Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Violence : knowing it to fight it

274 views

Published on

Slideshows about nonviolence and nonviolent resolution of conflicts, economic alternatives, ecology, social change, spirituality : www.irnc.org , Slideshows in english

Concepts : conflict, combativeness, struggle, force, violence, non-violence
Classification of violences
Actors of a violent relation
Culture of violence
Representations of violence
Counter-violence
Mass human destruction, barbary
Delegetimising violence
Realising alternatives to violence.


Published in: Education
  • Penis Enlargement and Enhancement Techniques: What REALLY Works?!? ♣♣♣ http://t.cn/Ai88iYkP
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Discover A Simple Holistic System For Curing Acne Once And For All using 100% Guaranteed All-Natural Method. Click Here  http://ishbv.com/buk028959/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • New Gender Study 74% Of Men Are More Attracted To Women Who Do This One Thing, Read More ◆◆◆ https://tinyurl.com/y4zgtag4
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Violence : knowing it to fight it

  1. 1. Violence : Knowing it to fight it Étienne Godinot Translation : Claudia McKenny Engström 02.02.2015
  2. 2. Violence : Knowing it to fight it Contents - Clarifying concepts: conflict, combativeness, struggle, force, violence - Definition of violence. Violences rather than Violence. Malfunction of the conflict. When do we know there is violence ? What are the possible reactions to violence ? - Violence, a human phenomena. - Classification of Violences: 1/ by the means used; 2/ by circumstance; 3/ by the number of implicated actors; 4/ political violence; 5/ non-intentional violence - Actors of the violent relation (author, victim, third party, law). Words to diminish violence. - The cause of violence: 1/ The perversion of man’s combativeness; 2/ Fear; 3/ Imitation; 4/ Submission to authority; 5/ Antidemocratic ideologies; 6/ Contexts of violence; 7/ Alcohol and drugs; 8/ Culture of violence.
  3. 3. Violence : Knowing it to fight it Contents (2) - Representations of violence: Violence perceived as 1/ natural; 2/ affirmation of the subject; 3/ system of domination; 4/ Act of transgression; 5/ language - Violence as means of action. 1/ against injustice; 2/ against violence within democracies. - Human mass destructions. The psycho-sociological roots of inhumanity. - Media and violence. - Delegitimize violence. Implementing alternatives to violence. Promoting a culture of nonviolence.
  4. 4. Violence : Knowing it to fight it Sources - Jean-Marie Muller, Dictionnaire de la non-violence, Le Relié, 2005 - Jacques Sémelin, Discourse on nonviolence - IFMAN, fév. 2001 - Alexandre Adler, Les racines psychologiques de la barbarie, review Psychologies, may 1999 - IFMAN (Violence, The actors of violent relations, When is there violence ?, etc.) - Review Sciences humaines, nr 89, dec. 1998
  5. 5. Clarifying a few concepts * 1- The conflit The conflict, latent or open, stems from a tension, a disagreement, a difference. Entering in conflict is to affirm oneself before another, dare to say “no”, seeking recognition of ones rights. Its also means releasing oneself from powerlessness, complaint or submission. It means avoiding the unsaid, which create frustration and unease. It means allowing oneself to express on the needs, aspirations, interests, values and points of view of all, on the tensions in the group. It means allowing suffering to exteriorise rather persist in resentment, hatred and violence. * The first part on “Concepts” incorporates the developments contained in the introductory slides “What is nonviolence ?”.
  6. 6. Clarifying a few concepts The conflit Accepting conflict is accepting to change, inventing and creating thanks to someone else who is different to me, but who potentially has similar desires to mine. Conflicts are sign of life, exchange, confrontation, Democracy. To combat violence, conflict needs to be rehabilitated, only resolved in the respect of others. Conflicts don’t have to be destructive: they can be source of progress, of better interpersonal relations, of a better collective organisation. Conflict builds life when it is animated by dialogue, negotiation and imagination as dynamics of collective life.
  7. 7. Clarifying a few concepts The conflict It is by learning to manage daily small conflicts that we can learn how to handle bigger ones : - By managing minor conflicts in a couple, man and wife can avoid divorcing. - By regularly managing conflicts in a classroom, youth clubs or sports clubs, we avoid incivility at school or the uprising of entire neighbourhoods. - By taking into account the needs of an identity, recognition, natural resources or the territory of a people, we can avoid wars.
  8. 8. Clarifying a few concepts The conflict Conflicts are more often than not, unavoidable, sometimes necessary, often useful, but always uncomfortable, tiring and painful. Even if it necessary, the conflict is not a normal way for people to interact, between individuals or groups. We can be worried of a couple who never argues, but also of a couple who is always in conflict… A conflict can destroy life if it is a confrontation of forces. It can degenerate into violence if respect is no longer the rule, if combativeness is not mastered, if anger is not controlled, if the different actors are trapped in a symmetrical escalation of words and gestures.
  9. 9. Clarifying a few concepts 2 - Combativness Combativeness is necessary to deal with conflicts. Combativeness is a strength in life and a necessity to affirm oneself before others, to confront without hedging, to overcome ones fear of acting. This is the positive aspect of aggressiveness (ad-gradi : walk towards), but it can also express itself in its perverse form: destructiveness, pathological, most of the time provoked by past sores. The first task of a nonviolent action will be to awaken the combativeness of those who suffer injustice. Photo : Martin Luther King calling to fight against racial segregation
  10. 10. Clarifying a few concepts 3 - The struggle The struggle is a confrontation, a fight to obtain respect of a right, concretisation of a demand, evolution of a law. Struggle for justice requires just and adjusted means, that is to say, nonviolent. “To want victory and not want to fight, I say that is to be badly behaved”, Charles Péguy (1873-1914).
  11. 11. Clarifying a few concepts 4 - Force (strenght, power) Force (or strenght, power) is a cause that provokes an effect or movement (a force of traction, of an acid, the strenght of an argument, the power of the soul, etc.). Force is what obliges the adversary to negotiate and/or yield is not the violence that wounds or destroys him. The ratio of power creates the conditions of a dialogue allowing to negotiate a just solution to a conflict. It can result in: - a simple evaluation by an actor of his or her capacity to mobilise and act, a capacity which is in itself a factor of dialogue and negotiation. - a confrontation, a relation where forces are released (demonstration, strike, boycott, civil disobedience, etc.). Photos: - The power of a truck - The power of a sit-in (Ekta Parishad movement in India)
  12. 12. Clarifying a few concepts 5 - Violence Violence is any kind of word, action or omission that violates another human being, his or her rights, identity; what wounds or destroys another, physically or psychologically. Violence is the result of the absence of words, communication, between different actors. It is the failure and perversion of conflicts, and also very often a cry of desperation towards those who have not heard. Photos : - Racket in the school -"Ordinary" violence: 10 % of women suffer abuse from their partner - Extreme violence : the Holocaust
  13. 13. Violence “Violences” rather than violence Before becoming criminal, acts of violence which affect men and women in their daily lives can be found in - lack of respect, incivilities - smaller offences on goods and repeated acts of degradation - sometimes violences on people. To fight them efficiently, the diverse forms they take must be distinguished: family violence (machism, etc.); economic violence (gigantic salaries, tax havens), social violence (unemployment, exclusion, etc.), political violence (denigrating an opponent, corruption, dictatorship, etc.), ecological violence (pollution, destruction of ecosystems, etc.), cultural violence (exacerbated superficiality, etc.).
  14. 14. Violence Violence, malfunction of a conflict Communication, or combativeness and force exercised in struggle, allow the nonviolent resolution of a conflict. To the contrary, violence is a malfunctioning of a conflict: it disturbs its functioning and does not allow it to fulfil its task, which is to establish a dialogue and/or justice between the opponents. In the case of a malfunctioning conflict, one (or both) actors use means that threaten the others integrity or life. The conflict then runs the risk of not being the search for a just solution, but a means to eliminate the adversary. To uproot violence, conflicts need to be managed intelligently.
  15. 15. Violence When do we know there is violence ? - when it can be seen: crying, blackmailing, bruises, cuts, in battle fields, etc. - when the author “informs” his or her victim (“I will kill you !”, or shouts out a racist comment, etc.) - when the victim informs third parties of what he or she is suffering (“I was insulted”, “he hit me”, etc.). The victim might also know there is violence, even if others might not see it. - when a third party says it (by informing a judge, testifying) - when legal provisions forbid a behaviour, whether victim or author are aware of it (incest, marital violence, child abuse, excision, etc.)
  16. 16. Violence Possible reactions towards violence • Fear and a feeling of powerlessness can generate submission (but also vigilance, escape, or look for support) • The feeling of guilt can lead to active auto- destruction (self-despise, alcohol, drugs, etc.), but also request for forgiveness • The feeling of non-recognition by others and sadness can introduce fatalism and passivity • The feeling of injustice and anger can wake up combativeness, and can create violence if this combativeness is not contained
  17. 17. Violence Violence, a human phenomena Violence, whether intentional or not, is a human phenomena *. Nature destroys and kills, but without knowing it. Indeed, we do not refer to violence when speaking of damages or disasters caused by - the Earth (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc.) - climatic elements (droughts, floods, cyclones, etc.) - animals (predators, deadly mushrooms, etc.) - sicknesses (viruses, genetical anomalies, etc.) - natural death (end of life, outcome of an illness, etc.) These disasters are deadly, but not murderous. * except cases of non-intentional violence.
  18. 18. Violence Violence, a human phenomena Man is a murderous animal, for only he is endowed with reason. Only Man kills or wounds another knowingly *. Men are the only species whose members kill each other, sometimes in collective massacres. In the face of violence, the conscious Man feels, at least upon reflection, a sentiment of unjustifiable. A lucid Man states that violence should never occur, even without knowing what should or could be. Violence is divorced from Man’s spiritual requirements and Man’s disenchantment from the world. This “no” from reason, consciousness and the heart that Man opposes to violence are what ground an option based on nonviolence. * except cases of non-intentional violence
  19. 19. Violence Classification of Violences 1) by the means used - Physical violence: cuts, wounds, excision, rape, murder, etc. - Material violence: theft, degradation, robbery, voluntary fires, etc. - Verbal or written violence: insults, abuse and slander, etc. -Psychological violence: verbal or written persecutions, mockery, moral or sexual harassment, etc.
  20. 20. Classification of violences 2) by circumstance - reactive or impulsive violence : slap in a moment of anger, kick of fear, “legitimate defence”, etc. - rational or instrumental violence, calculates, programmed : murder, bombing, attack, genocide, etc. Photo below : hanging of a black man by Ku Klux Klan
  21. 21. Classification of violences 3) by the number of implicated actors - individual, against oneself : sadomasochism, self- mutilation, suicide, etc. - interpersonal : murder, fights, rape, etc. - collective : riots, uprising, ransacking, etc.
  22. 22. Classification of violences 4) political violence and infra-political violence - Infra-political violence: terrorist attacks, attacks… - Civil wars: religious, against dissident minorities, inter- ethnical massacres… - Violence and inter State wars: exchanges of missiles, local wars, global wars… - Persecutions against minorities, heretics or groups that are “different”, scapegoats : Inquisition, liquidation of the Templars, Shoah, racial segregation…
  23. 23. Classification of violences 5) non-intentional violence Most of the time, they can be avoided by being careful, taking care of others and oneself, preventing, training and maintaining a long term vision of the common good : - domestic accidents (fires, electrocution, poisoning…) - driving accidents - accidents at work - accidents during sports (ski, car races, hunting, etc.) - accidents provoked by lack of knowledge of nature (drowning, mountaining accidents, forest fires, accidents caused by plants or animals, etc.) - ecological catastrophes (chemicals, oil, nuclear, etc.)
  24. 24. The actors of a violent relation Author Domination, closing, refusal to admit the injustice of a situation and the consequences of his/her behaviour Victim Caught in complaint, submission, incapacity to talk with the autor or third party; résignation or hatred Third party Omission to say what he/she saw (report), refusal to interven, failure to provide assistance to a person in danger Law unjust or inadapted to the situation
  25. 25. The actors of a violent relation Words to diminish violence Violence manifests itself in an accomplished act against an individual or group, but also in a status quo in which an individual or group is submitted to the oppression of another, or because it cannot satisfy its basic needs. Individual attitudes and collective functioning usually reinforce each other mutually. This violence can therefore install itself in the long run and in the shadows. To establish the degree of violence of an act, the points of view of the author and victim must be confronted, as well as the provisions of a legal document and a third party’s opinion. A circulating communication between these different people help diminish the degree of violence.
  26. 26. The cause of violence 1 – The perversion of man’s combativeness Man is made of instincts and impulsive. Combativeness (or contained aggressiveness), such as sexuality, is a positive energy. But, akin water and fire, these energies can become noxious when the impulsive network is destructured. Man becomes violent if he cannot master his impulses, gets caught in them, does not canalise his natural and healthy combativeness in pacific forms of action, and in case of conflict, in nonviolent forms of resistance and struggle.
  27. 27. The cause of violence 2 – Fear In his most inner self, a human being knows fear : fear of lacking, of making a mistake, fear of the other, of the future, of the unknown, of God, etc. Man’s first enemy is fear. This fear is commonly rooted in the fear of dying. The bet made by the one who chooses violence is to kill before being killed, to wound before being wounded. Man kills to escape the anxiety of death, but when killing, finds himself before the anxiety of murder : he needs to justify his murder to negate the feeling of guilt that surrounds him.
  28. 28. The cause of violence Fear : looking at death in the eyes The anguish of suffering and death is probably one of the major causes or Man’s vulnerability in succumbing to the temptation of violence. More than anything else, the perspective of death engages him in a quest for meaning. All of us, before the matters, need to reflect personally and define singular attitudes. This reflection and attitude will orientate ones existence.
  29. 29. The cause of violence 3 – Imitation Because our desires are not stable, are floating and uncertain, we need a third party to desire : a mediator, a person who will enlighten us and help us design the object of our desire. We will then imitate. But when two people desire the same object, there is conflict, imitational rivalry or crisis. This process of opposition, rivalry and conflict, is the source of disputes between neighbours, at work, as well as in bloody wars. We need a scapegoat, victims who carry the illness of the world and will resolve the imitational universal crisis.
  30. 30. The cause of violence Imitation A human being carries within him the proclivity of reproducing violence he himself has already suffered. Parents who hit their children have often been abused children; The worse dictators (Hitler, Stalin, Ceausescu) where victims of repeated psychological and physical violence as children. This proclivity is not a fatalism : resilience is the capacity not only to overcome and move beyond ones past, but can also become a lively strength for others.
  31. 31. The cause of violence 4 - Submission to authority Quasi unconditional obedience to authority, to the point of consciously inflicting suffering on innocents, is a phenomena that can be observed in all countries, social strands, and that is linked to cultural “acquis”. History – and the experiments led by Stanley Milgram – have proved that ordinary people, deprived of any kind of hostility, can become, by simply executing the tasks they were given, abominable agents of a destructive process. These processes are based on: - an authoritarian model, or even their conditioning - a devaluation of the image/representation of the victims - accustoming to violence
  32. 32. The cause of violence 5 – Anti-democratic ideologies Among the causes of violence, anti-democratic ideologies grounded on exclusion, discrimination and xenophobia cannot be spared. These are: - nationalism - racism - xenophobia (anti-Semite, anti-Islam, etc.) - sexism, machism - religious fundamentalism - economic liberalism only grounded on the search for immediate profit Photos : -The unjust sentence against Alfred Dreyfus (nationalism + anti-Semitism) - Public flagellation in countries under Islamic Sharia rule.
  33. 33. The cause of violence 6 - The context of violence Certain context stimulate violence more than others. For instance : - in case of violent demonstrations, new violences occur and are committed by uncontrollable elements : ransacking, cars set on fire… - in case of war, violences can occur that would be almost impossible in time of peace : execution of resisting citizens, “traitors”, village plundering, massacres, rapes, genocides (armenien during the first world war 1914-1918; Shoah during the second world war 1939-1945), etc. Photo below : Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane by nazi SS division Das Reich, 10th June 1944.
  34. 34. The cause of violence 7 - Alcohol and drugs Alcohol and drugs, which alter a person’s cognitive and sensorial capacities, constitute an important risk factor when it comes to violence, without being a necessary or sufficient condition. - alcoholism and drug addiction are present in more than 90 % of violence against women. - alcohol is at the source of a big part of car, domestic, or work accidents. - alcohol increases the gravity of a crime, namely physical and sexual, as well as the risk of incivility, assaults, fights… - 40% of suicides were committed under the influence of alcohol.
  35. 35. The cause of violence 8 - The culture of violence Structural violence (economic, social, political, ecological, cultural), whether past or present, are more or less perceived by a majority of the population as fatal, insurmountable, inscribed in “nature”, in Man’s “destiny”: injustice, oppression, hunger, war, unemployment, misery, exclusion, etc. Ideologies and collective behaviours feed this fatalist sentiment : - ideologies grounded on the exclusive search for material well-being and consumerism - the cult of permanent competition, exacerbated in all domains of life (education, sports, economy) ../.. Photos : - Sexist publicity - Uncontrolled competition
  36. 36. The cause of violence The culture of violence - valorisation of violence by education (war toys), collective rituals (lyrics of La Marseillaise), media (video games) The culture of violence is everything that, in a society - institutions, customs - prejudices, ways of appreciating, feeling, collective representations, etc. tend to develop in citizens and public authorities an easy and spontaneous recourse to diverse forms of violence in order to solve a conflict, inevitably generated by social life. Photos : - Video games based on violence - Violence of industrial farming
  37. 37. Representations of violence 1 - Violence seen as natural The conception of violence as inscribed in human nature is the classical approach of philosophy and political science (Thomas Hobbes, Friedrich Nietzsche). We often generalise and wrongfully express the “violence of an effort”, “the violence of animals” or “the violence of the wind”. For some, the simple fact of living unconsciously implies the desire to kill another. Others have tried to give violence a genetically based definition, but the “crime chromosome” has revealed itself as much in basketball players… For some anthropologists, violence was born with agriculture and the bronze era. Photos : - Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (1588-1679) - Jean Bergeret, psychoanalyst, author of The fundamental violence.
  38. 38. Representations of violence Violence perceived as natural For Pr. Pierre Karli, violence has a cultural origin, and is linked to sociological conditioning, passions, imagination, fear. There is a cultural distribution of roles: violence in boys is mostly expressed by slaps, kicking, hurting; for girls, violence is rather to be found in words and looks. But the experiments led by Stanley Milgram have shown that statistically, the proclivity to exercise violence against innocents by means of submission to authority is equal to both genders. The profile of a serial killer is the one of a young and single man, but in the Nazi, Soviet or Chinese concentration camps, women fulfilled their task as executioner just as men did. Photos : Pierre Karli and one of these books
  39. 39. Representations of violence 2 - Violence as affirmation of the subject Violence is a language, a way of affirming oneself, for individuals as much as groups. Violence contributes to building a group (initiation rituals, big men). “State makes war, but war makes a State”. Others (Michel Wieworka) state on the contrary that the affirmation of the self is reached by speech, symbolic relations, and not violence. Violence is a way of representation (parades, uniforms). Violence is also a way of dedicating one’s life to a superior cause (sacrifices, heroes). Suicide, violence against oneself and forbidden by the Church, is also an act of freedom, forbidden in Nazi concentration camps for instance.
  40. 40. Representations of violence 3 - Violence as system of domination Violence is also a way of weighing on the actions of another, of imposing ones will on the other. Violence is in the relation with another, whatever the means used : everything can be violent, not only blows and wounds or murder, but also words, writings, a smile or silence. Photos : - Slavery - The wars led by Louis XIV - The massacre of Sharpeville (21st March 1960) during the apartheid in South Africa.
  41. 41. Representations of violence Violence as system of domination : structural violence Structural violence* is a system, an organisation of society which weighs on the will, desires, aspirations, projects of others. It is a violence provoked by systems and ideologies of domination, discrimination and injustice. Ex. : slavery, colonialism, machism, tax havens, corporate lang grabbing, corruption, etc. It is the mother violence, because it creates in the oppressed, a violence of resistance, itself crushed by a violence of repression. * Expression used by John Galtung. Helder Camara spoke of “violence of the established disorder”. Photos : - Colonialism - Machism, male domination - Bank secrecy, pedestal of fiscal fraud.
  42. 42. Representations of violence 4 – Violence as act of transgression Transgression is not in all cases violent (ex.: civil disobedience), but all violence is transgressive. Already in 1215 (with the British Magna Carta), violence was defined as the abuse of force, of energy. This leaves the hypothesis that there could be a nonviolent force, which is not an abuse. Transgression can be an attack to physical integrity (rape, murder), invasion of a home or territory, transgression of anthropological rules (incest) or State laws. The problem is that norms vary immensely in space and time (ex.: the death penalty, practiced during centuries, was only abolished in France in 1981; excision, authorised in some African States, in qualified as crime in many other African or other States, etc.).
  43. 43. Representations of violence 5 – Violence as language Violence can be used as form of language, a type of communication between individuals with a society that doesn’t recognise them or allow them to speak up. In this case, it is a desperate cry of those who are not heard. Violence of those excluded, for instance youth from “sensitive neighbourhoods”, is often a provocation, that is a call. But this call is both inefficient and inacceptable, because it focuses on the violences committed and not the real cause, which is exclusion.
  44. 44. Violence as means of action 1 - Violence as means of action against oppression and injustice Violence is often a means of action against injustice and oppression. It was often presented as the only way to destitute those in power. Nonviolence was therefore discredited by the idea that refusal to resist to “evil” would disarm the good and strengthen the bad. In reality, refusing to answer violence with violence is refusing to submit oneself to the logic the oppressor wants to impose on us, and in this sense, enhancing resistance. - Spartacus, slave and gladiator who in his fight against slavery, shook the whole Roman empire between -73 and -71. - Lenin (1870-1924), theorist of the revolutionary violence against capitalism - Ernesto Guevara, a.k.a Che, Cuban revolutionary man (1928-1967) - Black Panther Party, revolutionary movement of the 70’ in the USA.
  45. 45. Violence as means of action 2 - Violence as means of action against violence in democracies Violence, in a democratic regime, can also represent a defence mechanism, to stop a person from harming others, a way of protecting the group or society. For Max Weber or Philippe Braud, the State has the monopoly of legitimate violence (police, army). The euphemism “force” is used to describe violent State action (to neutralise criminals, fight terrorism, respond to military aggression), when in fact, we should refer to counter-violence instead. Photos : - French GIGN (Groupe d’Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) - National Defence
  46. 46. Violence as means of action Counter-Violence Before violence, the nonviolent constraint seems sometimes difficult or too slow to terminate unbearable situations. Counter-violence, or a violent action put in place to stop a person from harming others, also by killing the latter, has been extensively used in world history. If it is legitimated by the theories of legitimate defence or just war, it is most often abused, although it might be necessary (think of Khadafi’s tanks threatening to destroy Benghazi or snipers shooting civilians in Sarajevo’s streets).
  47. 47. Violence as means of action Counter-Violence In the hypothesis where State exercised counter- violence led to one or several deaths, this action cannot be judged otherwise as being a dramatic failure. In order to fight against a culture of violence, the consequences of counter-violence must be incubated in mourning, even though the counter-violence used is to us all an exceptional measure. It would be important and useful to insist on the pubic ritual that should follow any such deadly exercise, during which the State representative would recall this rule. Photo : execution of criminal Jacques Mesrine in Nov. 1979 by the French police force Brigade de Recherche et d’Intervention
  48. 48. Mass human destruction - Ethnocide : deliberate destruction of a civilisation and/or culture with the goal of exploiting economically or dominating politically a population. Ex.: Conquista in South America, African slavery during colonialism, elimination of Indian populations of North America, Aborigines in Australia or Amazonian natives, etc. - Massacre : limited destruction of a group of victims with the goal of creating an atmosphere of terror destined to facilitate the submission of a larger population or even, inciting the latter to flee a territory. Ex.: St Barthelemy massacre, Commune of Paris, bombings (Coventry, Dresden, Nagasaki), repression (Chechenia), etc. ../.. Photo : Massacre of Indian population in Amritsar by the English (13th April 1919).
  49. 49. Mass human destruction - Mass purges : elimination of thousands of people in the goal of terrorising the population and forcing it to submit. This politic aims political or ethnic groups, social classes. Ex.: Stalinism in USSR, repression in China and Tibet, Khmer regime in Cambodia, "ethnic purification" in ex- Yugoslavia… - Genocide : total eradication of an entire human community for ideological reasons. Ex.: Armenians by Turks 1915-1917, holocaust 1941-1945, Genocide of Tutsis by Hutus in Rwanda (1994)
  50. 50. Mass human destruction Psychological roots of barbary * 1) A feeling, justified or not, of an internal threat weighing on a group and its capacity to project itself in the future. Military defeat of the Ottoman Empire 1914 Nazi defeat against USSR in 1941 and increased isolation Vietnamese project of “Great Vietnam” threatening Cambodia Presence of Albanian speaking Kosovars in Serbian speaking Kosovo 2) Break in the traditional system of thought under the influence of fast and incomplete modernisation, emergence of beliefs of substitution. Young Turks doubting the value of an Ottoman Islam Crisis of Christian religion, social Darwinism led by the Nazis Collapse of communist movement for unity in South-East Asia Serbs disappointed by Tito’s self-managed Marxism * Alexandre Adler, historian and journalist, in Les racines psychologiques de la barbarie, french review Psychologies, may 1999
  51. 51. Psychological roots of barbary 3) Doubting of its legitimacy, the group in power installs a violence turned towards the exterior: the executioners Group of Young Turks born after dismantlement of the army SS in Nazi Germany, Oustachis in Croatia, Milice in Ukraine… Young traumatised people who participated in the murders during Chinese Cultural Revolution Nationalist Serbs of Krajina in Kosovo 4) Will of the criminal epicentre of the group to diffuse its own guilt as largely as possible, under the rule of a charismatic leader : Enver Pacha Adolf Hitler Pol Pot Slobodan Milosevic
  52. 52. Medias and violence - Theory of imitation : TV and video games encourage aggressive tendencies in their viewers and players - Theory of habit : viewers develop a habit to seeing violent scenes to the point of becoming indifferent to it when it occurs in reality - Theory of inhibition : the representation of violence, by provoking fear, enables to act - Theory of catharsis : scenes of violence offer the possibility of release, thus reducing tension and aggressiveness. None of these theories make media prime responsible for violence, but rather envisage it as one of the factors explaining possible aggressive behaviours.
  53. 53. Delegitimising violence To break the recourse to violence, presented as necessary, legitimate and honourable, the first step consists in taking stock of the entire reality of the violence that exists in our relation to the other. The second step consists in breaking the processes of justification and legitimisation of violence, thus showing that violence is not a fatality. Top photo : Experiments led by Stanley Milgram to show submission to authority
  54. 54. Realising alternatives to violence Violence is a method of action that is or may seem necessary - to fight off the disorder that maintains oppression, - to defend the order that guarantees freedom. It is thus vain to condemn violence purely and simply. However, it is necessary and more useful to invent and realise alternatives to violence.
  55. 55. Realising alternatives to violence These are the reasons why partisans of nonviolence suggest alternatives to violence, efficient in social life and political action : - nonviolent communication and mediation in interpersonal and collective relations - nonviolent strategies of fight against oppression and injustice - nonviolent civil defence against exterior aggressions - civil intervention for peace between opponents in regional conflict (inter-religious, inter-ethnical, etc.). Photo below : International Peace Brigades (PBI), a civil force of intervention to protect threatened people, observe the violation of human rights, separate the opponents. For these 4 themes, please consult the specific slides on www.irnc.org
  56. 56. Promoting a culture of nonviolence A culture of on-violence is the development of a knowledge, morals, ways of life, social institutions, conscious and unconscious scales of values. I.e., collective ethics in all in its meaning, with the objective of reducing the number of individual and social violence, of inscribing nonviolence in conflicts into the general practices of a people. Photos : - Monks at Tibhirine (Algeria) - Meeting of Imams and Rabbis in Geneve during the initiative the association Hommes de Parole. ■

×