- 1. TEACHING APPROACHES IN MATHEMATICS NAME MATRIC NO NURUL HIDAYAH BINTI ABDUL HALIM D20101037326 NUR SHAFIQAH BINTI ABDUL RASHID D20121058738
- 2. Teaching Approaches • Effective teaching strategy might begin with student-centered teaching. • By carrying out various activities, will make learning more interesting and meaningful. I • n addition to presenting the subject content with traditional didactic approach, it is recommended that students engage more actively in the learning process. • Teaching should also be related to real life situations
- 3. Phases of learning process Processing/Storing exploring, understanding, comprehending, memorizing, repeating Absorption watching, smelling, touching, tasting, hearing, feeling, perceiving, experiencing Transfer application, testing, handling new tasks, confidence, action
- 4. 1.PROCEDURAL APPROACH • Use of the procedural approach is the traditional way that math has been taught. • The procedural approach in mathematics education may be defined as teacher- led, direct instruction of rules or procedures for solving problems. • Procedural-based instructional approcah involves the student’s learning algorithms and formulas and how to apply them to solve mathematical problems. • Rote memorization , drill , and practice are methodologies often utilized by teachers in a procedural-based mathematics instructional program. • Procedural-based mathematics instruction emphasizes the acquisition of basic skills and precision ,accuracy and fluency in their execution. • The fundamental premise is that students must know specific mathematics con-tent before they can acquire higher skills or truly gain conceptual understanding of mathematics .
- 5. Example Area = length X width What is the area of the rectangle - Student need to know the formula first - Then they can answer the question
- 6. 2.CONCEPTUAL APPROACH • conceptual-based instruction seeks to provide the reason why these algorithms and formulas work. • Example : Ask pupils to find the sum of two odd numbers like 3+5=8, 5+7=12,9+11=20, etc. They will find that the sum of two odd numbers is an even number.
- 7. 3.Inductive METHOD • Used to get the formulas, facts or general characteristics of the study on some specific examples of mathematics • Pupils should study math examples, comparisons and analysis and making conclusions
- 8. Examples of specific mathematical containing the same formulation Review, compare and analyze samples for generalizing -Make a statement -Get the facts mathematics -Got a mathematical concepts -Got a mathematical law
- 9. Example • Look carefully at the following figures. Then, use inductive reasoning to make a conjecture about the next figure in the pattern • If you have carefully observed the pattern, may be you came up with the figure below:
- 10. 4.Deductive method • Deductive method is based on deduction • In this approach we proceed from general to particular and from abstract and concrete • At first the rules are given and then students are asked to apply these rules to solve more problems • This approach is mainly used in Algebra, Geometry and Trigonometry because different relations, laws and formulae are used in these sub branches of mathematics
- 11. • Deductive approach proceeds form o General rule to specific instances o Unknown to know o Abstract rule to concrete instance o Complex to simple • Steps in deductive approach o Clear recognition of the problem o Search for a tentative hypothesis o Formulating of a tentative hypothesis o Verification
- 12. Example Example 1: Find a2 X a10 = ? Solution: General : am X an = am+n Particular: a2 X a10 = a2+10 = a12 Example 2: Find (102)2 = ? Solution: General: (a+b)2 =a2+b2+2ab Particular: (100+2) 2 = 1002 + 22 + (2 x 100 x 2) = 10000+4+400= 10404