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The United States Mission to the United Nations &
Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual ...
One in Six?
Percentage
Prevalence of child physical abuse &
child sexual abuse by sex (Non conflict)
UNICEF EAPRO (2012),
Systematic R...
“the feminisation of
victimisation”
(Fran Sepler, 1990)
(Women & Girls = ‘victims’
Men & Boys = ‘perpetrators’)
KEY ISSUES & CHALLENGES
• Invisibility & lack of survivors voices
• Resistance to acknowledging the issue
• Dealing with f...
• Existing and dominant perceptions of males
• Concerns and difficulties engaging with males
• Understanding boys, men, ma...
Long term considerations
• Prevention, Protection & development of a
range of sensitive supports specifically
designed for...
• Research (e.g. Prevention, Resilience,
What works?)
• Avoiding ‘top down’, ‘one size fits all’
approaches, promoting loc...
Can we match the
courage of survivors
with the determination
to do what it takes?
Clip from Al Jazeera (8 April 2013)
Sexual Violence against Men &
Boys in Conflict situations
Is it a real issue?
Sexual Violence Against Men As A Global Phenomenon
• Data Suggest Conflict-Related Sexual Violence Against Men is Widespre...
Work of Lynn Lawry et al (JAMA, August 2008) suggests that we need to
look not just at civilian population, but also (part...
The Spaces where Sexual Violence takes place
Torture Cells
Prisons
Military Camps & Training centres
HOMES
The Forms Sexual Violence Against Men can take
In addition to anal rape, victims/survivors also mention:
-being gang-raped...
The Impacts of Sexual Violence on Men and Boys – the Five „P‟s
Physical
Psychological
Psycho-sexual (NB sex worker narrati...
What differentiates Sexual Violence on Men and Boys from
Sexual Violence against Women and Girls?
Sexual Violence
In Conflict
Physical Damage (e.g. Fistula)
Infection (e.g. STIs, HIV)
Depression
Family
issues
Partner/Hus...
Sexual Violence
In Conflict
Physical Damage (e.g. Fissures)
Castration
Infection (e.g. STIs, HIV)
Depression
Family
issues...
What differentiates
Sexual Violence on Men and Boys during Conflict
from
Sexual Abuse of Boys and Men in ‘peace’time?
Conf...
Is it worth responding to Sexual Violence Against
Men & Boys in Conflict/Post-Conflict/Exile
settings? Or does it undermin...
Political Resistance:
nationhood built through
idealisation of militarised
masculinity: No states want
to admit their own ...
Challenges
Silences: Male victims are disproportionately silenced… by
themselves, by their communities, their governments,...
Building a Wall Against
Domestic Violence by properly addressing
Sexual Violence
Surgical Repair
Diagnosis & Treatment(Cou...
South-South Institute Poster
Some questions for Group Discussion:
- Which changes are we are aware of in recent years in working
on this set of issues?...
Defining the scope & challenges of Male-Directed Sexual Violence
Defining the scope & challenges of Male-Directed Sexual Violence
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Defining the scope & challenges of Male-Directed Sexual Violence

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During a UN-sponsored seminar on sexual violence against men and boys in conflict Dr. Chris Dolan and Alastair Hilton highlight the challenges of determining the scope of male-directed sexual violence in conflict. Chris Dolan is the director of the Refugee Law Project in Uganda. Alastair Hilton is a founder of First Step Cambodia, an NGO dedicated to providing services to male survivors of sexual violence and their supporters.

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Defining the scope & challenges of Male-Directed Sexual Violence

  1. 1. The United States Mission to the United Nations & Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict “Male-Directed Sexual Violence: Increasing Understanding for a Better Response” New York, 25th & 26th July 2013 Defining the Scope & Challenges Dr. Chris Dolan – Refugee Law Project, Uganda Alastair Hilton - First Step Cambodia
  2. 2. One in Six?
  3. 3. Percentage Prevalence of child physical abuse & child sexual abuse by sex (Non conflict) UNICEF EAPRO (2012), Systematic Review of Child Maltreatment
  4. 4. “the feminisation of victimisation” (Fran Sepler, 1990) (Women & Girls = ‘victims’ Men & Boys = ‘perpetrators’)
  5. 5. KEY ISSUES & CHALLENGES • Invisibility & lack of survivors voices • Resistance to acknowledging the issue • Dealing with fears that this will reduce commitment and resources to women & girls • Lack of comprehensive research and understanding (Needs, effective interventions) • No knowledge of peace time abuse of males • Lack of inclusion & analysis – Social & Legal frameworks
  6. 6. • Existing and dominant perceptions of males • Concerns and difficulties engaging with males • Understanding boys, men, masculinities & help seeking behaviours • Problems with engagement and empathy • Training, Resources & Support structures • Lack of choices, services and safe spaces • Discrimination & homophobia • Few examples of meaningful support that meets the needs of men and boys
  7. 7. Long term considerations • Prevention, Protection & development of a range of sensitive supports specifically designed for males of different ages • Outcomes from this conference... across and within UN family & International Community • Educating the ‘International Community’ Donors, Governments, stake holders • Engage those working with refugees & asylum seekers overseas (e.g. Australia, UK) • Consideration of the impact of sexual violence – long term consequences
  8. 8. • Research (e.g. Prevention, Resilience, What works?) • Avoiding ‘top down’, ‘one size fits all’ approaches, promoting local knowledge, experiences, perspectives & strengths • Addressing our complicity in perpetuating the ‘silence’ that surrounds this issue
  9. 9. Can we match the courage of survivors with the determination to do what it takes?
  10. 10. Clip from Al Jazeera (8 April 2013)
  11. 11. Sexual Violence against Men & Boys in Conflict situations Is it a real issue?
  12. 12. Sexual Violence Against Men As A Global Phenomenon • Data Suggest Conflict-Related Sexual Violence Against Men is Widespread • Conflict-related sexual violence against men has been documented in over 25 conflicts in the past decade alone. Yet the problem is largely ignored. In 2002, only 3% of NGOs working in the area of “war rape and other forms of sexual violence” mentioned male victims. e.g. ‘We Will Teach You a Lesson’ Sexual Violence against Tamils by Sri Lankan Security Forces – HRW 2012 June 23, 2013 In Debate Over Military Sexual Assault, Men Are Overlooked Victims By JAMES DAO Sexual assault has emerged as one of the defining issues for the military this year. Reports of assaults are up, as are questions about whether commanders have taken the problem seriously. Bills to toughen penalties and prosecution have been introduced in Congress. But in a debate that has focused largely on women, this fact is often overlooked: the majority of service members who are sexually assaulted each year are men. In its latest report on sexual assault, the Pentagon estimated that 26,000 service members experienced unwanted sexual contact in 2012, up from 19,000 in 2010. Of those cases, the Pentagon says, 53 percent involved attacks on men, mostly by other men.
  13. 13. Work of Lynn Lawry et al (JAMA, August 2008) suggests that we need to look not just at civilian population, but also (particularly) at former combatants: In Liberia they found that while 9.2% of civilian women had experienced sexual violence during conflict, this rose to 42.3% of female combatants, and while 7.4% of male civilians had experienced sexual violence during conflict, this rose to 32.6% of male combatants: Need to shed assumptions about combatants as perpetrators only Where are we looking? Initial results from comprehensive screening of refugees presenting at RLP offices suggest that prevalence amongst male refugees is much higher than anticipated: Refugee populations should be key sites for investigation and intervention Also, sexual exploitation while refugees; i.e. both a cause of becoming a refugee, and an effect of being one
  14. 14. The Spaces where Sexual Violence takes place Torture Cells Prisons Military Camps & Training centres HOMES
  15. 15. The Forms Sexual Violence Against Men can take In addition to anal rape, victims/survivors also mention: -being gang-raped by captors -having ropes tied to the genitalia and being pulled around by this rope -linking two men using ropes tied to their genitalia and making them walk in opposite directions -being made to dig holes in the ground, or in trees, and then to rub themselves in that hole to the point of ejaculation -being forced to have anal or oral sex with fellow detainees, or with brothers, or fathers -being forced into sexual acts while being watched by their own children and spouses -being used as a mattress while soldiers rape their family members on top of them -being held for lengthy periods of time as sexual slaves -having electric wires attached to the genitalia We need to stop thinking that it is only or all about anal rapeWe need to be aware of direct and “indirect” (some of)
  16. 16. The Impacts of Sexual Violence on Men and Boys – the Five „P‟s Physical Psychological Psycho-sexual (NB sex worker narratives) Psycho-Social: Family, Community, Inability to Work Political
  17. 17. What differentiates Sexual Violence on Men and Boys from Sexual Violence against Women and Girls?
  18. 18. Sexual Violence In Conflict Physical Damage (e.g. Fistula) Infection (e.g. STIs, HIV) Depression Family issues Partner/Husband Children Parents/Siblings “Indirect” Trauma Community Shaming Woman as ‘useless’: “Whore” Beating Distancing/ Neglect Eviction Forced Relations Child of rape Domestic Violence in Peace
  19. 19. Sexual Violence In Conflict Physical Damage (e.g. Fissures) Castration Infection (e.g. STIs, HIV) Depression Family issues Partner/Wife Children Parents/Siblings “Indirect” Trauma Community Shaming Man as ‘useless’: “Gay”(not earning, not protecting) Beating (perp/victim) Distancing/ Neglect Abandonment Social Humiliation No respect from children No attention to children Domestic Violence in Peace Impotence Gender Challenge - Emasculation Sexuality Challenge “Homosexual” ECONOMIC Challenge – physical sequelae
  20. 20. What differentiates Sexual Violence on Men and Boys during Conflict from Sexual Abuse of Boys and Men in ‘peace’time? Conflict “Peace” Time Public Common Pain, Suffering Private/Secret psycho-sexually & Socially more mature psycho-sexually & socially immature Enemy Perpetrator „Friendly‟ Abuser (friend, family member, respected authority figure, etc
  21. 21. Is it worth responding to Sexual Violence Against Men & Boys in Conflict/Post-Conflict/Exile settings? Or does it undermine existing important agendas of working on Violence Against Women & Girls? If even one woman is raped, that is too many – but if only one man is raped, it‟s not really relevant? We should respond to it on principle: -As human suffering, with a concomitant right to repair We should respond to it from an instrumental perspective: -As a source of transgenerational trauma… and a source of social and political dysfunction
  22. 22. Political Resistance: nationhood built through idealisation of militarised masculinity: No states want to admit their own men were raped, no states want to admit their own soldiers were perpetrators political Resistance: institutions built through asserting a monopoly on victimisation Challenges & Key Steps
  23. 23. Challenges Silences: Male victims are disproportionately silenced… by themselves, by their communities, their governments, by service providers, by media (nb independent re SSI) Scale: if silence is broken, demand far outstrips supply (nb programming gaps tomorrow) Substantive content of intervention: 1) Referral Systems 2) „so you‟ve dealt with our bodies – now what about our minds?‟ (and social relations, and perpetrator accountability?) Shifting from Gender-exclusive to Gender-Inclusive Programming 1) Funding 2) Skills-sets Break Silence – this meeting is an important step Motivate for more resources, not a share of existing Respond to the whole person – including how he is situated in society Reform training of -Humanitarian workers -Lawyers -Medical personnel -Social Workers -Media -Nb Gender Inclusive does not necessarily mean everyone in the same space Document the different dimensions and the scale of the issue Expanding the geographical and temporal locus of intervention, from conflict situations to post- conflict and exile settings: UNDP & UNHCR as critical partners Key Steps
  24. 24. Building a Wall Against Domestic Violence by properly addressing Sexual Violence Surgical Repair Diagnosis & Treatment(Counseling) Masculinities (re) Education Sexuality (re) Education Couple & Family CounsellingFighting Legal Impunity Changes in Medical Training IGAs for Survivors Structural Changes… New referral pathwaysMessaging to Men Refresh „Gender‟
  25. 25. South-South Institute Poster
  26. 26. Some questions for Group Discussion: - Which changes are we are aware of in recent years in working on this set of issues? - Which are the primary obstacles we encounter? - Do we think it is possible/advisable to see to make the argument for more resources rather than sharing existing ones? - What are the most important roles and strengths of UN, Civil Society, Gov‟t, Academia?

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