Karl Reid


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Karl Reid, Senior Vice President of Academic Programs and Strategic Initiatives at the United Negro College Fund, gave a keynote presentation at the NPEA conference called All Things Considered: Cultivating Healthy Resistance Strategies to Promote Academic Excellence.

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Karl Reid

  1. 1. All Things Considered:<br />Cultivating Healthy Resistance Strategies to Promote Academic Excellence<br />Karl W. Reid, Ed.D.<br />Senior Vice President<br />Academic Programs and Strategic Initiatives<br />2010 NPEA Conference<br />
  2. 2. A National Crisis: <br />Water Main Breaks in the K-16 Pipeline<br />7.5 million or 68% of White children under 5 years old will drop out of the system before completing college<br />
  3. 3. Only ~870K of the 5.3M, or 16% of Latino children under 5 will graduate from college!<br />
  4. 4. Only 12% of African American children under 5 will graduate from college!<br />
  5. 5. Plugging the Holes<br />New England minority and economically disadvantaged students who participate in pre-college programs are twice as likely to attend college and more likely to graduate than non-participants (The Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2001)<br />
  6. 6. Best Practices: Creating a College-Going Culture<br />Rigorous academic development<br />Creating and fostering an achievement culture<br />Reducing or eliminating financial barriers while developing financial literacy<br />Intentionally developing positive identities<br />
  7. 7. Through their “Ethic of Care”, HBCUs have a legacy of developing leaders that make a significant impact<br />HBCU graduate accomplishments<br />Ruth Simmons<br /><ul><li>First African American President of Ivy League University
  8. 8. Dillard University</li></ul>Hazel O'Leary<br /><ul><li>U.S. Secretary of Energy; only woman and African American to hold this position
  9. 9. Fisk University
  10. 10. 50% of African American public school teachers earned degrees from HBCUs
  11. 11. 70% of African American dentists and physicians earned degrees from HBCUs
  12. 12. 50% of African Americans who graduate from HBCUs go on to graduate or professional schools
  13. 13. Five UNCF member institutions were among the top 25 producers of African American medical school applicants: Xavier University, Spelman College, Morehouse College, Oakwood University, and Tuskegee University (2004)
  14. 14. More African American science and engineering doctoral recipients began their education at UNCF institutions than at Berkeley, Harvard, University of Pennsylvania, MIT, Brown, Stanford, Princeton, and Yale combined (1997-2001)
  15. 15. 40% of the Congressional Black Caucus received at least one degree from an HBCU
  16. 16. 12% percent received degrees from UNCF member institutions</li></ul>David Satcher<br /><ul><li>Former U.S. Surgeon General
  17. 17. Former Assistant Secretary for Health
  18. 18. Morehouse College</li></ul>Martin Luther King, Jr.<br /><ul><li>American clergyman
  19. 19. Prominent leader in the African American civil rights movement
  20. 20. Morehouse College</li></ul>John Jackson<br /><ul><li>President, CEO of Schott Foundation for Public Education
  21. 21. Member of Obama's education transition team
  22. 22. Xavier University</li></ul>Alexis Herman<br /><ul><li>Former U.S. Secretary of Labor
  23. 23. Director of the White House Office of Public Liaison
  24. 24. Xavier University</li></ul>Oprah Winfrey<br /><ul><li>Entrepreneur, media personality, producer, literary critic
  25. 25. Tennessee State University</li></ul>Marian Wright Edelman<br /><ul><li>Children's rights activist
  26. 26. President and founder of Children's Defense Fund
  27. 27. Spelman College</li></ul>Rev. Dr. Floyd Flake <br /><ul><li>Former U.S. Representative
  28. 28. Former president of Wilberforce University
  29. 29. Wilberforce</li></ul>Dr. Deborah Hyde<br /><ul><li>Neurosurgeon
  30. 30. Founder of Beacon of Hope Scholarship Fund
  31. 31. Tougaloo College</li></ul>Source: UNCF FY10 Legislative Brief, public data; institution websites<br />
  32. 32. Environment<br /><ul><li>Faculty-student interactions
  33. 33. Student-student relations
  34. 34. Campus climate</li></ul>Personal Factors<br /><ul><li>Physical
  35. 35. Emotional
  36. 36. Mental/Motivational</li></ul>Behavior<br /><ul><li>Time mgmt
  37. 37. Study groups
  38. 38. Effort & resilience</li></ul>Social Cognitive Theory<br />Self-Efficacy<br />Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. <br />
  39. 39. Why Race Matters<br />For some students, their racial or ethnic makeup somehow influences confidence(self-efficacy) in their abilities in certain contexts.<br />9<br />
  40. 40. Environment<br /><ul><li>Faculty-student interactions
  41. 41. Student-student relations
  42. 42. Classroom climate/ rewards</li></ul>Identity<br /><ul><li>Racial Identity
  43. 43. Gender Identity
  44. 44. Cultural Fluency</li></ul>Personal Factors<br /><ul><li>Physical
  45. 45. Emotional
  46. 46. Mental/Motivational</li></ul>Behavior<br /><ul><li>Time mgmt & habits
  47. 47. Study groups
  48. 48. Effort & resilience</li></ul>A Comprehensive Achievement Framework<br />Self-Efficacy<br />Adapted from Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. <br />
  49. 49. “Identities are the stories we tell ourselves and the world about who we are, and our attempt to act in accordance with these stories.” (Dorothy Hollard)<br />
  50. 50. Minorities of color are typically not able to choose an identity, but rather are pressed to internalize one by societal signals due to experiences with, and perceptions about discrimination and prejudice (Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992).<br />
  51. 51. The Bottom Line<br />You are not at your intellectual best when you are experiencing emotional or psycho-social stress! <br />
  52. 52. Non-cognitive Variables associated with grades, retention, and graduation (Seldlacek 1986)<br />Positive self-concept or confidence<br />Realistic self-appraisal<br />Understands and deals with racism<br />“Is realistic based on personal experience of racism. Not submissive to existing wrongs, nor hostile to society, nor a ‘cop-out.’ Able to handle racist system. Asserts school role to fight racism.”<br />Demonstrated community service<br />Prefers long-range goals to short-term or immediate needs<br />Availability of strong support person<br />Successful leadership experience<br />Knowledge acquired in a field<br />Sedlacek, W. E. (2004). Beyond The Big Test. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.<br />
  53. 53. Primary Questions for Our Study<br />Is there a combination of resistance strategies that explain academic performance of high achieving African American and Chicano/a students?<br />If so, what can individuals who work with African American and Chicano/a students do to cultivate healthy resistance strategies?<br />
  54. 54. Resistance Strategies<br />Oppositional Culture <br />Fordham & Ogbu (1986)<br />Resistance for Survival,<br />Ward (1991)<br />Resistance for Liberation,<br />Ward(1991)<br />Academically Unhealthy<br />Academically Healthy<br />
  55. 55. In Their Own Words: Stereotypes<br />“Being a Mexican American isn't easy. I think that if <br />I was white I could have had more academic <br />opportunities. There is a stereotype about <br />Mexicans, which is that we aren't that academically <br />applied in school. I personally think this is unfair <br />because each individual is different and capable of <br />doing his own thing. But for this very reason I have <br />been inspired to do well and attend a university <br />where I would have a successful career so I can <br />prove to everybody that a Mexican can do just as <br />well as any other person.”<br />
  56. 56. Results from Our Study<br />
  57. 57. In Their Own Words: Reactionary (RfLr)<br />“I must work harder and better than the members of the majority in order to achieve my goals and to keep motivated in striving for more. I must show the world that I deserve to be recognized and respected by proving that, even though I am associated with a minority group, I am just as good if not better, than any other person.<br />”<br />
  58. 58. In Their Own Words: Separation(RfLr)<br />“When people find out that I am of Mexican descent, they <br />often have a surprised expression on their face. As if they <br />think "only gardeners are Mexicans, how can you be in AP <br />Calculus?" Though I'm not embarrassed of my culture and <br />where I come from, I don't want people to think just <br />because of my ethnicity that I'm just like the woman who cleans their house for a living.I am the lone Mexican in Advanced Placement Calculus and AP Physics; I have so much more at stake than my peers.”<br />
  59. 59. In Their Own Words: Internal (RfLi)<br />“If anything, as an African American I am <br />encouraged. I have a great sense of my <br />history and I know that it is the story of a <br />people who reached mountaintop after <br />mountaintop in the face of seemingly <br />insurmountable odds. It is the knowledge of <br />this history that keeps me encouraged in <br />the predominately white school that I <br />attend.”<br />
  60. 60. In Their Own Words: Internal (RfLi) <br />“They faced many obstacles and, through <br />the story of the hurdles they have faced, I <br />have learned to have the desire to soar. It is <br />this desire that is evident in my diligence in <br />school and all the activities of which I am <br />apart.”<br />
  61. 61. In Their Own Words: Role Models<br />“Periodically, I have had the opportunity to <br />pick up one of San Antonio's monthly <br />Hispanic magazines and have read about <br />motivated people who have broken free of <br />this mold. They aspired to be something <br />great; and in the same way, I aspire to be a <br />Hispanic who did not let other people's view <br />of my ethnicity block out the light of my <br />dreams.” -Francisco<br />
  62. 62. An estimated 7,200,000 Black and Latino children will not be able to thrive in the increasingly global, technologically inspired marketplace!<br />
  63. 63. Yes We Can!<br />Attend to racial, ethnic and gender identity development<br />Increase meaningful cross-cultural interactions while supporting their need to retreat to a place of “identity safety”<br />Leverage mentoring relationships and role modeling<br />“Engineer their Posse”<br />Increase diversity of your staff<br />Increase faculty and counseling staff awareness about racial identity schema<br />Continue to push for policies that fix the water mains<br />
  64. 64. Thank You!<br />Karl W. Reid, Ed.D.<br />Senior Vice President<br />Academic Programs and Strategic Initiatives<br />Steppingstone Foundation Board Member<br />karl.reid@uncf.org<br />