Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Unit 2

3,687 views

Published on

الوحدة الثانية

Published in: Education
  • Don't forget another good way of simplifying your writing is using external resources (such as ⇒ HelpWriting.net ⇐ ). This will definitely make your life more easier
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I’ve personally never heard of companies who can produce a paper for you until word got around among my college groupmates. My professor asked me to write a research paper based on a field I have no idea about. My research skills are also very poor. So, I thought I’d give it a try. I chose a writer who matched my writing style and fulfilled every requirement I proposed. I turned my paper in and I actually got a good grade. I highly recommend ⇒ HelpWriting.net ⇐ to anyone who is in the same shoes as me.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I was overwhelmed by all the love and support really. It's such a powerful program and the fact that you make it so personal and affordable is incredible. You are doing a beautiful thing Shaye. It makes me tear up just thinking about the love you are pouring out over this community. ■■■ http://ishbv.com/bulimiarec/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Sex in your area is here: ❶❶❶ http://bit.ly/2Qu6Caa ❶❶❶
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Follow the link, new dating source: ❤❤❤ http://bit.ly/2Qu6Caa ❤❤❤
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Unit 2

  1. 1. - 61 - UNIT 2 Charles Dickens ----------------------------------------------------------------------  A talk about Charles Dickens : Have you heard of Charles Dickens? After Shakespeare he is probably the most famous writer in the English language. He is the best known for his novels about life in the nineteenth – century Britain. Dickens was born in 1812 into a good family in Portsmouth, in the south of England. When he was still a young boy, his father went to prison in 1824, because he had got into debt. Charles went to London to earn money for the family. At age of twelve he was working for ten hours a day in a London factory. He saw how hard life was for poor people and many of the ideas for the stories of his novels and the characters in them came from this time. After he left the factory. Dickens went to work as an office clerk, but he did not enjoy this. In 1834 he started work as a newspaper journalist. While he was working for the newspaper, he was also writing magazine stories about life in London. Instead of using his real name he called himself Boz for these stories. In 1836 Dickens married Catherine Hogarth. He went on to write Oliver Twist in 1838 and Nicholas Nickleby in 1839. David Copperfield followed in 1850. In 1858 Dickens went to America to read his novels to people. A tale of two cities in 1859, and Great Expectations in 1861. In Oliver Twist Dickens show the dark side of life in the nineteenth – century London. He describes the lives of child workers and life in the workhouse, where very poor people were sent to live and work. Dickens died in 1870. When he died, Dickens was 58 years.  England and its people at the time of Dickens : In the nineteenth century when Dickens was writing, England was a rich country, but there were many poor people. At this time, cities like London and Manchester grew very quickly. Large numbers of people came to the cities to look for work because they had lost their jobs in the country. Men, women and children worked very long hours in factories to earn enough money to live. There were not enough houses or flats for everybody, so many families shared rooms in crowded
  2. 2. - 61 - Definitions  1 1-- Novell :: روايةةياور - A story about people that are not real. 2-- Priison :: سجن نجس - A building where people who do something wrong are sent. buildings. Thousands of children, whose parents died, lived in the streets of big cities. Many people died when they were young because they were ill or didn’t have food. ------------------------------------------------------------  A summary of Dickens’s novel Oliver Twist : Oliver Twist grew up in a workhouse because his mother had died when he was born. Life for the young boy was hard there. When he asked for more food because he was hungry, he was punished. So Oliver ran away to London where he met a boy called Jack Dawkins who was in a gang of thieves. Old man, Fagin, had taught the gang how to be thieves and Oliver went to live with them. One day Oliver was with the gang when they tried to take something from a man's pocket. The man, Mr. Brownlow, caught them but he was kind and stopped the police from arresting Oliver. Instead he took him back to his house and looked after him. Oliver lived happily with Mr. Brownlow until one of the gang, Bill Sikes, kidnapped him and took him back to Fagin. Oliver had to go with the gang when they broke into country house which belonged to Mrs. Maylie and her niece Rose. The thieves were discovered Oliver was shot. When Oliver told Mrs. Maylie and Rose that he didn’t want to be a thief they believed him and invited him to live with them. One day, at their house. Oliver saw Fagin and another man called Mr. Monks looking at him through a window. Finally the police arrested all of the gang. Oliver discovered that Monks was his half brother, He wanted Oliver to be in trouble because he would get their father's money. In the end, Mr. Brownlow adopted Oliver and they went to live with Mrs. Maylie and Rose. Oliver found out that Rose was mother's sister. ---------------------------------------------------------------
  3. 3. - 61 - 3-- Debtt :: دين نيد - Money that you owe to someone. 4-- Journalliistt :: صحفى ىفحص - Someone who writes for newspapers. 5-- Charactter :: شخصية ) فى كتاب باتك ىف ( ةيصخش –– فى مسرحية ةيحرسم ىف –– فى قصة ةصق ىف –– فى فيلم () مليف ىف - A person in a book, play or film. 6-- Adoptt :: يتبنى ) شخصــا () اــصخش ( ىنبتي أو ) فكرة () ةركف ( وأ - Let someone else’s child become a part of your family. 7-- gang :: عصـــابةةباـــصع - A group of bad people that do bad things together. - A group of criminals who work things together. 8-- Arrestt :: يقبض على ىلع ضبقي - When the police take someone away and guard them for doing something illegal. 9-- Kiidnap :: يختطف شخصـــا اـــصخش فطتخي - To take someone away by force and keep them as a prisoner. 1 10-- Grow up :: ينضج جضني –– يكبرربكي - Change from being a child to an adult. 1 111-- Niiece :: إبنة الأخ أو الأختتخلأا وأ خلأا ةنبإ - The daughter of your brother or sister. 1 12-- Pockett :: جيب ) جاكيت تيكاج ( بيج –– بنطلون نولطنب –– قميص () صيمق - A place in clothes for keeping small things. 1 13-- Puniish :: يعـــاقب بقاـــعي - To do something unpleasant to someone because they have done something wrong. 1 14-- Choiice :: إختيار رايتخإ - When you can choose between two or more things ( actions OR people ) 1 15-- Morall :: حكمة ةمكح –– مغزى ىزغم
  4. 4. - 61 - - A lesson to be learned from a story. Vocabulary : ….. ? What is the difference Between * as : كــــ ) تأتى بعدها وظيفة حقيقية ( * like : كـــ ) تأتى بعدها وظيفة غير حقيقية ( ) أى أسلوب تشبيه ( Exs: - Ali works as a teacher. * century (n) : قرن * play (n) : مسرحية * felucca : مركب قارب صغير – * fishermen (n) : صيادو السمك * finally : أخيرا ≠ in the beginning : بداية * break into : يقتحم * (believe (v) – d – d): يعتقد * belief (n) : إعتقاد * believable : يمكن تصديقه * ( choose (v) – chose – chosen ) : يختار * choice (n) : إختيار * chosen (adj) : مختار * ( describe (v) – d – d ) : يصف * ( introduce (v)– d – d ): يقدم شخصـــا * (shoot (v)– shot – shot): يطلق الرصاص على * belong to : يخص * birth (n) : ميلاد * birthplace : مكان الميلاد * British (n) : بريطانى * clerk (n) : موظف * criminal (n) : مجرم * crowded (adj) : مزدحم * death (n) : موت * details (n) : تفاصيل * in details : بالتفصيل * edge (n) : حافة * events (n) : أحداث * by the end : قرب النهاية * dark (adj) : مظلم * crew (n) : طاقم السفينة * hard (adj) : صعب قاسى – * moral (n) : عبرة حكمة – * country house : منزل ريفى * dangerous (adj) : خطير ≠ safe (adj) : آمن * danger (n) : خطر * punish : يعاقب ≠ reward : يكافئ * ( kidnap (v) – ed – ed ): يختطف شخصـا * kidnapper (n) : مختطف * kidnapped (n) : مخطوف * nearby (adj) : قريب * thieves (n) : لصوص * ( earn (v) – ed – ed ) : يكسب مالا * office clerk (n) : موظف * ( invite (v) – d – d ): يدعو * group (n) : مجموعة * illegal : غير قانونى ≠ legal : قانونى * in debt : مديون * instead of : بدلا من * kinds = types : أنواع * main : رئيسى * nationality (n) : جنسية * novelist (n) : روائى * refer to : يشير إلى * (reflect(v)–ed–ed) : يعكس * sequence : تتابع توالى – * ( die (v) – d – d ) : يموت * glasses (n) : نظارة * workhouse : مكان للعمل والمبيت معا للفقراء * wrong (adj) : خطأ ≠ right = correct : صحيح * half brother : أخ غير شقيق * find out = discover : يكتشف * understand : يفهم ≠ misunderstand : لا يفهم * (characterize(v)– d –d): يميز * character (n) : شخصية * characteristic : مميز * adult : بالغ ناضج – * report (n) : تحقيق صحفى * (interview(v)– ed – ed): يجرى حديثا )صحفيا تليفزيونيا( – * ( pay (v)– paid – paid ): يدفع * British : بريطانى * England : إنجلترا * French : فرنسى * France : فرنســـا * sew (v) : يخيط * society (n) : مجتمع * (share (v) – d – d): يشارك * thousand : ألف * writer (n) :كاتب * factory (n) : مصنع * force (n) : قوة * ( force (v) – d – d ): يجبر * invite (v) : يدعو * (check(v)–ed– ed):يفحص
  5. 5. - 02 - - Ali works like a donkey -------» ( Ali is a hard worker ) * ( rob (v) – robbed – robbed ) : يسرق مكان * ( rob ) + ) شخص ( + of + ) الشئ ( :يسرق شئ من شخص * ( steal (v) – stole – stolen ) : يسرق شيئا Exs: - A gang robbed the bank yesterday. - The thief robbed the lady of her watch. - The thieves stole money from the bank. ------------------------------------------------------------------- * ( share (v) – d – d ) : يتقاسم شئ مع شخص / يشارك شخصا فى شئ * ( divide (v) – d – d ) :يُقسم شئ * divided into : ينقسم إلى Exs: - I share a room with my brother. - The two boys shared a meal. - Mum divided the cake among us. - The class students divided into two groups for a game. ------------------------------------------------------------------- * Country :دولة * The country = The countryside :الريف * The village :القرية Exs: - Egypt is my country. - I live in the country (OR) the countryside. - Life in the village is quieter than life in the city. * On board : على متن السفينة * Broad (adj) : عريض * Abroad : الخارج Exs: - I climbed on board of the ship. - Ali has broad shoulders. - My uncle traveled abroad. ------------------------------------------------------------------- * Look at : ينظر إلى * Look over : تطل على * Look after : يعتنى بــ * Look for = search for : يبحث عن Exs: - Ali looked at the sky and saw the plane. - I bought a flat which looked over the bank of the Nile. - She looked after her grand parents.
  6. 6. - 06 - - Ali looked for his lost pen. Note The Following sQuestions & Answer 1- Where did Oliver Twist grow up? Why? ----» In a workhouse because his mother died when he was born and his father went to prison. 2- Why did Oliver leave the workhouse and go to London ? ----» When he asked for more food because he was hungry, he was punished. So he ran away to London. 3- Where did Oliver go to live ? ----» He went to live in Fagin’s house. Fagin taught a gang how to be thieves. 4- Who did Fagin’s boys try to rob ? ----» They tried to rob Mr. Brownlow. 5- How was Brownlow kind to Oliver ? ----» He stopped the police from arresting Oliver. Instead, he took him back to his house and looked after him. 6- Who kidnapped Oliver and took him back to Fagin? ----» Bill Sikes, one of the gang, did that. 7- What happened to the gang when they took Oliver to rob Mrs Maylie's house? ----» The thieves were discovered and arrested by the police and Oliver was shot but he didn't die. 8- What did Oliver discover about Monks? ----» Monks was his half brother. He wanted Oliver to be in trouble because Monks would get all their father's money. 9- Who adopted Oliver and where did they live? ----» Mr. Brownlow adopted Oliver and they went to live with Mrs Maylie and her niece, Rose. 10- Did Oliver do the right thing when he became a thief ? Did he have a choice? ----» No, Oliver didn't do the right thing when he became a thief. But he had no choice. 11- Why do you think Mr. Brownlow stopped the police from arresting Oliver? ----» Because he felt that Oliver had no choice when he ran away from the workhouse. Mr. Brownlow wanted to help Oliver. 12- What can we say about the character of Brownlow? * (be) best known for : أحسن ما يعرف به * magazine stories : قصص المجلات * based on : مبنى على قائم على – * write about : يكتب عن * nationality : جنسية * ask for : يطلب شئ * (be) in trouble : فى مشكلة * go to prison : يدخل السجن * (be) in debt : مديون * at the edge of : على حافة * run away : يهرب * take )شخص( back : يعيد شخصا * hear of : يسمع عن * reason : سبب * punish : يعاقب * punishment (n) : عقاب * get into debt : يستدين * child workers : عمالة الأطفال * live happily : يعيش فى سعادة * earn money : يكسب مالا * complete a form : يملأ استمارة * take turn to:يأخذ دوره لكى * earn his living: يكسب قوته
  7. 7. - 00 - ----» He was kind - hearted, helpful and charitable. 13- In what way do you think Mr. Brownlow was rewarded for helping Oliver? ----» He lived happily with Oliver, Mrs. Maylie and Rose. 14- What is the moral of Oliver Twist? ----» Bad people are punished. Good people lead (live) a happy life. 15- How should society look after children like Oliver today? ----» They should put them in an orphanage, provide them with the knowledge and skills which enable them to earn their living hi the future. 16- How is life better for children now than it was hi the 19th century? ----» They are treated fairly thanks to human rights. Each child has the right to a name and a nationality, to know his or her parents and be cared for. Children have the right to education. Governments must make sure that children survive and develop. 17- Make a list of the jobs that you do hi your home. ----» Clean the flat, go shopping, help in washing up, washing clothes and in cooking. 18- Do you think you should be paid for this work? ----» No, I think I shouldn't be paid because I'm helping my parents who work hard to earn money for us. 19- If you say no, should you be rewarded in another way? ----» Parents can buy their children the things they like as a reward for their work. They can also invite them to spend an evening or a weekend outdoors. 20- Make a list of the jobs your parents do hi your home. ----» Going shopping, washing clothes, washing up, cleaning the flat, sweeping the floor, cooking food and helping their children in doing their homework. 21- Are they paid or rewarded for this work? ----» No, they aren't paid. They are rewarded by their children who love them and buy them presents on various occasions. 22- What kind of work do people do without being paid? ----» Working in charities and volunteering to help old people, disabled children, teaching the illiterate to read and write. 23- Why do you think they do this work? ----» To make other people feel happy and comfortable. 24- How do you think they are rewarded? ----» Some of them get prizes from social societies, others may even get the Nobel Prize for their social work. 25- What did you learn about England in the 19th century from reading about "Oliver Twist"? ----» In "Oliver Twist," Dickens shows the dark side of life in 19th century London. He describes the lives of child workers and life in the workhouse where very poor people were sent to live and work. 26- What do you think life was like for Fagin's boys? ----» It was a poor, miserable and unhappy life.
  8. 8. - 02 - 27-Do you think the rest of Oliver's life is going to be happy? Why? Why not? ----» I think the rest of Oliver's life is going to be happy as Mr. Brownlow is a kind – hearted man. He adopted Oliver and they went to live with Mrs. Maylie and Rose. 28- What was life like in Egypt hi the nineteenth century? ----» In the 19th century, Egypt was not a rich country. There were many poor people. Farmers did not own their land. They worked from dawn to sunset for very little money. Workers worked in factories for long hours and got low wages. Women were not working or taking part in public life. Child workers were badly paid. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Grammar The Past Simple & Continuous & Perfect Tenses زمن الماضى البسيط و المستمر و التام 1) The Past Simple Tense :زمن الماضى البسيط  التكوين : * هو التصريف الثانى للفعل . Ex: - She went to the cinema with her friends. - I played football with my brothers.  الاستخدام : * يستخدم زمن الماضى البسيط للتعبير عن الآتى : 6 يعبر عن حدث بدأ وانتهى فى الماضى . - Ex: - We saw the film two days ago. 0 يعبر عن أحداث قصة . - Ex: - Once, I saw an old poor man walking in the street. He asked me to ……… 2 للتعبير عن عادة أو موقف فى الماضى . - Ex: - When I was young, I played football everyday. Note The Following * عند إستخدام ( used to ) فى جملة بها ( when ) .... تدخل used to على الجملة الثانية التى لا يوجد بها when ثم يأتى بعدها المصدر . Ex: * When he was young, he walked to school everyday. ( used to )  When he was young, he used to walk to school everyday. * من الممكن أيضا للتعبير عن عادة إستخدام got into the habit of + ( v + ing ) was in the habit of + ( v + ing ) Ex: * When he was young, he walked to school everyday. ( in the habit of )  When he was young, he was ( got ) in the habit of walking to school everyday.
  9. 9. - 02 -  الكلمات الدالة على زمن الماضى البسيط : once & once upon a time & one day & yesterday ago & last & in the past & in the ancient times in + ) تاريخ ( & from + ) تاريخ ( + to + ) تاريخ ( ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2) The Past Continuous Tense : زمن الماضى المستمر  التكوين : * يتكون من : ( was / were ) + ( v + ing )  الكلمات الدالة على زمن الماضى المستمر : ( While & As & Just as & When & all + فترة زمنية ماضية ) Exs: * I was lying on the beach all day yesterday. * While he was eating, my mother called him. While As ) ماضى مستمر ( ) ماضى بسيط ( Just as while ) ماضى بسيط ( as ) ماضى مستمر ( just as * تستخدم هذه القاعدة عندما يكون هناك حدث قصير قطع حدث طويل . Exs: - While he was playing, he fell down. - The phone rang while he was watching the film. While As ) ماضى مستمر ( ) ماضى مستمر ( Just as while ) ماضى مستمر ( as ) ماضى مستمر ( just as * تستخدم هذه القاعدة عندما يقع الحدثان فى وقت واحد ) أى لم يقطع أحدهم الآخر ( . Exs: - While she was reading a story, they were watching TV. - She was talking on her mobile phone while she was driving. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Note The Following * إذا لم يأتى بعد ( while ) فاعل --------  يأتى بعدها ( v + ing ) .
  10. 10. - 02 - Ex: - While eating, the phone rang. - While running, he fell down. * يأتى بعد ( During ) ... اسم . During + ( Noun ) + ) ماضى بسيط ( Ex: - During my visit to Alex, I saw Nadia. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- * عند التحويل من ( During ) إلى ( While ) ... نتبع الخطوات التالية : 6 يحول ضمير الملكية إلى ضمير فاعل . - ضمائر الملكية ضمائر الفاعل My & His & Her & Its Our & Their & Your I & He & She & It We & They & you لاحظ : إذا لم نجد فى الجملة ضمير ملكية ... نستعين بفاعل الجملة الأخرى . - 0 نضع - ( was / were ) . 2 نضع - ( v + ing ) من الاسم . Ex: * During my visit to Alex, I saw Nadia. ( While )  While I was visiting Alex, I saw Nadia. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- When ) ماضى بسيط ( ) ماضى مستمر ( ) ماضى مستمر ( When ) ماضى بسيط ( Ex: - When I ran into an old friend, I was walking down the street. - I was reading a story when my father arrived. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- * من الممكن أن تحل ( On ) محل ( When ) .... ويأتى بعدها v+ing ) OR( noun Ex: * When my father arrived, I was studying. ( On )  On my father’s arrival, I was studying. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Note The Following * لا يستخدم زمن الماضى المستمر مع الآتى : 6 الأحداث المتكررة فى الماضى . - Ex: - We visited our village three times last year. 0 المواقف الدائمة أو ذات المدى الطويل . - Ex: - When I was a child, I played tennis.
  11. 11. - 01 - لا يستخدم مع أفعال الحواس والشعور والادراك وأفعال أخرى . - * agree * contain * hope * dislike * realize * taste * assume * cost * know * love * regret * touch * believe * feel * like * own * resemble * belong to * hate * look * prefer * smell -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Past Perfect Tense زمن الماضى التام * يتكون من : Had + ( P.P. ) * الاستخدام : يستخدم زمن الماضى البسيط للتعبير عن حدثين حدثا فى الماضى ... أحدهما حدث قبل الآخر ... نضع الحدث - الأول فى زمن الماضى التام ... ونضع الحدث الثانى فى زمن الماضى البسيط . Note The Following After ( Past Perfect ) ( Past Simple ) As soon as ماضى تام ماضى بسيط Because ) حدث أول ( ) حدث ثانى ( ( Past Simple ) after ( Past Perfect ) ماضى بسيط as soon as ماضى تام ) حدث ثانى ( because ) حدث أول ( Exs: I had played the match, I went home. After - I had done my homework, I ironed my clothes. As soon as - we hadn’t done the homework. becauseteacher was angry The - I had come home. whenI had done my homework - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- When ( Past Simple ) ( Past Simple ) ماضى بسيط ماضى بسيط * تطبق هذه القاعدة : إذا تم الحدثان فى نفس الوقت ) أى بدون فاصل زمنى ( . - Ex: - When Ali saw the lion, he shouted for help. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  12. 12. - 01 - لاحظ : * من الممكن أن يأتى بعد ( when ) .... ) ماضى بسيط ( .... ) ماضى تام ( . * ومن الممكن أيضا أن يأتى بعد ( when ) .... ) ماضى تام ( .... ) ماضى بسيط ( . } ولكن يكون الإختلاف فى المعنى { Ex: * When the doctor arrived, the patient had died. ( The patient died before the doctor arrived) * When the doctor arrived, the patient died. ( The patient died the moment the doctor arrived ) لاحـــظ : * من الممكن أن يأتى بعد ( when ) ... ثلاثة أفعال ... نضع الحدث الأول فى زمن الماضى التام ... والحدثين الآخرين فى زمن الماضى البسيط . Ex: - When she returned home she found out that someone had stolen her jewellery. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Before ( Past Simple ) ( Past Perfect ) By the time ) ماضى بسيط ( )ماضى تام ( ( Past Perfect ) before ( Past Simple ) )ماضى تام ( by the time ) ماضى بسيط ( Exs: - By the time I arrived at the cinema, the film had started. - The pupils had entered their classes by the time Ali arrived at school. - Before I took the medicine, I had had a meal. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ( Past Simple ‘negative’ ) till ( Past Perfect ) ) ماضى بسيط منفى ( ) ماضى تام ( ( didn’t ) + ) التصريف الأول ( until Exs: - I didn’t answer the question until I had understood it carefully. - She didn’t play the match till she had trained well. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ No sooner than Hardly + had + ) الفاعل ( + ( p.p. ) + …. + when + ) الفاعل ( + ) ماضى بسيط ( Scarcely ) حدث أول ( when ) حدث ثانى ( Exs: - No sooner had we finished our exams than we traveled to Alex. - Hardly had they known the news when they phoned me.
  13. 13. - 01 - no sooner than ) الفاعل ( + had + hardly + ( p.p.) + …. + when + ) الفاعل ( + ) ماضى بسيط ( scarcely when Ex: - He had no sooner left the house than it began to rain. - He had hardly left the house when it began to rain. Note The Following * يأتى بعد ( After ) أو ( Before )  ( v + ing ) .... إذا لم يأتى بعدهم فاعل . Exs: * After he had played the match, he went home. ( playing )  After playing the match, he went home. * Before he killed the man, he bought a big knife. ( Killing )  Before killing the man, he bought a big knife. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- * من الممكن أن تحل ( Having ) بدلا من ( After ) ... وتكون القاعدة كالآتى : Having + ( p.p. ) + …….. + ) فاعل ( + ) ماضى بسيط ( Ex: * After he had finished his work, he went out. ( Having )  Having finished his work, he went home. --------------------------------------------------------- Immediately on + ( V + ing ) / ( Noun ) Ex: * He had hardly arrived when the phone rang. ( Immediately )  Immediately on his arrival, the phone rang. -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  14. 14. - 01 -

×