Victims of Crime


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Victims of Crime

  1. 1. Victims of Crime <ul><li>What do we mean by “victim” </li></ul><ul><li>Which people are most likely tobe vicitms? </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of crime on victims </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat Victimisation </li></ul>
  2. 2. What do we mean by “Victim”? <ul><li>Official definition is very narrow: </li></ul><ul><li>“ individual who is directly affected by crime” </li></ul><ul><li>Does not consider the impact on families or communities, and usually omits “victims” who are not directly involved (eg fraud, pollution etc) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What does “victim” mean? Victim
  4. 4. <ul><li>Victims are often self-defined……….what does this mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you only be a “victim” if you recognise that a crime has been committed against you? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Studying Victims <ul><li>Quote on p184 by Von Hentig </li></ul><ul><li>How far do you agree that there are some people who are more victim prone? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Victim Precipitation <ul><li>Very controversial topic especially when relating to rape </li></ul><ul><li>Amir (1971) found that 20% of rapes were precipitated by the “victim” </li></ul><ul><li>What criticisms of this theory are there? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Victimisation Surveys <ul><li>BCS shows that YOUNG SINGLE MALES are most likely to be victims of assault and robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Strong link to age and gender </li></ul><ul><li>Link with social class, but not as strong </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys also show that FEAR of crime in increasing </li></ul>
  8. 8. Impact of Crime on Victims <ul><li>Various studies have looked into the impact of crime on victims </li></ul><ul><li>Maguire (1994) – worst aspect of being burgled; 32% said loss of possessions, 42% said concern/worry/intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Shapland (1984) found that 75% of people who had been attacked were still worried 2 and ½ years after attack </li></ul><ul><li>Morris (1987) found that vast majority of those who were victims of child abuse suffered from low self esteem and other problems into later life </li></ul>
  9. 9. Impact continued….. <ul><li>Macleod (1996) found 2/3 of ALL victims were emotionally affected by crime </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers and Millar (1986) found that the impact was made more traumatic by the reaction of and dealings with the Criminal Justice System </li></ul><ul><li>This was because of he worry and stress involved with the case and the outcome, or feeling let down by the CJS </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Islington Crime Survey <ul><li>Read p189 </li></ul><ul><li>What were the main findings from the Islington survey? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the main differences between this survey and the BCS? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it tell you about the impact of crime, especially in relation to women? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Multiple Victimisation <ul><li>BCS found 1/3 of respondents had been victims, but 50% of these had been victims more than once </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, 70% of crimes were against repeat victims </li></ul><ul><li>High crime rate = high rate of multiple victimisation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why are some people more likely to be multiple victims? <ul><li>1. Vulnerability of property/ premises </li></ul><ul><li>2. Specific characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>3. Offenders repeat successful crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Look at table 9.1 on p190 and discuss the questions listed on p190-191 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gender <ul><li>Majority of crimes against women take place in the home </li></ul><ul><li>However, women fear crime outside the home and alter their behaviour as a result </li></ul><ul><li>How can we explain this? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Myth and Reality <ul><li>Women fear crime, but are actually unlikely to be victims – often risk is exaggerated by the press </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the diagram on p192 – what process does this remind you of? </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>However, others argue that certain women in certain areas ARE much more likely to be victims of crime </li></ul><ul><li>Also, these women are unlikely to report domestic violence or sexual assault </li></ul><ul><li>Can you explain this? </li></ul>
  16. 16. The American Situation….. <ul><li>Poor Black women are 6x more likely to be raped than rich white women </li></ul><ul><li>Girls aged 16-19 are more likely to be raped than 35+ women </li></ul><ul><li>Can you explain this? </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Issues….. <ul><li>Who is most affected by crime? </li></ul><ul><li>How does crime affect people? </li></ul><ul><li>How are victims of crime treated? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we find out about victims? </li></ul><ul><li>What help is available for victims? </li></ul><ul><li>What about victim precipitation and multiple victimisation??????? </li></ul>