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"Computational Support for Functionality Selection in Interaction Design" CHI 2018 talk

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Talk by Andreas Karrenbauer / Max Planck Institute for Informatics. Presented at the CHI conference (chi2018.acm.org) by Andreas Karrenbauer / Max Planck. In collaboration with Anna Maria Feit, Antti Oulasvita, and Perttu Lähteenlahti

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"Computational Support for Functionality Selection in Interaction Design" CHI 2018 talk

  1. 1. Computational Support for Functionality Selection in Interaction Design Andreas Karrenbauer joint work with Antti Oulasvirta Anna Feit Perttu L¨ahteenlahti http://userinterfaces.aalto.fi/functionality/
  2. 2. Introduction 2
  3. 3. Introduction 100 functionalities 1,267,650,600,228,229,401,496,703,205,375 combinations 2
  4. 4. Introduction 100 functionalities 1,267,650,600,228,229,401,496,703,205,375 combinations 1364 functionalities > 4 · 10410 combinations 2
  5. 5. Paper outline New explorative optimization method to support early stage design Choice of functionality for a service or application 3
  6. 6. Paper outline New explorative optimization method to support early stage design Choice of functionality for a service or application Helps designers to explore design options more broadly, resolve conflicts, and see new opportunities. 3
  7. 7. Paper outline New explorative optimization method to support early stage design Choice of functionality for a service or application Helps designers to explore design options more broadly, resolve conflicts, and see new opportunities. Mathematical integer optimization formulation based on empirical study of designers. 3
  8. 8. Interaction Design and Design Thinking Interaction design creates, shapes, and decides use-oriented qualities (structural, functional, ethical, and asthetic) of a digital artefact. [L¨ogren & Stolterman 2004] Complexity emerges within activities of designing, experienced through acts of reflection, decision, and judgment. [Goodman et al. 2011] Designer continuously engage in refining the objectives and constraints of a design. [Dorst & Cross 2001] 4
  9. 9. Design Process 5
  10. 10. Challenges for computational methods Task ill-defined, hard-to-formalize, underdetermined, subjective, tacit, dynamic 6
  11. 11. Challenges for computational methods Task ill-defined, hard-to-formalize, underdetermined, subjective, tacit, dynamic Designers continuously refine objectives and constraints iterative, selective, corrective user profiles, use cases, storyboards, user requirements, scenarios sketching, wireframing, rapid prototyping 6
  12. 12. Challenges for computational methods Task ill-defined, hard-to-formalize, underdetermined, subjective, tacit, dynamic Designers continuously refine objectives and constraints iterative, selective, corrective user profiles, use cases, storyboards, user requirements, scenarios sketching, wireframing, rapid prototyping Stakeholders teams with different roles and dynamics business and technical aspects challenge to address all objectives, fit their practices 6
  13. 13. Contribution Overview Efficient mathematical model based on literature and empirical prestudy with designers to elicit objectives exploits the power of integer optimization 7
  14. 14. Contribution Overview Efficient mathematical model based on literature and empirical prestudy with designers to elicit objectives exploits the power of integer optimization Explorative approach via sampling allows for differentiation among users is robust to uncertainty controllable and predictable 7
  15. 15. Contribution Overview Efficient mathematical model based on literature and empirical prestudy with designers to elicit objectives exploits the power of integer optimization Explorative approach via sampling allows for differentiation among users is robust to uncertainty controllable and predictable Solution mining delivers diverse designs explores alternatives reveals surprising designs finds a best compromise identifies opportunities 7
  16. 16. Functionality Selection Task Given a set of functionalities V , find the best selection S ⊆ V . 8
  17. 17. Functionality Selection Task Given a set of functionalities V , find the best selection S ⊆ V . Objective: Goodness G = ωU U + ωSS + ωEE + ωP P 8
  18. 18. Functionality Selection Task Given a set of functionalities V , find the best selection S ⊆ V . Objective: Goodness G = ωU U + ωSS + ωEE + ωP P usability U e.g., U = v∈S   w∈S uvw + w∈S uv ¯w   8
  19. 19. Functionality Selection Task Given a set of functionalities V , find the best selection S ⊆ V . Objective: Goodness G = ωU U + ωSS + ωEE + ωP P usability U e.g., U = v∈S   w∈S uvw + w∈S uv ¯w   satisfaction S e.g., S = v∈S sv 8
  20. 20. Functionality Selection Task Given a set of functionalities V , find the best selection S ⊆ V . Objective: Goodness G = ωU U + ωSS + ωEE + ωP P usability U e.g., U = v∈S   w∈S uvw + w∈S uv ¯w   satisfaction S e.g., S = v∈S sv ease of use E e.g., E = v∈S rv 8
  21. 21. Functionality Selection Task Given a set of functionalities V , find the best selection S ⊆ V . Objective: Goodness G = ωU U + ωSS + ωEE + ωP P usability U e.g., U = v∈S   w∈S uvw + w∈S uv ¯w   profitability P e.g., P = v∈S pv = v∈S (vv − cv) satisfaction S e.g., S = v∈S sv ease of use E e.g., E = v∈S rv 8
  22. 22. Integer Optimization max{cT x : x ∈ P ∩ Zn } where P := {x ∈ Rn : Ax ≤ b} Benefits P c ¯x x∗ 9
  23. 23. Integer Optimization max{cT x : x ∈ P ∩ Zn } where P := {x ∈ Rn : Ax ≤ b} Benefits P c ¯x x∗ 1. Great modeling power 2. Efficient general purpose solvers 9
  24. 24. Integer Optimization max{cT x : x ∈ P ∩ Zn } where P := {x ∈ Rn : Ax ≤ b} Benefits time objective global optimum 1. Great modeling power 2. Efficient general purpose solvers 3. Exact Methods finding the global optimum in finite time 9
  25. 25. Integer Optimization max{cT x : x ∈ P ∩ Zn } where P := {x ∈ Rn : Ax ≤ b} Benefits time objective global optimum 1. Great modeling power 2. Efficient general purpose solvers 3. Exact Methods finding the global optimum in finite time 4. Rigorous bounds for the optimum even when interrupted prematurely 9
  26. 26. Integer Optimization max{cT x : x ∈ P ∩ Zn } where P := {x ∈ Rn : Ax ≤ b} Benefits time objective global optimum injected by other method 1. Great modeling power 2. Efficient general purpose solvers 3. Exact Methods finding the global optimum in finite time 4. Rigorous bounds for the optimum even when interrupted prematurely 5. Complementary to other methods (e.g., Simulated Annealing) 9
  27. 27. Integer Optimization max{cT x : x ∈ P ∩ Zn } where P := {x ∈ Rn : Ax ≤ b} Benefits time objective global optimum injected by other method 1. Great modeling power 2. Efficient general purpose solvers 3. Exact Methods finding the global optimum in finite time 4. Rigorous bounds for the optimum even when interrupted prematurely 5. Complementary to other methods (e.g., Simulated Annealing) 6. Practical 9
  28. 28. Walkthrough 10
  29. 29. Explorative optimization and visualizations inputs from designers are noisy sampling of i instances, e.g., 104 ≤ i ≤ 105 mining of k diverse and one robust solution 11
  30. 30. Example outputs (note taking app with up to 106 functionalities) R Usefulness Satisfaction Ease of use Profitability 66 functionalities Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_color Find Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_colorFind Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom File creation and organization Link and share Printing Table Structural elements Input Text style options Page layout Controls View A Usefulness Satisfaction Ease of use Profitability 76 functionalities Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_color Find Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_colorFind Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom File creation and organization Link and share Printing Table Structural elements Input Text style options Page layout Controls View B Usefulness Satisfaction Ease of use Profitability 14 functionalities Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_color Find Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_colorFind Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom File creation and organization Link and share Printing Table Structural elements Input Text style options Page layout Controls View 12
  31. 31. Example outputs (note taking app with up to 106 functionalities) C Usefulness Satisfaction Ease of use Profitability 45 functionalities Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_color Find Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_colorFind Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom File creation and organization Link and share Printing Table Structural elements Input Text style options Page layout Controls View D Usefulness Satisfaction Ease of use Profitability 106 functionalities Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_color Find Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_colorFind Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom File creation and organization Link and share Printing Table Structural elements Input Text style options Page layout Controls View E Usefulness Satisfaction Ease of use Profitability 62 functionalities Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_color Find Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom Add_column_to_table Add_row_to_table Align_text Bullet_size Bullet_type Bullets Cell_color Cell_margins Change_encoding Change_number_size Change_start_number Character_spacing Choose_printer Close Close_all_windows Column_size Compare_documents Copy Create_notebook Create_table Cut Delete_element Delete_file Delete_notebook Draw_freehand Draw_shape Exit Export Fill_colorFind Font_color Font_size Full_screen Handwriting_recognition Indent Insert_blank_page Insert_date_and_time Insert_horizontal_line Insert_link Insert_picture Insert_video Line_color Line_number_color Line_number_continuation Line_number_font Line_number_size Line_numbers Line_spacing Line_style Line_wrap Link_to_calendar_entry Margins Mark_all_text Mark_text Merge_cells Move_document_to_other_view Move_note_to_notebook New Number_of_copies Number_style Numbering Open Open_containing_folder Orientation Page_break Page_size Paragraph_spacing Paste Print_current_page Print_custom_range Print_document Print_multiple_pages_per_sheet Print_selection Printer_settings Publish_online Put_on_home_screen Recently_opened Record_audio Redo Remove_column_from_table Remove_row_from_table Rename Rename_notebook Replace Row_size Save Save_all_windows Search_printer Share Show_grid Show_ruler Sort_elements Spell_check Split_cell Split_view Synchronize_scrolling Table_border Text_alignment_in_table Text_background_color Text_columns Text_font Text_style Type_text Undo Voice_recognition Zoom File creation and organization Link and share Printing Table Structural elements Input Text style options Page layout Controls View 12
  32. 32. Controlled evaluation with Designers Phase 1 Design Functionality evaluation Phase 2 Functionality Design evaluation Phase 3 Ranking of Designs (i) only own (ii) only Optimizer’s (iii) both together 13
  33. 33. Controlled evaluation with Designers Phase 1 Design Functionality evaluation Phase 2 Functionality Design evaluation Phase 3 Ranking of Designs (i) only own (ii) only Optimizer’s (iii) both together Results Optimizer was among top 3 in 9 out of 11 cases. Optimizer was ranked 1st in 6 cases. Optimizer was not appreciated in only 2 cases. Optimizer showed alternative ways to think about the problem. 13
  34. 34. Deployment in a Company: Service Design Online Platform for recording TV channels and video on demand 79 existing functionalities 84 new functionalities 14
  35. 35. Deployment in a Company: Service Design Online Platform for recording TV channels and video on demand 79 existing functionalities 84 new functionalities Survey return 8/15 1 designer, 1 business manager, 3 developpers, 3 technical product owners rated between 1 and 5 aspects each where 7 rated usefulness, 6 satisfaction, 4 ease of use, 6 satisfaction, 4 business value, 2 costs 14
  36. 36. Deployment in a Company: Service Design Online Platform for recording TV channels and video on demand 79 existing functionalities 84 new functionalities Survey return 8/15 1 designer, 1 business manager, 3 developpers, 3 technical product owners rated between 1 and 5 aspects each where 7 rated usefulness, 6 satisfaction, 4 ease of use, 6 satisfaction, 4 business value, 2 costs Workshop assesment of 7 optimized designs high interest in minimalistic design general feedback: tedious rating of functionalities tool for early stage development 14
  37. 37. Summary Take-home messages Identified and defiend a hard combinatorial problem in early-stage design Proposed an efficient mathematical definition that allows exploration and is compatible with design practice Integer programming is suitable for design thanks to natural representation of the decision problem 15
  38. 38. Summary Take-home messages Identified and defiend a hard combinatorial problem in early-stage design Proposed an efficient mathematical definition that allows exploration and is compatible with design practice Integer programming is suitable for design thanks to natural representation of the decision problem http://userinterfaces.aalto.fi/functionality/ 15
  39. 39. Summary Take-home messages Identified and defiend a hard combinatorial problem in early-stage design Proposed an efficient mathematical definition that allows exploration and is compatible with design practice Integer programming is suitable for design thanks to natural representation of the decision problem Thank you for your attention! http://userinterfaces.aalto.fi/functionality/ 15

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