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Programming gaps in Male-Directed sexual violence Part 2


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During a UN-sponsored seminar on sexual violence against men and boys in conflict Luis Mora of UNFPA discussed some of the programming gaps in treating male survivors of conflict-related sexual violence.

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Programming gaps in Male-Directed sexual violence Part 2

  1. 1. Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict: Engaging Men and Boys Male-Directed Sexual Violence: Increasing Understanding for a Better Response (New York, 25-26 July 2013)
  2. 2. The ICPD Programme of Action (1994) has promoted a history of engaging men and boys: • In support of women’s rights, including their right to health services • To prevent GBV and HIV • As partners in sexual and reproductive health • As change agents, especially young men and boys • As clients of SRH services and information Why Engage Men and Boys?
  3. 3. • Intimate partners, fathers, other male family members • Young men and adolescent boys • Policymakers and other decision makers • Religious and traditional leaders • Uniformed service members, including police and military personnel Which Men and Boys?
  4. 4. • Deeply ingrained gender and social norms, and ideas about manhood (including male sexuality) prevent men from taking responsibility and becoming more involved in their own and their partners’ reproductive health. • Addressing harmful norms, values and behaviors necessitate thinking of gender as relational and interconnected. • Men have different but important needs for SRH care and suffer directly and indirectly from GBV. Guiding Principles and What We Know
  5. 5. • Research on male sexuality and reproduction. • Data collection and analysis through DHS, etc. • Mobilizing male activists to end violence against women in Kenya, Uganda, and India. • Developing intervention models to address men and boys in SRH, HIV and GBV prevention. • Working with youth and adolescent males on healthy versions of manhood and masculinity including as a contribution to ending violence in numerous countries • Engaging uniformed services on SRH issues, HIV and GBV prevention in 25 countries Examples of Work on Engaging Men and Boy
  6. 6. • Sexual and reproductive health and rights and GBV still seen as a “woman’s issue” • Fear and perception among some that scarce resources will detract focus and funding from women and girls’ programming • Initiatives are not sustainable and lack institutionalization • “Dichotomization” of the issue: women vs. men, including overt or inadvertent “hierarchization” of the problem Challenges
  7. 7. UNFPA & MenEngage – Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict: Engaging Men and Boys •The context of sexual violence in conflict, and in both war and peace. •The varied roles of men and boys as perpetrators, survivors, witnesses, peacekeepers, police and soldiers, service providers and change makers. •Outlines a range of policy and programmatic proposals focused on engaging men.
  8. 8. Some estimates concerning conflict- related sexual violence: •Globally, sexual violence against women, men, adolescents and children has been reported in 51 countries that have experienced conflict within the last 25 years •This gives a sense of how common it is a component or consequence of conflict (Bastick, Grimm, & and Kunz, 2006).
  9. 9. Some estimates concerning conflict- related sexual violence: •One of the most rigorous studies of sexual violence in the eastern DRC shows the magnitude of this violence against both males and females. •This careful study suggests that in an area with 5 million people, 1.3 million women and 0.76 million men are survivors of sexual violence, although this includes pre-, during- and post-conflict data (Johnson et al., 2010, p. 561).
  10. 10. Varied roles that men and boys can play Men as perpetrators •Sexual violence can be consciously used by political and military commanders with diverse objectives •Sexual violence can also be opportunistic carried out by individuals •Perpetrators can even be peacekeepers, aid workers, and other security and outside actors who enter into conflict or post-conflict settings to help those affected.
  11. 11. Varied roles that men and boys can play Men as witnesses •Sexual violence in the context of conflict is nearly always carried out in the presence of others •Little is known about the psychological impact on men and boys of being made to watch sexual violence against a loved one in the context of conflict.
  12. 12. Varied roles that men and boys can play Men as survivors/victims •Within the last decade, sexual violence against men and boys (rape, sexual torture, genital mutilation, sexual humiliation, sexual enslavement, forcing a man to commit incest or rape) has been reported in at least 25 conflict settings •Although the numbers are less than those concerning sexual violence against women and girls, sexual violence against men and boys is even more underreported
  13. 13. Varied roles that men and boys can play Men as agents of change • Men should play a positive role in changing attitudes towards female and male survivors of sexual violence •Some men are in particularly advantageous positions to be agents including soldiers, police and peacekeepers in terms of helping rebuild society, protecting vulnerable citizens •Aid workers, service providers and those in medical professions play a direct role as agents of change in the course of their daily work, and their social standing can also give them a powerful voice in their communities
  14. 14. Programmatic Implications (I) •Addressing the multidimensional issue of sexual violence against any group in conflict and post-conflict settings is complex and challenging. •Exploring and addressing perceptions of manhood, masculinity, male sexuality and effects on perpetration of violence in fragile contexts is key for effective programme interventions. •Increase data on men’s experiences and use of GBV in conflict, and explore existing/emerging sets of programme responses to draw on. •Focus on primary prevention among young people in more stable, conflict-affected and fragile contexts.
  15. 15. Programmatic Implications (II) •Effective prevention and response will require long- term, comprehensive and coordinated efforts by multiple stakeholders. •Integrate SRH services for men within existing services including via broader implementation of the MISP in conflict-affected contexts. •Scale up work with uniformed services, building on long institutional history and experience and via partnerships within UN Action network. •Explore and seek opportunities for changing negative gender norms in the context of the social upheaval of conflict
  16. 16. Thank you for your attention!