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NAME MATRIC NO
NURUL HIDAYAH BINTI ABDUL
HALIM
D20101037326
NUR SHAFIQAH BINTI ABDUL
RASHID
D20121058738
• Mathematics is a compulsory subject that every student need to learn
from Year 1 until Form 6.
• In 2003, the teaching and learning process of mathematics subject
has been changed from bahasa to english l and now the government
changes it again.
• KPM has identified 5 gaps which are:
-Rural urban
-Digital
- student achievement
- normal student vs student with special need
- socioeconomi
Muhyiddin , who is also MP for Pagoh , said the gap between rural
and urban students seem arise each time the results are announced.
Source: http://www.sinarharian.com.my/nasional/kerajaan-kaji-
rapatkan-jurang-sekolah-bandar-luar-bandar-1.38311
• Recent educational research has examined rural and urban differences in their
achievement. Many educators, researchers, legislators and the general public
believe that students from rural schools mostly receive an education that is
inferior compared to the students that live in urban areas.
•Students background also impact on their performance where we can see that
many of the students that lives in rural areas has low academic achievement
when we compared it with the students that lives in urban areas.
•The National Education Association said that the low performing youth are in
public rural schools (Brown & Swanson, 2001).
Source: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/students-performance-in-
rural-and-urban-areas-education-essay.php#ixzz3DT8XlK9m
• FAMILY FACTORS
• The family background is the most important and weighty factor in
determining the academic performance of learners (Adell, 2002: 91).
-At the rural areas, family is one of the factors that determine their child
performance. Students in rural areas have low performance compared to
students in urban areas because it is relate to their parents education.
- Majority of parents in rural areas are less educated than parents in
urban areas.
-Survey found that, rural students felt no pressure to attain good
performance when their parents’ expectations towards education were low.
- Parental encouragement has a positive influence towards their child
performance and at rural areas most of parents did not care about their child
academic performance.
- Some experts believe that parent expectations is the most influential factor
affecting youth decisions to pursue education (Esterman & Hedlund, 1995;
Smith, Beaulieu, & Seraphine, 1995).
•Lack of Facilities and Resources
-Some of the factors that contributing to the poor performance are lack or
resources and poor facilities in most schools especially in rural areas.
-Some of schools in rural areas are dilapidated compared to those in
urban areas. The problem regarding unequal distribution of resources
between provinces, rural and urban areas are still intact (Motala &
Pampalis, 2001:5
-Facilities are important in order to make the teaching and learning
process more effective.
- Students that live in rural areas will less expose to the using of
technology because the facilities that were provided for them are not
sufficient. This will make their learning process will be less effective and
they will have less knowledge about current issues as well as how to use
technology.
- Students in urban areas have many advantages in their learning
process and with the advent of technology it will make easier for their
study. They will more understanding with their learning with the
facilities provided.
• Less Qualified Teachers
-Teacher is the important role in order to create good performance students
-. Most of the teacher did not want to posting in rural area because they think it will
bring difficulty to them. So, the majority of teachers that were sent to the rural
areas are the new teachers that have less experience in teaching.
- Awoniyi (1981) remarked that there is a direct relationship between the quality of
teaching personnel and the quality of education process. Most of them did not
master the teaching technique yet because they are still new in teaching area.
-When we compared to students in urban areas they usually have a teachers that
have good communications skills in English. Most of teachers compete for
placement in urban schools. So, rural school will have inadequate teacher and it
will make their learning progress disturbed and not running properly.
• digital computer means operating with figures to represent the data
• refers to the use of ICT in teaching and learning mathematics
• Cockcroft (1982) suggest that the use of computers in teaching mathematics
can improve the quality of teaching mathematics
• computer use can also change the importance of a topic in the syllabus of
mathematics
• digital divide means that there is a gap between one community to another
community in :
o access to ICT
o access to information through ICT
o understand and use information from ICT
• 65% of the population have a computer in the city such as Selangor
• 3.18% in 11 other states
• percent affordable housing is 5% only
• in 1988 only 6% have internet access and 11.9% for every home
• statistics show that there is a significant difference between urban and rural
areas
• most of the development program at this time is not adjusted
• access programs to underserved groups is uneven access to services
• some programs do not take the chance to use ICT even able to do so
• Students
o successful use of ICT to increase motivation, enthusiasm and involvement
in teaching and learning activities
o increase understanding
o attitude of the use of ICT, use of ICT and ICT Acculturation also been
increased
• Teachers
o performance of teachers and teacher successfully increased
o percent of teachers using ICT in teaching and learning successfully
increased
o competence of teachers has also increased
• computer facilities at home
• less emphasis higher order thinking skills (HOTS) in teaching and learning
• attitude fraction of teachers who assume too many programs in schools
• culture too depending on teacher
• no internet access
• no maintenance of ICT equipment
• Based on the Education Act 1996 - Regulations for Special Education
(1997), “students with special needs means that pupils who have :
o visual impairment or
o hearing impairment or
o learning disabilities
• Education Act 1996 – Regulations for Special Education (1997) which
states in modal implement special education curriculum, teachers can
modify methods or techniques of teaching and learning, time and
arranged activities, subjects and teaching aids to achieve the aims and
objectives of special education.
• Kirk et al (1993) clarify the definition of a child with special needs as
children differ from children in regular moderate or mental characteristics
of sensory capabilities in the characteristics of nerve and muscle physical
or behavioral, social or emotional, or communication capabilities in a
variety of deficiency that it takes practice renovated school, or special
education services, so that it can be expanded up to a maximum
capacity.
relationship with
parents who
have children
with special
relationship with
the teacher in a
special education
program
tools and
equipment
workload
responsibility
coordination of
teaching
segregation of
duties
amend regulations
in 1997 to receive
the special
education students
with two defects
establishing an
inclusive special
education program
open special
classes for pupils
with autism and
ADHD and has two
defects
providing valuation
methods recognized
provide
transportation for
special education
students
• Many researchers (Barry 2005; Crosnoe, Jonhson & Elder 2004) in
their works have identified that the academic achievement of children in
school have links with the Socio-economic status (SES) of their parents.
•Majoribanks, (1996), have observed that there are direct links between family
backgrounds and the achievement of pupils.
•Conditions at the home of children or pupils basically constitute the fundamental
social agent influencing the interest aspirations and performances.
• Researchers have concluded that economic hardships that arise in families
and which eventually either motivates or derail the
learning attitudes of children have their roots in the SES of parents
(Baharudin and Luster, 1998; Jeynes, 2002; Majoribanks, 1999; Eamon, 2005).
SOURCE BY:
http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/207456/the-influences-of-selected-socio-
economic-factors-of-parents-and-parenting
• The students’ background relate to the low socioeconomic factor of their
family also one of the factor that effect their performance in education.
•The parents of the students that come from low income family cannot provide
their children enough educational resources at home. Compared to high
income families , their parents are afford to sent their children tuition classes
in order to get better performance.
•The students from high income families also can buy additional books for
their references while for the student who come from low income family ,they
non-exposure to educational resources and it will affect their performance
compared to those who have access to such resources.
•Students who have access to more resources are advantage compared to
those from poor families because they can know more about the latest
developments around them thus can assist them to improve their
performance at schools.

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Closing the Gap: Factors Affecting Student Performance in Rural vs Urban Schools

  • 1. NAME MATRIC NO NURUL HIDAYAH BINTI ABDUL HALIM D20101037326 NUR SHAFIQAH BINTI ABDUL RASHID D20121058738
  • 2. • Mathematics is a compulsory subject that every student need to learn from Year 1 until Form 6. • In 2003, the teaching and learning process of mathematics subject has been changed from bahasa to english l and now the government changes it again.
  • 3. • KPM has identified 5 gaps which are: -Rural urban -Digital - student achievement - normal student vs student with special need - socioeconomi
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. Muhyiddin , who is also MP for Pagoh , said the gap between rural and urban students seem arise each time the results are announced. Source: http://www.sinarharian.com.my/nasional/kerajaan-kaji- rapatkan-jurang-sekolah-bandar-luar-bandar-1.38311
  • 7. • Recent educational research has examined rural and urban differences in their achievement. Many educators, researchers, legislators and the general public believe that students from rural schools mostly receive an education that is inferior compared to the students that live in urban areas. •Students background also impact on their performance where we can see that many of the students that lives in rural areas has low academic achievement when we compared it with the students that lives in urban areas. •The National Education Association said that the low performing youth are in public rural schools (Brown & Swanson, 2001). Source: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/students-performance-in- rural-and-urban-areas-education-essay.php#ixzz3DT8XlK9m
  • 8. • FAMILY FACTORS • The family background is the most important and weighty factor in determining the academic performance of learners (Adell, 2002: 91). -At the rural areas, family is one of the factors that determine their child performance. Students in rural areas have low performance compared to students in urban areas because it is relate to their parents education. - Majority of parents in rural areas are less educated than parents in urban areas.
  • 9. -Survey found that, rural students felt no pressure to attain good performance when their parents’ expectations towards education were low. - Parental encouragement has a positive influence towards their child performance and at rural areas most of parents did not care about their child academic performance. - Some experts believe that parent expectations is the most influential factor affecting youth decisions to pursue education (Esterman & Hedlund, 1995; Smith, Beaulieu, & Seraphine, 1995).
  • 10. •Lack of Facilities and Resources -Some of the factors that contributing to the poor performance are lack or resources and poor facilities in most schools especially in rural areas. -Some of schools in rural areas are dilapidated compared to those in urban areas. The problem regarding unequal distribution of resources between provinces, rural and urban areas are still intact (Motala & Pampalis, 2001:5 -Facilities are important in order to make the teaching and learning process more effective. - Students that live in rural areas will less expose to the using of technology because the facilities that were provided for them are not sufficient. This will make their learning process will be less effective and they will have less knowledge about current issues as well as how to use technology.
  • 11. - Students in urban areas have many advantages in their learning process and with the advent of technology it will make easier for their study. They will more understanding with their learning with the facilities provided.
  • 12. • Less Qualified Teachers -Teacher is the important role in order to create good performance students -. Most of the teacher did not want to posting in rural area because they think it will bring difficulty to them. So, the majority of teachers that were sent to the rural areas are the new teachers that have less experience in teaching. - Awoniyi (1981) remarked that there is a direct relationship between the quality of teaching personnel and the quality of education process. Most of them did not master the teaching technique yet because they are still new in teaching area. -When we compared to students in urban areas they usually have a teachers that have good communications skills in English. Most of teachers compete for placement in urban schools. So, rural school will have inadequate teacher and it will make their learning progress disturbed and not running properly.
  • 13.
  • 14. • digital computer means operating with figures to represent the data • refers to the use of ICT in teaching and learning mathematics • Cockcroft (1982) suggest that the use of computers in teaching mathematics can improve the quality of teaching mathematics • computer use can also change the importance of a topic in the syllabus of mathematics • digital divide means that there is a gap between one community to another community in : o access to ICT o access to information through ICT o understand and use information from ICT
  • 15. • 65% of the population have a computer in the city such as Selangor • 3.18% in 11 other states • percent affordable housing is 5% only • in 1988 only 6% have internet access and 11.9% for every home • statistics show that there is a significant difference between urban and rural areas
  • 16. • most of the development program at this time is not adjusted • access programs to underserved groups is uneven access to services • some programs do not take the chance to use ICT even able to do so • Students o successful use of ICT to increase motivation, enthusiasm and involvement in teaching and learning activities o increase understanding o attitude of the use of ICT, use of ICT and ICT Acculturation also been increased • Teachers o performance of teachers and teacher successfully increased o percent of teachers using ICT in teaching and learning successfully increased o competence of teachers has also increased
  • 17. • computer facilities at home • less emphasis higher order thinking skills (HOTS) in teaching and learning • attitude fraction of teachers who assume too many programs in schools • culture too depending on teacher • no internet access • no maintenance of ICT equipment
  • 18.
  • 19. • Based on the Education Act 1996 - Regulations for Special Education (1997), “students with special needs means that pupils who have : o visual impairment or o hearing impairment or o learning disabilities • Education Act 1996 – Regulations for Special Education (1997) which states in modal implement special education curriculum, teachers can modify methods or techniques of teaching and learning, time and arranged activities, subjects and teaching aids to achieve the aims and objectives of special education. • Kirk et al (1993) clarify the definition of a child with special needs as children differ from children in regular moderate or mental characteristics of sensory capabilities in the characteristics of nerve and muscle physical or behavioral, social or emotional, or communication capabilities in a variety of deficiency that it takes practice renovated school, or special education services, so that it can be expanded up to a maximum capacity.
  • 20.
  • 21. relationship with parents who have children with special relationship with the teacher in a special education program tools and equipment workload responsibility coordination of teaching segregation of duties
  • 22. amend regulations in 1997 to receive the special education students with two defects establishing an inclusive special education program open special classes for pupils with autism and ADHD and has two defects providing valuation methods recognized provide transportation for special education students
  • 23.
  • 24. • Many researchers (Barry 2005; Crosnoe, Jonhson & Elder 2004) in their works have identified that the academic achievement of children in school have links with the Socio-economic status (SES) of their parents. •Majoribanks, (1996), have observed that there are direct links between family backgrounds and the achievement of pupils. •Conditions at the home of children or pupils basically constitute the fundamental social agent influencing the interest aspirations and performances. • Researchers have concluded that economic hardships that arise in families and which eventually either motivates or derail the learning attitudes of children have their roots in the SES of parents (Baharudin and Luster, 1998; Jeynes, 2002; Majoribanks, 1999; Eamon, 2005). SOURCE BY: http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/207456/the-influences-of-selected-socio- economic-factors-of-parents-and-parenting
  • 25. • The students’ background relate to the low socioeconomic factor of their family also one of the factor that effect their performance in education. •The parents of the students that come from low income family cannot provide their children enough educational resources at home. Compared to high income families , their parents are afford to sent their children tuition classes in order to get better performance. •The students from high income families also can buy additional books for their references while for the student who come from low income family ,they non-exposure to educational resources and it will affect their performance compared to those who have access to such resources. •Students who have access to more resources are advantage compared to those from poor families because they can know more about the latest developments around them thus can assist them to improve their performance at schools.