INTRODUCTION TO ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY Pamela Bush SED 614 Chapter Presentation
Outcome of Presentation…• Be able to explain what Assistive Technology is.• Understand how Assistive Technology came to be.• Be able to identify a variety of Light and High Tech Assistive Technology devices.• Explain who is responsible for the funding of Assistive Technology.• Understand how ethical practices relate to Assistive Technology.• Explain how Assistive Technology should be used to benefit students with disabilities.
What is AssistiveTechnology? Any item or piece of equipment or product system acquired commercially; off the shelf, modified, or customized, and used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capability for an individual with disabilities. Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-447)
How did Assistive Technology Evolve? • AT was formally defined. AT had not be • The “Tech Act” of formally 1988 formally defined AT. defined, but • Two specific areas1973 was being used to assist 1988 related to AT were defined: • Assistive students with Technology Service disabilities. • Assistive Technology Devices 1975 - Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) for students with disabilities.
Continued… “Tech Act” becomes “Individuals with Disabilities Education Act” (IDEA) 1990 AT was mandated Individual Transition Plans became part of Individual Education Plan (IEP). AT devices had to be considered for all transition plans & part of IEP if considered necessary. American with Disabilities Act (ADA) AT no long just part of education…extended into the public arena….. No Discrimination against individuals with disabilities!
Continued… Individual with Disabilities Improvement Act passed… • AT reauthorized AT defined within • Students with law for the first disabilities were time! 1997 now to be 2004 Definition of AT did educated with not change their peers. Clarification was made regarding surgically implanted devices and replacement.
What is the purpose of the AssistiveTechnology Continuum?• Assistive Technology Continuum - A tool that categorizes the the various AT devices into no tech, light tech and high tech. No Tech – AT is based on the students needs…not on the device. Light Tech – Simple tools that can assist the student & make daily activities easier. High Tech – Usually electronic and require a power source,
Funding - Who’s Responsible?School District Level – Responsible for any AT devices orservices that appears in students IEP.Medicare, Medicaid and Private Insurance (Focus of AT ismore for medical need) – Assist in paying for AT services.Other Options:1. Special needs libraries2. Lending libraries3. Disability Organizations4. Churches, Service Clubs, Local Business & Vendors5. Family & Friends
What role does Ethics play in AT?Ethics – Standard of conduct directly related to the profession in which you practice.Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA)• Professional organization for AT• Code of Ethics standards are specific for ATCouncil for Exceptional Children (CEC)• Largest international professional organization devoted to individuals with disabilities• Advocates for appropriate policies• Sets professional standards• Provide professional development
Ethics continues…1. Is the Individual Education Plan (IEP) team doing what is right for the student?2. Does the IEP team have an understanding of what technology can and will do for the student?3. Is AT appropriate for this student?4. Is the IEP team ensuring that ethical standards of practices are being followed.5. Are educators being adequately trained (professional development) in AT?
How to Incorporate AT?IEP Team Must:1. Identify how student will access the general education curriculum2. Identify learning goals for student3. Determine what accommodations and modifications student will needed to meet their specific goals.4. AT services or devices must be considered as part of students IEP plan.5. ALL parties involved MUST regard privacy issues!
Resources:Beard, L., Carpenter, L., Johnston, L. (2011). Assistive Technology: Access for All Students. New Jersey: Pearson.Assistive Technology Enabling Dreams. (2009). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZ5CkpgVQJ4&feature=relatedgExamples of Low Tech Assistive Technology. www.k12.wa.us/pubdocs/LowTechAssistiveTechnology.pdfAssistive Technology: Type of High Tech Assistive Technology. www.ist.hawaii.edu/training/tech/07_types2.php