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Participatory Technology Development

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  1. 1. PARTICIPATORY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTEXT-507(1+1):Programme Planning in Extension<br />COURSE INSTRUCTOR:<br />Dr. O.P. Mishra<br />Reader<br />Deptt. of Ext. Edu. <br />Inst. of Agril. Sc. <br />B.H.U.<br />PRESENTED BY:<br /> Nirupam Biswas<br /> M.Sc.(Ag.)-Final<br /> ID No. – X-0748<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Participatory Technology Development (PTD) is a creative process of joint experimentation and research by farmers and development agents in discovering ways of improving farmers&apos; livelihoods.<br /> The growing number of documented examples in recent years reveal that PTD is now accepted as a research approach to agriculture and natural resource management (NRM).<br /> It has been recognized that research is effective in improving farmers&apos; livelihoods if farmers play a vital role in the process.<br />
  3. 3. Definition<br /> PTD is an approach to learning and innovation that is used in internationaldevelopment as part of projects and programmes relating to sustainable agriculture.<br /> The approach involves collaboration between researchers and farmers in the analysis of agricultural problems and testing of alternative farming practices.<br />
  4. 4. Meaning<br /> It is a practical process: farmers, as &quot;insiders&quot;, bring their knowledge and practical abilities to test technologies, and interact with researchers and extension workers—the &quot;outsiders&quot;. <br /> In this way, farmers and the outside facilitators are able to identify, develop, test and apply new technologies and practices.<br />
  5. 5. Origin<br />PTD was developed in the late 1980s but its origin can be found in a number of approaches, concepts and techniques that became popular in the 1970s & 1980s:<br />1. Farming systems research and extension: introduced social-economic issues into organizations and also promoted the idea on ‘on-farm’ trails.<br />
  6. 6. Origin contd…<br />2. Appropriate technology: recognised the importance of matching the design of technology to the resources and culture of the user.<br />3. Indigenous technical knowledge: recognised the importance of local expertise and traditional wisdom.<br />4. Participatory rural appraisal: promoted the involvement of rural people in decision-making.<br />
  7. 7. Procedure <br />The PTD approach has five basic phases: <br />building trust,<br /> identifying alternatives and setting priorities, <br />designing the experiment, <br />conducting the experiment, and <br />sharing the experience. <br />
  8. 8. 1. Build trust <br />Develop and strengthen your relationship with the farmers, aiming to go beyond that of a professional with a client. Listen and try to understand the farmers&apos; views, and try to help them become comfortable making suggestions and expressing their opinions. <br />Help the farmers identify the problems they want to solve. Consider the situation from the farmers&apos; perspective. Look at issues in a holistic manner, taking various aspects into consideration. As far as possible, involve all of the members of the household: men, women, and children. <br />
  9. 9. 2. Identify alternatives and set priorities <br />Identify indigenous knowledge and skills that may be relevant to the problems selected. <br /> <br />Help the farmers identify several different ways they might solve the problems. Ideas for the alternatives may come from the farmers themselves, or from outsiders. Link these alternatives to the farmers&apos; situation and experiences. <br /> <br />Together with the farmers, examine the advantages and disadvantages of each of the alternatives. <br /> <br />Assist the farmers to choose one or more of the alternatives for testing in the field. <br />
  10. 10. 3. Design the experiment <br />Help the farmers decide how to test the alternatives they have chosen. The experiment should involve both farmers and outsiders. The experiment design should show the difference between the various alternatives, as well as with the current practice.<br /> <br />Help the farmers decide how to measure the results, so they can tell which alternative is best. Both farmers and outsiders should be involved in evaluating the results and assessing the impacts. <br /> <br />Train farmers how to conduct the experiment and manage the research process. <br />
  11. 11. 4. Conduct the experiment <br />Help the farmers do the experiment, following the agreed design. <br /> <br />Measure and record the results of the various alternatives, as well as the current practice. <br /> <br />Evaluate the results from the alternatives by comparing them with the current practice. <br /> <br />Modify the alternatives as needed, and if needed, test them again in the next season<br />
  12. 12. 5. Share the experience <br /> <br />Organize ways of sharing the experiences (technologies, successes, failures and constraints) of the experiment. These can include field visits, discussions, training sessions and study trips. Make it clear whose experiences are being shared. Put the farmers&apos; experiences in the forefront. Let the individual farmer (or the group) say &quot;I have done it. It is mine&quot;. Ensure that experiences and views on what contributed to success (or caused a failure) are shared. <br /> <br />Recognize unique situations (such as land, climate, soils, socio-economic and political situations) which may exist, as these determine how a technology might be improved or modified.<br />
  13. 13. WHY Is PTD Necessary?<br />In recent years, there has been growing dissatisfaction with the poor rates of adoption of agricultural technologies in resource-poor farming systems. This poor adoption has resulted partly because when agricultural technologies are developed, there is little input from farmers. <br />Participatory technology development (PTD) offers a way forward, through active, decision-making involvement of farmers in every stage of technology development.<br /> <br />
  14. 14. The following is a list of important PTD methods <br />1. Exposure visits to innovative farmers, research stations and training centres. <br />2. Farmer-based experimentation, assisted by the facilitators to provide training on experiment design and analysis. <br />3. Demonstrationsin the community of specific technologies (these are best conducted by innovative farmers with support from researchers and extension workers). <br />4. The use of farmer-to-farmer extension through field days, seed fairs, and farming competitions organized by the farmers themselves.<br />
  15. 15. PTD Activities<br />Critical analysis of community managed changes in the agro-ecosystem.<br />Identification & use of ITK.<br />Reconstructions of successful local innovations.<br />Self organization.<br />Self implementation of systematic experiments.<br />
  16. 16. Steps of PTD<br />There are six major steps of PTD:<br />Getting started<br />Looking for things to try<br />Designing experiments<br />Trying things out<br />Sharing the results<br />Keeping up the process<br />
  17. 17. 1. Getting started <br />Building relationship for cooperation<br />Preliminary situation analysis<br />Awareness mobilization<br />
  18. 18. 2. Looking for things to try<br />Identifying priorities<br />Identifying best bet options from indigenous knowledge and scientific resources<br />Screening options<br />
  19. 19. 3. Designing experiments<br />Reviewing existing experimental practice<br />Planning and designing experiments<br />Designing, monitoring and evaluating protocols<br />
  20. 20. 4. Trying things out<br />Implementing experiments<br />Monitoring and evaluation<br />
  21. 21. 5. Sharing the results<br />Communicating basic ideas, principles, results and the PTD process<br />Training in skills, proven technologies<br />Use of experimental methods and farmer to farmer extension<br />
  22. 22. 6. Keeping up the process<br />Creating favourable conditions for continuing experimentation and agricultural development.<br />
  23. 23. PTD cycle to process and capture the farmers’ innovative capacity, knowledge and practices <br />
  24. 24. PTD facilitators<br />PTD facilitators are usually researchers, sometimes consisting of a team that includes both biological and social scientists.<br /> While PTD is closely linked to research, it often crosses the boundary into agricultural extension because it involves learning activities with farmers.<br />
  25. 25. Advantages <br />PTD builds trust between farmers and outsiders. This helps to build the farmers&apos; confidence, tapping their potential for innovation and initiative. <br />It strengthens the links between indigenous and scientific knowledge. <br />It builds human capacity for self-reliance. <br />
  26. 26. Disadvantages <br />The PTD approach takes a long time, and demands patience and humility on the part of the outsiders. <br />
  27. 27. Limitations<br />It is a time consuming process.<br />It requires capability and patience of the extension agents to make people participate.<br />Programmes which are technically feasible, economically profitable, socially acceptable and environmentally safe & sustainable are likely to ensure people’s participation.<br />
  28. 28. Challenges<br />Development agents are restricted in encouraging farmers to try things on their own terms on a small scale.<br />Substantial time is needed.<br />Public funds for extension services to farmers and the number of development agents are both decreasing rapidly as privatization expands.<br />Creativity is needed.<br />e.g.- Good documentation.<br />
  29. 29. Conclusion<br /> This process of technology development is closely linked with social change and encourages local innovation, self confidence and self respect through self organized experiments.<br /> This process also fosters a cultural awareness as planning and assessment obliges participants to take account of their own situation and the responsibilities and needs of others in the community.<br />
  30. 30. THANK YOU<br />