92 Critical-Reflection
92 Critical-Reflection
 
Innovative Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 2, Winter 2004 ( C© .docx
Innovative Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 2, Winter 2004 ( C© .docxInnovative Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 2, Winter 2004 ( C© .docx
Innovative Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 2, Winter 2004 ( C© .docx
 
Trends and methods of educational research in the uk
Trends and methods of educational research in the ukTrends and methods of educational research in the uk
Trends and methods of educational research in the uk
 
Howard walters concept mapping
Howard walters concept mappingHoward walters concept mapping
Howard walters concept mapping
 
Howard walters concept mapping
Howard walters concept mappingHoward walters concept mapping
Howard walters concept mapping
 
Running head EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 1ED.docx
Running head EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH                      1ED.docxRunning head EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH                      1ED.docx
Running head EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 1ED.docx
 
ESERA Paper Exploring teacher's belief Sally Howard
ESERA Paper Exploring teacher's belief Sally HowardESERA Paper Exploring teacher's belief Sally Howard
ESERA Paper Exploring teacher's belief Sally Howard
 
Culture Matters: Learners’ Expectations Towards Instructor-Support (Richter 2...
Culture Matters: Learners’ Expectations Towards Instructor-Support (Richter 2...Culture Matters: Learners’ Expectations Towards Instructor-Support (Richter 2...
Culture Matters: Learners’ Expectations Towards Instructor-Support (Richter 2...
 
The Mismatch between EAP Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Practices toward For...
The Mismatch between EAP Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Practices toward For...The Mismatch between EAP Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Practices toward For...
The Mismatch between EAP Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Practices toward For...
 
Assessing Service-Learning And Civic Engagement Principles And Techniques
Assessing Service-Learning And Civic Engagement  Principles And TechniquesAssessing Service-Learning And Civic Engagement  Principles And Techniques
Assessing Service-Learning And Civic Engagement Principles And Techniques
 

More from Shafiqah Rashid

More from Shafiqah Rashid (11)

Report 5
Report 5Report 5
Report 5
 
Hots report
Hots reportHots report
Hots report
 
Kajian penilaian kurikulum_pendidikan_matematik_dan_sains_universiti_teknolog...
Kajian penilaian kurikulum_pendidikan_matematik_dan_sains_universiti_teknolog...Kajian penilaian kurikulum_pendidikan_matematik_dan_sains_universiti_teknolog...
Kajian penilaian kurikulum_pendidikan_matematik_dan_sains_universiti_teknolog...
 
journal hots
journal hotsjournal hots
journal hots
 
journal article
journal article journal article
journal article
 
Journal Article about HOTS
Journal Article about HOTSJournal Article about HOTS
Journal Article about HOTS
 
Assessment
AssessmentAssessment
Assessment
 
Teaching approaches
Teaching approachesTeaching approaches
Teaching approaches
 
Hots (1)
Hots (1)Hots (1)
Hots (1)
 
Timss and pisa
Timss and pisaTimss and pisa
Timss and pisa
 
Sme3023
Sme3023Sme3023
Sme3023
 

Recently uploaded

Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
CONCEPT OF MUTATION AND ITS CLASSIFICATION .pptx
CONCEPT OF MUTATION AND ITS CLASSIFICATION .pptxCONCEPT OF MUTATION AND ITS CLASSIFICATION .pptx
CONCEPT OF MUTATION AND ITS CLASSIFICATION .pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptxMECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...JojoEDelaCruz
 
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptxmary850239
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataBabyAnnMotar
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmStan Meyer
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
PRINCIPLE & APPLICATIONS OF IMMUNO BLOTTING TECHNIQUES.pptx
PRINCIPLE & APPLICATIONS OF IMMUNO BLOTTING TECHNIQUES.pptxPRINCIPLE & APPLICATIONS OF IMMUNO BLOTTING TECHNIQUES.pptx
PRINCIPLE & APPLICATIONS OF IMMUNO BLOTTING TECHNIQUES.pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfTechSoup
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parentsnavabharathschool99
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4JOYLYNSAMANIEGO
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
CONCEPT OF MUTATION AND ITS CLASSIFICATION .pptx
CONCEPT OF MUTATION AND ITS CLASSIFICATION .pptxCONCEPT OF MUTATION AND ITS CLASSIFICATION .pptx
CONCEPT OF MUTATION AND ITS CLASSIFICATION .pptx
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptxMECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
 
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
 
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
 
LEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
LEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxLEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
LEFT_ON_C'N_ PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
PRINCIPLE & APPLICATIONS OF IMMUNO BLOTTING TECHNIQUES.pptx
PRINCIPLE & APPLICATIONS OF IMMUNO BLOTTING TECHNIQUES.pptxPRINCIPLE & APPLICATIONS OF IMMUNO BLOTTING TECHNIQUES.pptx
PRINCIPLE & APPLICATIONS OF IMMUNO BLOTTING TECHNIQUES.pptx
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
 

Journal Assessment

  • 1. BACK TO BASICS: definitions and processes of assessments Maddalena Taras* Abstract In a performance – and results – driven educational world the concept of formative assessment has inspired the educational community by its discourse and focus on learning and learners. However, a number of controversies have surfaced: primary among these are terminological opacities and disparities both within and across continents and sectors. (TARAS, 2007b, 2009). Among others, Perrenoud (1998) signals the importance of positioning theoretical and practical discourse on assessment within a wider pedagogic context and within theories of learning. Taras (2005) argues that concepts of assessment, including formative assessment, are best and more effectively understood firstly within the wider assessment framework and, secondly, within the relationships of summative, formative and self-assessment. This paper examines definitions of assessments. It begins with basic concepts of assessment, summative, formative, self-assessment and feedback and inter- relates these. The principles inherent in definitions set the parameters of both processes and practice as part of a logical sequence and framework. Keywords: Assessment. Formative assessment. Summative assessment. Resumo Num mundo educacional guiado pelo desempenho e pelos resultados, o conceito de avaliação formativa inspirou a comunidade da área com seu discurso e foco na aprendizagem e nos aprendizes. No entanto, várias controvérsias surgiram, destacando-se as nebulosidades e disparidades terminológicas entre os diversos setores de pesquisa e mesmo dentro de cada um deles (TARAS, 2007b, 2009). Perrenoud (1998), entre outros autores, assinala a importância de situar-se o discurso teórico e prático sobre a avaliação num contexto pedagógico mais amplo e no âmbito das teorias de aprendizagem. Taras (2005) argumenta que os conceitos de avaliação, incluindo-se a avaliação formativa, são mais bem entendidos e têm mais eficácia quando considerados numa estrutura mais abrangente e examinados segundo as suas relações, ou seja, quando se observam as relações entre avaliação somativa, avaliação formativa e autoavaliação. Este artigo, cujo propósito é examinar algumas definições de avaliação, apresenta primeiramente os conceitos básicos de avaliação, avaliação somativa, avaliação formativa, autoavaliação e feedback e em seguida os inter-relaciona. Os princípios implícitos nas definições determinam os parâmetros tanto dos processos quanto da prática como parte de uma estrutura e de uma sequência lógicas. Palavras-chave: Avaliação. Avaliação formative. Avaliação somativa. * University of Sunderland (United Kingdom). E-mail: maddalena.taras@sunderland.ac.uk Introduction This paper explores the principles of the process of assessment within any context or function (whether pre-selected or chosen after the assessment). It supports and develops the discourse and rationale for the centrality of the understanding of the process over the functions of assessment within all types of assessments, and particularly formative assessment. (TARAS, 2005). It does not present a historical time-line of the development of definitions of formative and summative assessment. Nor is it an analysis of different aspects of assessment seen in the light of a broad theory of pedagogy (eg PERRENOUD, 1998; BLACK; WILIAM, 2005), although it does inevitably situate assessment as part of the triumvirate of assessing, learning and teaching. In fact, this paper supports the position that there can be no real development to “expert” without assessment (ATKINS et al., 1993). Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br>
  • 2. 124 Maddalena Taras Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> Theories of learning Within a social-constructivist theory of learning, the individual negotiates meaning with its surroundings and context and assimilates it by restructuring and reorganising individual knowledge and concepts. (JAMES, 2006; HAGER; HODKINSON, 2009). Therefore, the individual is both the product of the context and a direct challenge to it by bringing unique and specific interpretations. Similarly, assessment and learning will draw on the constant interaction between the individual and the collective experience and information base which has impacted on the individual and context. We are all constantly assessing our position, our position within the collective and the collective’s position. Therefore, each individual although learning and assessing within a socially constructed context will necessarily differ from others in similar situations. This uniqueness will require a continual negotiation of meanings, concepts and ideas. Even when working within the same definitions, criteria and processes, it would not be an aberration for different outcomes of learning, assessment and understanding to occur. Accepting this endless diversity within education is an important first step when hoping to work towards a relative harmonising of concepts and definitions, ideas, ideals and understanding. This, however, does not preclude the need for coherence and logical associations within these personal experiences of individual and collective educational “realities”. Language Language is not neutral. Meanings associated with different words and terms are not neutral. Assessment and related terms are heavily value and emotionally laden; therefore within collective and personal interpretations moral and ethical factors are also involved. (LAKOFF; JOHNSON, 1980, 2002; FAIRCLOUGH, 1994; TARAS, 2007b). Socially and politically, “assessment” is potentially dynamite: the very word is used sparingly. Assessment of research papers for journal publication is referred to as “peer review”. In the UK in 2008, the RAE (Research Assessment Exercise)1 1 In the UK, the RAE is a process where individual universities put forward their best researchers’ articles to be assessed. This usually occurs every 4 years and each researcher presents a maximum of four academic articles. It is on the basis of these results that government grants for research are allocated, so a great deal of money and prestige are at stake. The reviewers making the judgements of quality on these in the 2008 RAE, were so concerned that their assessment integrity would be questioned, that they destroyed their notes explaining their decision. Surely, what they must realise is that even the categorisation of the papers, without caused turmoil by its potential lack of transparency when the feedback from reviewers was destroyed to protect their “professional judgement”. There is an annual furore when national exam results are announced and dissected by the media. On an individual level, idiosyncratic and personal histories will inevitably result in different interpretations. (TARAS, 2007b; COFFIELD; EDWARDS, 2009; HAGER; HODKINSON, 2009). Assessment or evaluation? In education, with a globalisation of research, this distinction is becoming increasingly complex. In Francophone literature (for example PERRENOUD, 1998), and languages of essentially Latin roots, where the distinction is generally not made, the use of ‘evaluation’ is often preferred. In the UK and much of the Anglophone world, the distinction is generally that evaluation covers the macro spectrum e.g. university, course, documentation of programmes, whereas assessment covers the micro i.e. the assignment, and assessment of smaller units of student work. This distinction is essentially one of context. Within the intentions of this paper, the distinction is perhaps artificial because it focuses on processes and principles and thus aims at englobing diverse and disparate contexts. Therefore, whether we are focusing on programme evaluation, as was Scriven (1967), or whether we are focusing on assessment product in complex, multi-criterion contexts, as was Sadler (1989), or on classroom interaction as does the work of Black and Wiliam on Assessment for Learning, what this paper claims and wishes to argue for and demonstrate is that a single assessment process can be used to represent each of these three very different contexts: i.e. that the process and basic parameters of assessment can be considered universal and technically similar for all contexts. Another distinction to consider is that of implicit versus explicit assessment. The implicit tends to cover areas of ad hoc, informal assessments, i.e. assessment of work in progress or classroom interaction, whilst the explicit tends to be of product assessment where criteria and standards are established and shared. In the literature, evaluation and assessment are seen as overlapping and not discrete making the distinction difficult in theory and practice. (SCRIVEN, 1967; CULLINGFORD, 1997; BLACK, 1998). The considering the notes, implicates their decision. The RAE is now going to be called REF (Research Excellence Framework): could this be linked to the phobia which surrounds the word assessment?
  • 3. 125 Back to basics: definitions and processes of assessments Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> ubiquitous nature of assessment has long been recognised and the distinctions noted above are essentially a difference in scope and context and perhaps detract from the commonality of process. In order to coordinate and understand the fundamental principles of assessment, it is helpful to incorporate all aspects of ‘evaluation’ and ‘assessment’ into a single and coherent argument: this would cover both process and product, informal and formal. Definition of assessment The term usually refers to a judgement and it is a process that permeates most of our lives. Within the educational context, this also takes place at all levels and contexts and many names have been assigned to this process. However, it is perhaps pertinent to remember that assessment is assessment is assessment and that everything can be and is judged. The following definition of assessment or evaluation describes and refers to the process of assessment and it also explains how the judgement is reached: as noted, this judgement can be of both process and product, explicit or implicit, formal or informal or at any point along these continua. Evaluation is itself a methodological activity which is essentially similar whether we are trying to evaluate coffee machines or teaching machines, plans for a house or plans for a curriculum. The activity consists simply in the gathering and combining of performance data with a weighted set of goal scales to yield either comparative or numerical ratings, and in the justification of (a) the data-gathering instruments, (b) the weightings, and (c) the selection of goals. (SCRIVEN, 1967, p. 40). Scriven clarifies that these are universal principles and the paper illustrates with the specific example of programme evaluation. Functions of summative and formative assessment Summative and formative assessments, over the past 30 years have increasingly been defined and based on their functions. Functions or roles (used interchangeably in the paper) are the use or purpose the assessment will serve: this can be decided prior, during or after the assessment. In higher education, the distinction seems to have been dealt with pragmatically perhaps because all assessments are within institutional control and so not in direct conflict with external agencies. (TARAS, 2008c). Brown and Knight (1994) represent the trend: There are many blends of purpose, reflecting the multiple assessment audiences and the large number of ways of assessing learning. ‘Formative’ and ‘summative’ are useful tags, but no more. (BROWN; KNIGHT, 1994, p. 15-16). In the compulsory sector, where exams are controlled by external agencies, the conflict has been more evident (BLACK; WILIAM, 1998; SEBATANE, 1998). The work spearheaded by Black and Wiliam and much of the Assessment for Learning research in the compulsory sector is predicated on this distinction between summative and formative assessment, where summative assessment refers to externally accredited exams and formative assessment as being that which provides feedback within the classroom. The emphasis on the distinction and the separation of the two has been signalled as a weakness in their seminal paper of 1998 by Biggs (1998). This focus on functions of assessment was set in motion in part by Bloom et al. (1971) who were examining the consequences of assessment and concluded that they are as important as the processes or intentions. Whilst acknowledging the critical importance of consequences, this paper does not focus on this aspect, but limits itself to the processes of assessment. Summative assessment Summative assessment is generally equated with final test or exams. In HE the practice of providing feedback from graded work has meant that summative and formative assessment have worked together and supported each other to the same end i.e. supporting learners and learning. This is reflected in the literature which generally does not put a negative focus on summative assessment. (BROWN; KNIGHT, 1994; BIGGS, 1998). In the Assessment for Learning discourse, it is generally vilified as being the promulgator of the negative and destructive aspects of education which deflects from the support of learning (TARAS, 2007b, 2008c). Broadfoot (2002, 2007, 2008) calls it a Frankenstein’s monster. The headings she uses in the 2008 paper leave no doubt as to Broadfoot’s scathing view on the “functions” of summative assessment and as to its effect on the lives of learners and the educational community. However, summative assessment and external exams are not all negative since exam successes for students have traditionally been a route to a better future. The problem has been
  • 4. 126 Maddalena Taras Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> with all the corruption implications and practices that have lasted millennia. (BROADFOOT, 2007; STOBART, 2008). Assessment functions and processes An important question for this paper is: how do functions of assessment link to the process of assessment? Will a chosen function change or influence the process in any way? The answer is no. The process of assessment is not affected by the potential functions. Therefore, the two are separate. However, with the focus on functions, the processes of assessment have been eclipsed and the critical aspect of understanding and ensuring the process is transparent and ethical is difficult to monitor. Scriven (1967) had warned against this happening. A second problem seems to have arisen - that of separating the summative and formative assessment processes to mirror the recommendations of the literature supporting working with functions of assessment (TARAS, 2008c, 2009). This state of affairs requires the duplication of summative and formative assessment to respect the different functions (BLACK, 2003; WILIAM, 2000). Taras (2005, 2009) demonstrates that this duplication is unnecessary, time-consuming and confusing to tutors and learners alike. Functions Functions are considered a problem for this paper because they have, firstly, dominated the recent literature. Secondly, they are responsible for educationalists losing sight of both the processes of assessment and the essential neutrality of assessment itself. The first point of dominating the literature is in itself not necessarily a bad thing because it can contribute to reminding us that throughout history assessment has been used unjustly and ruined lives (STOBART, 2008). So, can we control how assessment is used? The answer is no. Even if we are prioritising positive, ethical functions such as supporting learning, we cannot ensure that the results of the process of assessment will be used as we intended (TARAS, 2005, 2007c, papers In: GARDNER, 2006). Therefore, focusing on functions will not contribute to ensuring that assessment is used ethically. For the second point, the consequences of losing sight of the process of assessment are very serious: if this is not monitored, it effectively means that we are not ensuring that how we assess and, subsequently, the results of the assessment are either carried out properly or transparently reported. This will contribute to making the essential neutrality of assessment (point three) even less neutral. It also has serious implications for the reliability and validity of assessment, but discussion of this area is beyond the scope of this paper. It could be argued that this discourse is creating a storm in a teacup. However, if this teacup is an individual’s assessment, it can have serious implications for their future. Furthermore, it can be argued that focus on formative functions will not impinge on the integrity, validity or reliability of summative work. The problem is, as noted above, that often assessments have multiple functions and what begins as a learning exercise which is informal, implicit and likely not to be rigorous, may be used for critical decisions. Therefore, the result could be that final, important judgements are made on the strength of ad-hoc, informal assessments. To avoid this, we need assessments to have the rigour and care attributed to summative work, but with the intentions to support learning and teaching, and have the positive attributes generally attributed to formative assessment. This aim is within our grasp if we focus on the processes as opposed to the functions of assessment. The process of assessment The process of assessment is inherent in the definition which will be repeated for expediency: The activity consists simply in the gathering and combining of performance data with a weighted set of goal scales to yield either comparative or numerical ratings, and in the justification of (a) the data-gathering instruments, (b) the weightings, and (c) the selection of goals. (SCRIVEN, 1967, p. 40). Therefore, the parameters are chosen i.e. (a) the data-gathering instruments, (b) the weightings, and (c) the selection of goals and these are justified. Assessment is a complex process with all the elements used to make the judgment in constant interplay. The result is the judgement that can be compared to a standard or a number on a standardised scale. Summative assessment provides information which Sadler (1989) calls “Knowledge of Results”. This information can be in the form of a summary grade or it can be “comparative”. Comparative here means the short-fall between the perfect or ideal and the performance that is being judged. Therefore, Scriven’s definition pre-empts part of Ramaprasad’s definition of feedback which signals a “gap” to be bridged (1983).
  • 5. Back to basics: definitions and processes of assessments 127 Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> Feedback and formative assessment The definition of formative assessment is perhaps the most contentious and varied of all the definitions of assessment proffered as is its relationship to summative and self-assessment. Formative assessment as a concept, and its close companion feedback, is not new: it focuses on means, techniques and procedures to support learning through feedback. Therefore feedback is a crucial aspect of formative assessment. But, whereas summative assessment produces feedback, formative assessment must use feedback. Sadler adopts Ramaprasad’s definition in his theory of formative assessment. This definition demonstrates that feedback as opposed to knowledge of results is a complex process which requires the active participation of learners in furthering their own development. It requires an understanding of the context of assessment, the parameters and for learners to understand their position and own knowledge base within this context “(feedback) requires knowledge of the standard or goal, skills in making multicriterion comparisons, and the development of ways and means for reducing the discrepancy between what is produced and what is aimed for” (SADLER, 1989, p. 142). Since feedback according to this definition is a first necessary step to formative assessment, it could be called formative feedback. However, if we look at Ramaprasad’s definition, it is more than just potential for improving: “feedback is information about the gap between the actual level and the reference level of a system parameter which is used to alter the gap in some wa.” (RAMAPRASAD, 1983, p. 4, emphasis added) In fact, Sadler’s definition of formative assessment is not greatly different from Ramaprasad’s definition of feedback (or formative feedback). Formative assessment is concerned with how judgements about the quality of student responses (performance, pieces, or works) can be used to shape and improve the students’ competence by short-circuiting the randomness and inefficiency of trial-and-error learning. (SADLER, 1989, p. 120, emphasis added) As Taras (2005) notes, the modal verb “can” shows that when the judgements are used this is formative assessment. If the judgement is not used, we are left with the judgement which is summative assessment. This leads us logically to examine the relationship between summative and formative assessment. Relationship between summative, formative assessment and feedback From the above, it is clear that making a judgement according to specific parameters is assessment, or summative assessment at that point in time. This assessment will produce feedback. The feedback may remain as an implicit judgement within the person’s head, otherwise, any manifestation or communication of this judgement will provide information. According to the definitions of assessment proposed in this paper, the parameters for making the judgement - that is the criteria, the standards and the goals - will be used to make the judgement and measure the short-fall from the ideal. Information produced will provide feedback which is required to improve the work. The use of this formative feedback by the learner will result in formative assessment and bring the work closer to the ideal. Taras (2005) represents this relationship in the equation: SA + feedback = FA (Summative assessment + feedback = formative assessment) More precisely, and perhaps more accurately, a summative assessment will produce feedback which when used results in formative assessment: SA → feedback Feedback use = formative assessment Far from showing summative and formative assessment as discrete items the above shows that the two are inseparably linked and that summative assessment is a necessary starting point for all assessment (TARAS, 2009). Therefore, summative assessment must come first: it is necessary to assess the quality of the work before feedback can be given for the learner to use. Feedback cannot come from thin air: examining the work with implicit or explicit criteria and standards will result in judgements. What differentiates summative and formative assessment is that the latter is used by the learner to update and improve the work (or, at the minimum, to understand what would need to be done and how). Summative assessment does not exclude feedback (or Knowledge of Results) and even a number grade or physical reaction will provide information no matter how minimal. Often, in higher education, graded work is the main source of feedback (TARAS, 2006). Using feedback is formative assessment, summative assessment can also and often does produce feedback which could be used. With formative assessment its use is mandatory, with
  • 6. 128 Maddalena Taras Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> summative assessment it is not. Because assessment is such a universal and constant process, with an infinite means of describing it, much of it is implicit, automatic and taken for granted. Perhaps we tend to forget the obvious and the basic premise of the process. Coffield and Edward (2009) illustrate how lack of engagement with the basic premises of ‘good’ assessment principles results in shoddy practice and research. I would add and “theory”. Relationship between summative, formative assessment and self-assessment We have examined the links between summative and formative assessment processes. This section will explore how self-assessment relates to them. The self-assessment literature considers it as being formative, indeed it is claimed to be the single most important aspect to support learning (BOUD, 1995; COWAN, 2006; BLACK et al., 2003). The literature discussed in this paper seems to make the same assumptions. However, both Scriven (1967) and Sadler (1989) implicitly demonstrate that self-assessment is in fact a summative process. Unless entirely ignorant of one’s shortcomings as a judge of one’s own work, he (sic) is presumably engaged in field-testing the work while it is being developed, and in so doing he gets feedback on the basis of which he again produces revisions; this is of course formative evaluation. (SCRIVEN, 1967, p. 43). From this citation, formative assessment is using feedback which summative assessment produces. However, since the same person is providing the feedback as is using it, it is self- assessment. Therefore, we can rationalise that producing feedback by the self is a summative process because it is not obligatory for the person to use this feedback: we can all admit to not updating to our best abilities due to time and logistical constraints (TARAS, 2003). However, it could be argued that any production process involves ongoing and ad hoc feedback by the person concerned where this is integrated at a cognitive level in addition to the work. Indeed, Sadler’s mandatory use of self-assessment as an integral part of formative assessment envisages such a process. Taras (2009) argues that technically and theoretically, self-assessment is a summative process and that any feedback that learners provide themselves would also require utilisation for it to be considered formative. Whether this use should be demonstrable in an educational context would however overlook mental processing, which is where real learning and assessing take place. Implications of assessment processes and functions This paper has demonstrated that understanding and focusing on the assessment process is necessary to support and sustain good practice. Assessment is far too important and with huge consequences for participants for it to be dependent on ad-hoc, implicit processing. We are all aware of the inherently subjective aspects of all judgements; however, making the parameters, processes, and products explicit and transparent goes a long way towards producing ethical and equitable assessments which are acceptable to all concerned. Furthermore, as noted at the start of this paper, assessment is a necessary and integral part of learning. Since learning is dependent on, and a product of, the context, assessment too is context specific and an understanding of which needs to be negotiated among protagonists. Also, and critically, feedback is only such if it is understood, accepted and integrated by learners into future work. Conclusion The above concepts have significant implications for learning, teaching and assessing. Specifically, the three are interdependent and require cooperation between all concerned. In any context, be it peers in reviewing programmes or articles, or interviewing for jobs, tutors and learners assessing their own or others’ work or their own ideas and ideals in classroom interaction, the basic assessment process is the same. Sharing parameters, practices and contexts will go a long way towards an equitable understanding to reduce injustice which has long blighted assessment (BROADFOOT, 2008; STOBART, 2008). Given the high stakes of all assessment, whether summative or formative, we need the courage and knowledge to be explicit and transparent. This paper shows that a focus and separation of functions of summative and formative assessment is not necessarily the answer if the process is eclipsed and ignored. References ATKINS, M. J.; BEATTIE, J.; DOCKRELL, W. B. Assessment issues in higher education. Sheffield: Employment Department, 1993. BIGGS, J. Assessment and classroom learning: a role for summative assessment? Assessment in education: principles, policy and practice, v. 5, n. 1, p. 103-110, 1998.
  • 7. Back to basics: definitions and processes of assessments 129 Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> BLACK, P.; WILIAM, D. Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in education: principles, policy and practice, v. 5, n. 1, p. 7-74, 1998. BLACK, P. Testing: friend or foe? - Theory and practice of assessment and testing. London: Falmer Press, 1998. BLACK, P. (with the King’s College London Assessment for Learning Group HARRISON, C.; LEE, C.; MARSHALL, B.; WILIAMS, D.). Formative and summative assessment: can they serve learning together? Paper presented at AERA Chicago 23 April 2003. SIG Classroom Assessment Meeting, Chicago, 2003. BLACK, P.; HARRISON, C.; LEE, C.; MARSHALL, B.; WILIAM, D. Assessment for learning: putting it into practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2003. BLACK, P.; WILIAM, D. Lessons from around the world: how policies, politics and cultures constrain and afford assessment practices. The Curriculum Journal, v. 16, n. 2, p. 249- 261, 2005. BLOOM B. S.; HASTINGS, J. T.; MADAUS, G. F. (Eds.). Handbook on the formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. BOUD, D. J. Enhancing learning through self assessment. London: Kogan Page, 1995. BROADFOOT, P. Editorial: Beware the consequences of assessment! Assessment in education: principles, policy and practice, v. 9, n. 3, p. 285-288, 2002. BROADFOOT, P. An introduction to assessment. New York, London: Continuum, 2007. BROADFOOT, P. Assessment for learners: assessment literacy and the development of learning power. In: HAVNES, A.; MCDOWELL, L. (Eds.). Balancing dilemmas in assessment and learning in contemporary education. New York, London: Routledge, 2008. p. 213-224. BROWN, S.; KNIGHT, P. Assessing learners in higher education. London: Kogan Page, 1994. COFFIELD, F.; EDWARDS, S. Rolling out ‘good’, ‘best’ and ‘excellent’ practice. What next? Perfect practice? British Educational Research Journal, v. 35, n. 3, p. 371-390, 2009. COWAN, J. On becoming an innovative university teacher: reflection in action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. CULLINGFORD, C. (Ed.). Assessment versus evaluation. London: Cassell, 1997. FAIRCLOUGH, N. Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Press/Blackwell, 1994. GARDNER, J. (Ed.). Assessment and learning. London: Sage, 2006. HAGER, P.; HODKINSON, P. Moving beyond the metaphor of transfer of learning. British Educational Research Journal, v. 35, n. 4, p. 619-638, 2009. JAMES, M. Assessment, teaching and theories of learning. In: GARDNER, J. (Ed.). Assessment and learning. London: Sage, 2006. p. 47-60. LAKOFF, G.; JOHNSON, M. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. LAKOFF, G.; JOHNSON, M. The contemporary theory of metaphor. In: ORTONY, A. (Ed.). Metaphor and thought. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. p. 202-251. PERRENOUD, P. From formative evaluation to a controlled regulation of learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy and practice, v. 5, n. 1, p. 85-103, 1998 RAMAPRASAD, A. On the definition of feedback. Behavioural Science, v. 28, p. 4-13, 1983. SADLER, D. R. Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, v. 18, p. 145-165, 1989. SCRIVEN, M. The methodology of evaluation. In: TYLER, R.; GAGNE, R.; SCRIVEN, M. Perspectives on curriculum evaluation. AERA Monograph Series – Curriculum Evaluation, Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1967. p. 38- 83. SEBATANE, E. M. Assessment and classroom learning: a response to Black and Wiliam. Assessment in education: principles, policy and practice, v. 5, n. 1, p. 123-130, 1998. STOBART, G. Testing times: the uses and abuses of assessment. New York/London: Routledge, 2008. TARAS, M. To feedback or not to feedback in student self- assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, v. 28, n. 5, p. 549-565, 2003. TARAS, M. Assessment – Summative and Formative – some theoretical reflections. British Journal of Educational Studies, v. 53, n. 3, p. 466-478, 2005. TARAS, M. Do unto others or not? Lecturers use expert feedback on research articles, why not likewise undergraduates on assessed work? Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, v. 31, n. 3, p. 363-375, 2006. TARAS, M. Terminal terminology: the language of assessment. In: REISS, M.; HAYES, R.; ATKINSON, A. (Eds.). Marginality and difference in education and beyond. Staffordshire: Trentham Books, 2007b. p. 52-67. TARAS, M. Assessment for Learning: understanding theory to improve practice. Journal of Further and higher education, v. 31, n. 4, p. 363-371, 2007c. TARAS, M. Assessment: sectarian divisions of terminology and concepts. Journal of Further and Higher Education, v. 32, n. 4, p. 389-397, 2008c. TARAS, M. Summative Assessment: the missing link for formative assessment. Journal of Further and Higher Education, v. 33, n. 1, p. 57-69, 2009.
  • 8. 130 Maddalena Taras Práxis Educativa, Ponta Grossa, v.5, n.2, p. 123-130, jul.-dez. 2010. Disponível em <http://www.periodicos.uepg.br> WILIAM, D. Integrating summative and formative functions of assessment. Keynote address to the European Association for Educational Assessment. Prague: Czech Republic, 2000. Received: 05/09/2009 Accepted: 11/03/2010