SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
1
Ram P. Sah,
Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC)
Singh Durbar Plaza, Kathmandu
CONSTRAINTS TO SEED
ADOPTION, MARKET AND TRADE
IN NEPAL
Nepal: National Seed System
National Seed
System
Public Institutions
•MOAD, NARC, NSB, DOA, DADO, SQCC,
UAF, Gene banks, Biotech
International
Collaborators
• CGIAR, Donors, INGOs, Bilat
eral /Multilateral
Projects, Multinationals,
Farmers Communities
FGs, HHs, CBSP, Social Activists
Private Sector
SEAN, FNCCI/AEC, Seed
Co, Agrovets, Seed importers
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
1991/92 1995/96 2000/01 2005/06 2010/11 2011/12
Area('000Ha),Production('000Mt)&Yield(Kg/Ha)
Year
Cereal Area, Production and Yield Trends
(MOAD 2012)
Area Production Yield
Growth: Area 0.8%, Production 3.6%, Yield 2.5%
Contributes: GDP 16.5% , AGDP 49.4%, FS 95%
Seed Replacement Rates
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
SRR % Informal %
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13
%Growth Poor and Fluctuating GDP and AGDP
Growths
GDP AGDP
Major Constraints to Effective Seed System
• Inadequate location specific varietal choice
• Ineffective seed planning: demands and supply
mechanism/networks - access to source and high quality seeds,
• Low capacity for seed processing and storage, proactive
marketing
• Low rate of seed replacement (<10% in cereals),
• Inadequate seed quality assessment and certification capacity,
• No priority for hybrid breeding in rice and maize, and vegetables
due to weak national capacity and investment,
• Limited options for increased private sector and multinationals
participation in seed industry,
• Unregulated cross-border flow of seeds (hybrids /OPVs):
rice, maize and vegetables,
• Conservative regulatory process and seed policies:
Commitment, coordination, resources and effective
implementation (Ag R&D funding intensity 0.26%).
Breeder Seed Production and Demands
Mt (SQCC 2011)
Rice Wheat Maize Lentil Millet
2010/11 15.5 27.0 4.0 1.1 0.2
2011/12 27.8 45.3 8.1 0.4 0.2
Demand* 7.4 22.6 7.4 0.2 0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
BS(Mt)
Rice Wheat Maize Lentil Millet
2010/11 341.3 171.6 120.8 8.8 2.2
2011/12 520.2 276.7 194.6 13.9 3.9
Demand* 231 296 38 8.5 0.4
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
FS(Mt)
Foundation Seed Production and Demands
Mt (SQCC 2011)
Cereal Seed Production Agencies (%)
(CDD 2011)
40%
4%
1%1%
26%
4%
23%
1%
DISPRO
CBSP
CSB
Gvt Farms
NSC
STC
Pvt Co
NGOs
Rice: 6649 Mt, Maize: 1827 Mt, Wheat: 8773 Mt, Lentil: 203 Mt
Analysis of Varietal Release, Registration and Adoption
(MOAD, 2012)
Crop Var released
(year)/OPVs
Var
registered/Hybrids
Total Var in seed production (OPVs)2
Rice 67 (1967-2011) 18 (2010-11) 85 BS(24), FS (45) Popular (10)
Maize 22 (1965-2010)1 15 (2010-11) 37 BS (10), FS (13), Popular (5)
Wheat 32 (1960-2011) 0 32 BS (13), FS (18), Popular (5)
Popular Varieties3
Rice Khumal 4(1987), Khumal 10 (2010), Khumal 13 (2010), Sabitri (1979), Radha 4
(1995), Radha 12 (1995), Sukha 3 (2011), Samba Masuli sub 1 (2011), Swarna Sub
1(2011), Hardinath 1 (2004)
Maize Rampur Comp (1975), Arun 2 (1981), Man 3(2002), Deuti (2006), Poshilo Maize
1(2008)
Wheat Vijay (2011), NL 297 (1985), Gautam (2004), Bhrikuti (1994), WK 1204 (2007)
Notes: 1 Gaurav hybrid in Maize released by NARC in 2003
2 Value in parenthesis indicate number of varieties
3 Number in parenthesis indicate the year of release/registration
Focus: Demand Driven Varieties Breeding and Scaling up Strategy
Cost of Production and Returns
(ABMDD 2013)
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000
Rice-IG/T
Rice-IG/MH
Rice-UIG/T
Rice-UIG/MH
Wheat-UIG/T
Wheat–IG/T
Maize-UIG/MH
Maize-IG/T/IT
Net profit (Rs/ha) Gross income (Rs/ha) Total cost (Rs/ha)
Incentives are poor in cereal seeds < Rs 10K/ha
Cost and Returns of BS and FS Production
NARC 2012
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
160000
180000
200000
BS FS BS FS Bs FS
Rice Wheat Maize
Gross income Rs/ha) Total cost (Rs/ha) Net income (Rs/ha)
Net returns are higher in rice than wheat and maize
High Market Margins of CS (NSC)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Rice
Wheat
Maize
Farmer cost Food price Producer incentice NSC margin Dealer margin Retailer margin
Price Rs/Kg: Rice (35), Wheat (35) Maize 50/30)
Major Cost Centers of BS and FS (%)
NARC 2012-13
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0
Bs
FS
BS
FS
BS
FS
RiceWheatMaize
Labor Fertilizers Others
Price Rs/kg (BS/FS/CS ): Rice(70/40/35), Wheat ( 70/55/35), Maize (90/65/50)
Seed System: Varietal Development and Maintenance
Structure
• Updated national
research institutions:
organized breeding on
cereals-NARC (70%)
• Effective
collaborations with
CGIARs
• Increased GON
supports for RWM
R&D
• Limited capacity and
teams for Hybrid
breeding
• Lack effective PPP in
varietal development
Conduct
• Weak R&D capacity
• <11% FTE crop staff on
breeding variety
, Critical Teams?
• < 20% crop research
budget for variety and
source seed prod.
• Weak labs and
logistics: modern
biotech capacity?
• 50% positions vacant:
incentives?
• Limited
visionary, competent
and committed
project leaders.
Performance
• Inadequate demand
driven varieties: slow
release and adoption
• Insufficient source
seed stock of new
varieties: Increased
seed imports and
exploitation
(OPVs/hybrids)
• IPR/FR motivation?
• Inadequate capacity
for hybrid variety
• Lack effective policy to
integrate PPP and
multinationals-Hybrids
Seed System: Seed Multiplication
Structure
•Modest R&D network for
seeds: PPP
•Weak integration between
varietal development and
seed multiplication chains
• Huge labor cost followed by
fertilizers and tillage, and
the net returns are low (<Rs
10K/ha)
•Weak infrastructure, and
markets: both public and
private sectors
•Lack updated technical staff
and capacity: small size of
industry
Conduct
• Mismatch of BS-FS-
CS/IS to address the
farmers’ demands
• New varieties from cross
border is coming on big
way that distort internal
seed demands and
supply
• Non compliance of
contract agreements:
Policy implementation
• Limited investment in
seed multiplication, cereal
seed production less
attractive:
• No policy and program for
Buffer stock management
Performance
• Foundation seeds are
being used as CS/IS seed
• The cost of production is
high (labor
60%, fertilizers 30%) and
returns are low.
• Weak Business and
marketing intelligence,
• Monitoring :24% seeds
are poor quality
• Insurance and
compensation : quick and
timely policy?
• Alignment on seed
subsidy and supports in :
NSC and private sectors
Seed System: Seed Marketing and Trade
Structure
• Inadequate seed
marketing
studies, intelligenc
e
• Poor Business
enterprise:
capacity and
investment in
marketing research
• Infrastructure and
labs
• Weak structure
and initiatives for
scaling-up superior
varieties, registere
d hybrids
Conduct
• Updated seed
Acts, Regulations and
Guidelines : Seed
Vision 2025
• Varietal
Registration, Contract
Farming, Compensatio
n, IPR and FR
Bill, promote PPP ??
• Lack commitment
• High tariffs and
bureaucratic delays in
export markets
• Cross border trade of
seeds:
formal/informal
Performance
• Uncontrolled flow of
exotic seeds
• Quality seeds and
varieties
• Low returns and B/C
ratio-less incentives
• Unregistered
varieties of OPVs and
hybrids
• Inadequate
performance
monitoring and
initiatives to promote
superior varieties
Policy Interventions and Guidelines
•Regional release, friendly release/registration, decentralized release and certification, VARRS?
Varietal release and registration
• Incentives, mechanism, guidelines, WTO/TRIPS bindings, commitments
FR , IPR, WTO, TRIPS
• Compensation, quality, biosafety, insurance, subsidy, Hybrid variety
Consumer protection and competition
• Quality, competitive, biosafety, Hybrid var, buffer-stock, Harmonization, Plant quarantine
capacity, WTO/TRIPS, IPR
Import and export
• Incentive, support price, implementation, Benefit/Cost analysis, market intelligence, subsidy aligned
Pricing and incentives
• GMO policy and guidelines, Harmonization, Capacity building(labs, staff, resources )
Biosafety regulations and implementation
FINAL WAY-OUTS
Seed industry slowly growing: components of the seed chain-
integrated, demand driven, and efficient
Work as business enterprise- with focused plans
priorities, strategies, market analysis, and implementation
strategy: costs and incentives
Quality control is vital- a robust mechanism is important at various
levels of production, processing, certification, storage and use
Existing seed policies and regulations must be proactive to
promote integrated initiatives and effective implementation
Updated infrastructure and plant quarantine, international seed
obligations, biosafety regulations to promote seed trade:
Harmonization, GMO,
Promote effective, efficient and sustainable PPP:
Policy, mechanism, incentives & commitments
The seed sector in Nepal- Ram Sah

More Related Content

What's hot

Maintenance breeding
Maintenance breedingMaintenance breeding
Maintenance breedingPawan Nagar
 
Synthetic and composite variety
Synthetic and composite varietySynthetic and composite variety
Synthetic and composite varietyPawan Nagar
 
ideotype in rice .pptx
ideotype in rice .pptxideotype in rice .pptx
ideotype in rice .pptxMenteRohit
 
Hybrid Seed Production Technology of Maize
Hybrid Seed Production Technology of MaizeHybrid Seed Production Technology of Maize
Hybrid Seed Production Technology of MaizeMohammad Safar Noori
 
Ideotype breeding
Ideotype breedingIdeotype breeding
Ideotype breedingPawan Nagar
 
Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Gene...
Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Gene...Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Gene...
Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Gene...Bharamaraj Badiger
 
Seed Act and main features of seed act
Seed Act and main features of seed actSeed Act and main features of seed act
Seed Act and main features of seed actNSStudents
 
Ideotype and cropping system of rajul and arti ppt
Ideotype and cropping system of rajul and arti pptIdeotype and cropping system of rajul and arti ppt
Ideotype and cropping system of rajul and arti pptGovardhan Lodha
 
Hybrid seed production of castor and maize
Hybrid seed production of castor and maizeHybrid seed production of castor and maize
Hybrid seed production of castor and maizeRahul Chandera
 
Scope of Vegetable seed production in India
Scope of Vegetable seed production  in India Scope of Vegetable seed production  in India
Scope of Vegetable seed production in India ATMA RAM MEENA
 
release and notification of variety in india
release and notification of variety in indiarelease and notification of variety in india
release and notification of variety in indiaMahammed Faizan
 
Seed industry in india
Seed industry in indiaSeed industry in india
Seed industry in indiaRoshan Parihar
 
principles of seed production
principles of seed productionprinciples of seed production
principles of seed productionHARISH J
 
Single seed descent method
Single seed descent methodSingle seed descent method
Single seed descent methodDev Hingra
 

What's hot (20)

Seed marketing
Seed marketingSeed marketing
Seed marketing
 
Seed and Seed technology
Seed and Seed technology Seed and Seed technology
Seed and Seed technology
 
Maintenance breeding
Maintenance breedingMaintenance breeding
Maintenance breeding
 
Synthetic and composite variety
Synthetic and composite varietySynthetic and composite variety
Synthetic and composite variety
 
Genetic principles of seed production
Genetic principles of seed productionGenetic principles of seed production
Genetic principles of seed production
 
ideotype in rice .pptx
ideotype in rice .pptxideotype in rice .pptx
ideotype in rice .pptx
 
Hybrid Seed Production Technology of Maize
Hybrid Seed Production Technology of MaizeHybrid Seed Production Technology of Maize
Hybrid Seed Production Technology of Maize
 
Ideotype breeding
Ideotype breedingIdeotype breeding
Ideotype breeding
 
Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Gene...
Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Gene...Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Gene...
Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of Gene...
 
Seed Act and main features of seed act
Seed Act and main features of seed actSeed Act and main features of seed act
Seed Act and main features of seed act
 
Ideotype and cropping system of rajul and arti ppt
Ideotype and cropping system of rajul and arti pptIdeotype and cropping system of rajul and arti ppt
Ideotype and cropping system of rajul and arti ppt
 
Seed inspector
Seed inspectorSeed inspector
Seed inspector
 
Hybrid seed production of castor and maize
Hybrid seed production of castor and maizeHybrid seed production of castor and maize
Hybrid seed production of castor and maize
 
Integrated Farming System and IFS models
Integrated Farming System and IFS modelsIntegrated Farming System and IFS models
Integrated Farming System and IFS models
 
Scope of Vegetable seed production in India
Scope of Vegetable seed production  in India Scope of Vegetable seed production  in India
Scope of Vegetable seed production in India
 
release and notification of variety in india
release and notification of variety in indiarelease and notification of variety in india
release and notification of variety in india
 
Seed industry in india
Seed industry in indiaSeed industry in india
Seed industry in india
 
principles of seed production
principles of seed productionprinciples of seed production
principles of seed production
 
NEW SEEDD BILL 2004
NEW SEEDD BILL 2004NEW SEEDD BILL 2004
NEW SEEDD BILL 2004
 
Single seed descent method
Single seed descent methodSingle seed descent method
Single seed descent method
 

Similar to The seed sector in Nepal- Ram Sah

Improving legume seed delivery systems in the Eastern Province of Zambia: imp...
Improving legume seed delivery systems in the Eastern Province of Zambia: imp...Improving legume seed delivery systems in the Eastern Province of Zambia: imp...
Improving legume seed delivery systems in the Eastern Province of Zambia: imp...africa-rising
 
PABRA Seed systems: Delivering the right product with right processes to the...
PABRA Seed systems:  Delivering the right product with right processes to the...PABRA Seed systems:  Delivering the right product with right processes to the...
PABRA Seed systems: Delivering the right product with right processes to the...CIAT
 
Fao presentation
Fao presentationFao presentation
Fao presentationAafaq Malik
 
Utilization of Value Chain Analysis in the Livestock Development Sector
Utilization of Value Chain Analysis in the Livestock Development SectorUtilization of Value Chain Analysis in the Livestock Development Sector
Utilization of Value Chain Analysis in the Livestock Development Sectorcopppldsecretariat
 
Maize market development in Nepal
Maize market development in Nepal Maize market development in Nepal
Maize market development in Nepal CIMMYT
 
Public Private Partnership in bean seed systems in Africa is key to sustainab...
Public Private Partnership in bean seed systems in Africa is key to sustainab...Public Private Partnership in bean seed systems in Africa is key to sustainab...
Public Private Partnership in bean seed systems in Africa is key to sustainab...CIAT
 
SEED PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
SEED PRODUCTION AND MARKETINGSEED PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
SEED PRODUCTION AND MARKETINGAbhishek Malpani
 
Social Consequences of the Changing Landscape for Mixed Livestock Production ...
Social Consequences of the Changing Landscape for Mixed Livestock Production ...Social Consequences of the Changing Landscape for Mixed Livestock Production ...
Social Consequences of the Changing Landscape for Mixed Livestock Production ...FAO
 
Towards innovation and growth in Bangladesh’s seed sector by Firdousi Naher
Towards innovation and growth in Bangladesh’s seed sector by Firdousi NaherTowards innovation and growth in Bangladesh’s seed sector by Firdousi Naher
Towards innovation and growth in Bangladesh’s seed sector by Firdousi Naherifpri_dhaka
 
Role of support services in enhancing competitiveness of smallholder livestoc...
Role of support services in enhancing competitiveness of smallholder livestoc...Role of support services in enhancing competitiveness of smallholder livestoc...
Role of support services in enhancing competitiveness of smallholder livestoc...ILRI
 
Status and Constraints of Wheat Seed System in CWANA for Rapid Delivery of R...
Status and Constraints of Wheat Seed System in  CWANA for Rapid Delivery of R...Status and Constraints of Wheat Seed System in  CWANA for Rapid Delivery of R...
Status and Constraints of Wheat Seed System in CWANA for Rapid Delivery of R...ICARDA
 
Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?
Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?
Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?CIMMYT
 
The contribution of Africa RISING research to development outcomes
The contribution of Africa RISING research to development outcomesThe contribution of Africa RISING research to development outcomes
The contribution of Africa RISING research to development outcomesafrica-rising
 

Similar to The seed sector in Nepal- Ram Sah (20)

The seed sector in Bangladesh- Anwarul Quader Shaikh
The seed sector in Bangladesh- Anwarul Quader Shaikh The seed sector in Bangladesh- Anwarul Quader Shaikh
The seed sector in Bangladesh- Anwarul Quader Shaikh
 
The seed sector in Vietnam- Nguyen Mau Dung
The seed sector in Vietnam- Nguyen Mau DungThe seed sector in Vietnam- Nguyen Mau Dung
The seed sector in Vietnam- Nguyen Mau Dung
 
Improving legume seed delivery systems in the Eastern Province of Zambia: imp...
Improving legume seed delivery systems in the Eastern Province of Zambia: imp...Improving legume seed delivery systems in the Eastern Province of Zambia: imp...
Improving legume seed delivery systems in the Eastern Province of Zambia: imp...
 
PABRA Seed systems: Delivering the right product with right processes to the...
PABRA Seed systems:  Delivering the right product with right processes to the...PABRA Seed systems:  Delivering the right product with right processes to the...
PABRA Seed systems: Delivering the right product with right processes to the...
 
The seed sector in Thailand- Makasiri Chaowagul and Orachos Napasintuwong
The seed sector in Thailand- Makasiri Chaowagul and Orachos Napasintuwong  The seed sector in Thailand- Makasiri Chaowagul and Orachos Napasintuwong
The seed sector in Thailand- Makasiri Chaowagul and Orachos Napasintuwong
 
Fao presentation
Fao presentationFao presentation
Fao presentation
 
Utilization of Value Chain Analysis in the Livestock Development Sector
Utilization of Value Chain Analysis in the Livestock Development SectorUtilization of Value Chain Analysis in the Livestock Development Sector
Utilization of Value Chain Analysis in the Livestock Development Sector
 
Maize market development in Nepal
Maize market development in Nepal Maize market development in Nepal
Maize market development in Nepal
 
Public Private Partnership in bean seed systems in Africa is key to sustainab...
Public Private Partnership in bean seed systems in Africa is key to sustainab...Public Private Partnership in bean seed systems in Africa is key to sustainab...
Public Private Partnership in bean seed systems in Africa is key to sustainab...
 
Dr. s rajendra prasad
Dr. s rajendra prasadDr. s rajendra prasad
Dr. s rajendra prasad
 
SEED PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
SEED PRODUCTION AND MARKETINGSEED PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
SEED PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
 
The seed sector in Indonesia- Erizal Jamal
  The seed sector in Indonesia- Erizal Jamal  The seed sector in Indonesia- Erizal Jamal
The seed sector in Indonesia- Erizal Jamal
 
Agri Input marketing
Agri Input marketingAgri Input marketing
Agri Input marketing
 
Social Consequences of the Changing Landscape for Mixed Livestock Production ...
Social Consequences of the Changing Landscape for Mixed Livestock Production ...Social Consequences of the Changing Landscape for Mixed Livestock Production ...
Social Consequences of the Changing Landscape for Mixed Livestock Production ...
 
Towards innovation and growth in Bangladesh’s seed sector by Firdousi Naher
Towards innovation and growth in Bangladesh’s seed sector by Firdousi NaherTowards innovation and growth in Bangladesh’s seed sector by Firdousi Naher
Towards innovation and growth in Bangladesh’s seed sector by Firdousi Naher
 
Day 1 cta dakar 0915 mali_agriculture-nutrition-nexus_dagnoko
Day 1 cta dakar 0915 mali_agriculture-nutrition-nexus_dagnokoDay 1 cta dakar 0915 mali_agriculture-nutrition-nexus_dagnoko
Day 1 cta dakar 0915 mali_agriculture-nutrition-nexus_dagnoko
 
Role of support services in enhancing competitiveness of smallholder livestoc...
Role of support services in enhancing competitiveness of smallholder livestoc...Role of support services in enhancing competitiveness of smallholder livestoc...
Role of support services in enhancing competitiveness of smallholder livestoc...
 
Status and Constraints of Wheat Seed System in CWANA for Rapid Delivery of R...
Status and Constraints of Wheat Seed System in  CWANA for Rapid Delivery of R...Status and Constraints of Wheat Seed System in  CWANA for Rapid Delivery of R...
Status and Constraints of Wheat Seed System in CWANA for Rapid Delivery of R...
 
Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?
Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?
Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?
 
The contribution of Africa RISING research to development outcomes
The contribution of Africa RISING research to development outcomesThe contribution of Africa RISING research to development outcomes
The contribution of Africa RISING research to development outcomes
 

More from International Food Policy Research Institute

Institutional and Governance Innovation in Thailand’s Food System: The Role o...
Institutional and Governance Innovation in Thailand’s Food System: The Role o...Institutional and Governance Innovation in Thailand’s Food System: The Role o...
Institutional and Governance Innovation in Thailand’s Food System: The Role o...International Food Policy Research Institute
 
Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Ho...
Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Ho...Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Ho...
Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Ho...International Food Policy Research Institute
 

More from International Food Policy Research Institute (20)

The History of Cooking Oil Fortification in Indonesia: Government Support for...
The History of Cooking Oil Fortification in Indonesia: Government Support for...The History of Cooking Oil Fortification in Indonesia: Government Support for...
The History of Cooking Oil Fortification in Indonesia: Government Support for...
 
Food Fortification Policies in the Asia Region
Food Fortification Policies in the Asia RegionFood Fortification Policies in the Asia Region
Food Fortification Policies in the Asia Region
 
Wheat and Cooking Oil/Ghee Fortification in Pakistan
Wheat and Cooking Oil/Ghee Fortification in PakistanWheat and Cooking Oil/Ghee Fortification in Pakistan
Wheat and Cooking Oil/Ghee Fortification in Pakistan
 
China's Food Safety regulatory system: Achievements, Challenges and Suggestions
China's Food Safety regulatory system: Achievements, Challenges and SuggestionsChina's Food Safety regulatory system: Achievements, Challenges and Suggestions
China's Food Safety regulatory system: Achievements, Challenges and Suggestions
 
Institutional and Governance Innovation in Thailand’s Food System: The Role o...
Institutional and Governance Innovation in Thailand’s Food System: The Role o...Institutional and Governance Innovation in Thailand’s Food System: The Role o...
Institutional and Governance Innovation in Thailand’s Food System: The Role o...
 
Compliance of Producers and Adoption of Consumers in the Case of Food Safety ...
Compliance of Producers and Adoption of Consumers in the Case of Food Safety ...Compliance of Producers and Adoption of Consumers in the Case of Food Safety ...
Compliance of Producers and Adoption of Consumers in the Case of Food Safety ...
 
Current Status of Agricultural Biotechnology in Thailand
Current Status of Agricultural Biotechnology in ThailandCurrent Status of Agricultural Biotechnology in Thailand
Current Status of Agricultural Biotechnology in Thailand
 
Creating and Implementing Biosafety Regulations: The Philippine Experience
Creating and Implementing Biosafety Regulations: The Philippine Experience Creating and Implementing Biosafety Regulations: The Philippine Experience
Creating and Implementing Biosafety Regulations: The Philippine Experience
 
Making Vegetable Markets Work
Making Vegetable Markets WorkMaking Vegetable Markets Work
Making Vegetable Markets Work
 
Soybean Value Chains for Rural Development
Soybean Value Chains for Rural DevelopmentSoybean Value Chains for Rural Development
Soybean Value Chains for Rural Development
 
Findings from the Study on Nutrition-Sensitive Value Chains in the Feed the F...
Findings from the Study on Nutrition-Sensitive Value Chains in the Feed the F...Findings from the Study on Nutrition-Sensitive Value Chains in the Feed the F...
Findings from the Study on Nutrition-Sensitive Value Chains in the Feed the F...
 
Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Ho...
Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Ho...Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Ho...
Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Ho...
 
The Livestock Sector in India: Progress and Challenges
The Livestock Sector in India: Progress and ChallengesThe Livestock Sector in India: Progress and Challenges
The Livestock Sector in India: Progress and Challenges
 
Production Diversity and Market Access for Predicting Animal-source Food Cons...
Production Diversity and Market Access for Predicting Animal-source Food Cons...Production Diversity and Market Access for Predicting Animal-source Food Cons...
Production Diversity and Market Access for Predicting Animal-source Food Cons...
 
The Quiet Revolution in Myanmar’s Aquaculture Value Chain
The Quiet Revolution in Myanmar’s Aquaculture Value ChainThe Quiet Revolution in Myanmar’s Aquaculture Value Chain
The Quiet Revolution in Myanmar’s Aquaculture Value Chain
 
Does e-commerce Increase Food Consumption in Rural Areas? Evidence from China
Does e-commerce Increase Food Consumption in Rural Areas? Evidence from ChinaDoes e-commerce Increase Food Consumption in Rural Areas? Evidence from China
Does e-commerce Increase Food Consumption in Rural Areas? Evidence from China
 
Impacting at Scale: From .5% to + 40%
Impacting at Scale: From .5% to + 40% Impacting at Scale: From .5% to + 40%
Impacting at Scale: From .5% to + 40%
 
Regulatory Cooperation in ASEAN Good Agricultural Practices
Regulatory Cooperation in ASEAN Good Agricultural PracticesRegulatory Cooperation in ASEAN Good Agricultural Practices
Regulatory Cooperation in ASEAN Good Agricultural Practices
 
Traditional Versus Modern Milk Marketing Chains in India: Implications for Sm...
Traditional Versus Modern Milk Marketing Chains in India: Implications for Sm...Traditional Versus Modern Milk Marketing Chains in India: Implications for Sm...
Traditional Versus Modern Milk Marketing Chains in India: Implications for Sm...
 
Pakistan’s Multi-Sectoral Nutrition Strategy
Pakistan’s Multi-Sectoral Nutrition Strategy Pakistan’s Multi-Sectoral Nutrition Strategy
Pakistan’s Multi-Sectoral Nutrition Strategy
 

Recently uploaded

Six Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal Ontology
Six Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal OntologySix Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal Ontology
Six Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal Ontologyjohnbeverley2021
 
Navigating the Large Language Model choices_Ravi Daparthi
Navigating the Large Language Model choices_Ravi DaparthiNavigating the Large Language Model choices_Ravi Daparthi
Navigating the Large Language Model choices_Ravi DaparthiRaviKumarDaparthi
 
Harnessing Passkeys in the Battle Against AI-Powered Cyber Threats.pptx
Harnessing Passkeys in the Battle Against AI-Powered Cyber Threats.pptxHarnessing Passkeys in the Battle Against AI-Powered Cyber Threats.pptx
Harnessing Passkeys in the Battle Against AI-Powered Cyber Threats.pptxFIDO Alliance
 
CORS (Kitworks Team Study 양다윗 발표자료 240510)
CORS (Kitworks Team Study 양다윗 발표자료 240510)CORS (Kitworks Team Study 양다윗 발표자료 240510)
CORS (Kitworks Team Study 양다윗 발표자료 240510)Wonjun Hwang
 
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...ScyllaDB
 
Top 10 CodeIgniter Development Companies
Top 10 CodeIgniter Development CompaniesTop 10 CodeIgniter Development Companies
Top 10 CodeIgniter Development CompaniesTopCSSGallery
 
Vector Search @ sw2con for slideshare.pptx
Vector Search @ sw2con for slideshare.pptxVector Search @ sw2con for slideshare.pptx
Vector Search @ sw2con for slideshare.pptxjbellis
 
AI mind or machine power point presentation
AI mind or machine power point presentationAI mind or machine power point presentation
AI mind or machine power point presentationyogeshlabana357357
 
ChatGPT and Beyond - Elevating DevOps Productivity
ChatGPT and Beyond - Elevating DevOps ProductivityChatGPT and Beyond - Elevating DevOps Productivity
ChatGPT and Beyond - Elevating DevOps ProductivityVictorSzoltysek
 
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream Processing
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream ProcessingEvent-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream Processing
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream ProcessingScyllaDB
 
الأمن السيبراني - ما لا يسع للمستخدم جهله
الأمن السيبراني - ما لا يسع للمستخدم جهلهالأمن السيبراني - ما لا يسع للمستخدم جهله
الأمن السيبراني - ما لا يسع للمستخدم جهلهMohamed Sweelam
 
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...panagenda
 
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptxTales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptxFIDO Alliance
 
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...ScyllaDB
 
“Iamnobody89757” Understanding the Mysterious of Digital Identity.pdf
“Iamnobody89757” Understanding the Mysterious of Digital Identity.pdf“Iamnobody89757” Understanding the Mysterious of Digital Identity.pdf
“Iamnobody89757” Understanding the Mysterious of Digital Identity.pdfMuhammad Subhan
 
TrustArc Webinar - Unified Trust Center for Privacy, Security, Compliance, an...
TrustArc Webinar - Unified Trust Center for Privacy, Security, Compliance, an...TrustArc Webinar - Unified Trust Center for Privacy, Security, Compliance, an...
TrustArc Webinar - Unified Trust Center for Privacy, Security, Compliance, an...TrustArc
 
Cyber Insurance - RalphGilot - Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.pptx
Cyber Insurance - RalphGilot - Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.pptxCyber Insurance - RalphGilot - Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.pptx
Cyber Insurance - RalphGilot - Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.pptxMasterG
 
Introduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDM
Introduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDMIntroduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDM
Introduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDMKumar Satyam
 
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptxDesign Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptxFIDO Alliance
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Six Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal Ontology
Six Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal OntologySix Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal Ontology
Six Myths about Ontologies: The Basics of Formal Ontology
 
Navigating the Large Language Model choices_Ravi Daparthi
Navigating the Large Language Model choices_Ravi DaparthiNavigating the Large Language Model choices_Ravi Daparthi
Navigating the Large Language Model choices_Ravi Daparthi
 
Harnessing Passkeys in the Battle Against AI-Powered Cyber Threats.pptx
Harnessing Passkeys in the Battle Against AI-Powered Cyber Threats.pptxHarnessing Passkeys in the Battle Against AI-Powered Cyber Threats.pptx
Harnessing Passkeys in the Battle Against AI-Powered Cyber Threats.pptx
 
CORS (Kitworks Team Study 양다윗 발표자료 240510)
CORS (Kitworks Team Study 양다윗 발표자료 240510)CORS (Kitworks Team Study 양다윗 발표자료 240510)
CORS (Kitworks Team Study 양다윗 발표자료 240510)
 
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Integrating Distributed Data Stores Ac...
 
Top 10 CodeIgniter Development Companies
Top 10 CodeIgniter Development CompaniesTop 10 CodeIgniter Development Companies
Top 10 CodeIgniter Development Companies
 
Vector Search @ sw2con for slideshare.pptx
Vector Search @ sw2con for slideshare.pptxVector Search @ sw2con for slideshare.pptx
Vector Search @ sw2con for slideshare.pptx
 
AI mind or machine power point presentation
AI mind or machine power point presentationAI mind or machine power point presentation
AI mind or machine power point presentation
 
ChatGPT and Beyond - Elevating DevOps Productivity
ChatGPT and Beyond - Elevating DevOps ProductivityChatGPT and Beyond - Elevating DevOps Productivity
ChatGPT and Beyond - Elevating DevOps Productivity
 
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream Processing
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream ProcessingEvent-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream Processing
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Challenges in Stream Processing
 
الأمن السيبراني - ما لا يسع للمستخدم جهله
الأمن السيبراني - ما لا يسع للمستخدم جهلهالأمن السيبراني - ما لا يسع للمستخدم جهله
الأمن السيبراني - ما لا يسع للمستخدم جهله
 
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
Easier, Faster, and More Powerful – Alles Neu macht der Mai -Wir durchleuchte...
 
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptxTales from a Passkey Provider  Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
Tales from a Passkey Provider Progress from Awareness to Implementation.pptx
 
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...
Event-Driven Architecture Masterclass: Engineering a Robust, High-performance...
 
“Iamnobody89757” Understanding the Mysterious of Digital Identity.pdf
“Iamnobody89757” Understanding the Mysterious of Digital Identity.pdf“Iamnobody89757” Understanding the Mysterious of Digital Identity.pdf
“Iamnobody89757” Understanding the Mysterious of Digital Identity.pdf
 
Overview of Hyperledger Foundation
Overview of Hyperledger FoundationOverview of Hyperledger Foundation
Overview of Hyperledger Foundation
 
TrustArc Webinar - Unified Trust Center for Privacy, Security, Compliance, an...
TrustArc Webinar - Unified Trust Center for Privacy, Security, Compliance, an...TrustArc Webinar - Unified Trust Center for Privacy, Security, Compliance, an...
TrustArc Webinar - Unified Trust Center for Privacy, Security, Compliance, an...
 
Cyber Insurance - RalphGilot - Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.pptx
Cyber Insurance - RalphGilot - Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.pptxCyber Insurance - RalphGilot - Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.pptx
Cyber Insurance - RalphGilot - Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.pptx
 
Introduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDM
Introduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDMIntroduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDM
Introduction to use of FHIR Documents in ABDM
 
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptxDesign Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
Design Guidelines for Passkeys 2024.pptx
 

The seed sector in Nepal- Ram Sah

  • 1. 1 Ram P. Sah, Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC) Singh Durbar Plaza, Kathmandu CONSTRAINTS TO SEED ADOPTION, MARKET AND TRADE IN NEPAL
  • 2. Nepal: National Seed System National Seed System Public Institutions •MOAD, NARC, NSB, DOA, DADO, SQCC, UAF, Gene banks, Biotech International Collaborators • CGIAR, Donors, INGOs, Bilat eral /Multilateral Projects, Multinationals, Farmers Communities FGs, HHs, CBSP, Social Activists Private Sector SEAN, FNCCI/AEC, Seed Co, Agrovets, Seed importers
  • 3. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 1991/92 1995/96 2000/01 2005/06 2010/11 2011/12 Area('000Ha),Production('000Mt)&Yield(Kg/Ha) Year Cereal Area, Production and Yield Trends (MOAD 2012) Area Production Yield Growth: Area 0.8%, Production 3.6%, Yield 2.5% Contributes: GDP 16.5% , AGDP 49.4%, FS 95%
  • 5. -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 %Growth Poor and Fluctuating GDP and AGDP Growths GDP AGDP
  • 6. Major Constraints to Effective Seed System • Inadequate location specific varietal choice • Ineffective seed planning: demands and supply mechanism/networks - access to source and high quality seeds, • Low capacity for seed processing and storage, proactive marketing • Low rate of seed replacement (<10% in cereals), • Inadequate seed quality assessment and certification capacity, • No priority for hybrid breeding in rice and maize, and vegetables due to weak national capacity and investment, • Limited options for increased private sector and multinationals participation in seed industry, • Unregulated cross-border flow of seeds (hybrids /OPVs): rice, maize and vegetables, • Conservative regulatory process and seed policies: Commitment, coordination, resources and effective implementation (Ag R&D funding intensity 0.26%).
  • 7. Breeder Seed Production and Demands Mt (SQCC 2011) Rice Wheat Maize Lentil Millet 2010/11 15.5 27.0 4.0 1.1 0.2 2011/12 27.8 45.3 8.1 0.4 0.2 Demand* 7.4 22.6 7.4 0.2 0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 BS(Mt)
  • 8. Rice Wheat Maize Lentil Millet 2010/11 341.3 171.6 120.8 8.8 2.2 2011/12 520.2 276.7 194.6 13.9 3.9 Demand* 231 296 38 8.5 0.4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 FS(Mt) Foundation Seed Production and Demands Mt (SQCC 2011)
  • 9. Cereal Seed Production Agencies (%) (CDD 2011) 40% 4% 1%1% 26% 4% 23% 1% DISPRO CBSP CSB Gvt Farms NSC STC Pvt Co NGOs Rice: 6649 Mt, Maize: 1827 Mt, Wheat: 8773 Mt, Lentil: 203 Mt
  • 10. Analysis of Varietal Release, Registration and Adoption (MOAD, 2012) Crop Var released (year)/OPVs Var registered/Hybrids Total Var in seed production (OPVs)2 Rice 67 (1967-2011) 18 (2010-11) 85 BS(24), FS (45) Popular (10) Maize 22 (1965-2010)1 15 (2010-11) 37 BS (10), FS (13), Popular (5) Wheat 32 (1960-2011) 0 32 BS (13), FS (18), Popular (5) Popular Varieties3 Rice Khumal 4(1987), Khumal 10 (2010), Khumal 13 (2010), Sabitri (1979), Radha 4 (1995), Radha 12 (1995), Sukha 3 (2011), Samba Masuli sub 1 (2011), Swarna Sub 1(2011), Hardinath 1 (2004) Maize Rampur Comp (1975), Arun 2 (1981), Man 3(2002), Deuti (2006), Poshilo Maize 1(2008) Wheat Vijay (2011), NL 297 (1985), Gautam (2004), Bhrikuti (1994), WK 1204 (2007) Notes: 1 Gaurav hybrid in Maize released by NARC in 2003 2 Value in parenthesis indicate number of varieties 3 Number in parenthesis indicate the year of release/registration Focus: Demand Driven Varieties Breeding and Scaling up Strategy
  • 11. Cost of Production and Returns (ABMDD 2013) 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 Rice-IG/T Rice-IG/MH Rice-UIG/T Rice-UIG/MH Wheat-UIG/T Wheat–IG/T Maize-UIG/MH Maize-IG/T/IT Net profit (Rs/ha) Gross income (Rs/ha) Total cost (Rs/ha) Incentives are poor in cereal seeds < Rs 10K/ha
  • 12. Cost and Returns of BS and FS Production NARC 2012 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 BS FS BS FS Bs FS Rice Wheat Maize Gross income Rs/ha) Total cost (Rs/ha) Net income (Rs/ha) Net returns are higher in rice than wheat and maize
  • 13. High Market Margins of CS (NSC) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Rice Wheat Maize Farmer cost Food price Producer incentice NSC margin Dealer margin Retailer margin Price Rs/Kg: Rice (35), Wheat (35) Maize 50/30)
  • 14. Major Cost Centers of BS and FS (%) NARC 2012-13 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Bs FS BS FS BS FS RiceWheatMaize Labor Fertilizers Others Price Rs/kg (BS/FS/CS ): Rice(70/40/35), Wheat ( 70/55/35), Maize (90/65/50)
  • 15. Seed System: Varietal Development and Maintenance Structure • Updated national research institutions: organized breeding on cereals-NARC (70%) • Effective collaborations with CGIARs • Increased GON supports for RWM R&D • Limited capacity and teams for Hybrid breeding • Lack effective PPP in varietal development Conduct • Weak R&D capacity • <11% FTE crop staff on breeding variety , Critical Teams? • < 20% crop research budget for variety and source seed prod. • Weak labs and logistics: modern biotech capacity? • 50% positions vacant: incentives? • Limited visionary, competent and committed project leaders. Performance • Inadequate demand driven varieties: slow release and adoption • Insufficient source seed stock of new varieties: Increased seed imports and exploitation (OPVs/hybrids) • IPR/FR motivation? • Inadequate capacity for hybrid variety • Lack effective policy to integrate PPP and multinationals-Hybrids
  • 16. Seed System: Seed Multiplication Structure •Modest R&D network for seeds: PPP •Weak integration between varietal development and seed multiplication chains • Huge labor cost followed by fertilizers and tillage, and the net returns are low (<Rs 10K/ha) •Weak infrastructure, and markets: both public and private sectors •Lack updated technical staff and capacity: small size of industry Conduct • Mismatch of BS-FS- CS/IS to address the farmers’ demands • New varieties from cross border is coming on big way that distort internal seed demands and supply • Non compliance of contract agreements: Policy implementation • Limited investment in seed multiplication, cereal seed production less attractive: • No policy and program for Buffer stock management Performance • Foundation seeds are being used as CS/IS seed • The cost of production is high (labor 60%, fertilizers 30%) and returns are low. • Weak Business and marketing intelligence, • Monitoring :24% seeds are poor quality • Insurance and compensation : quick and timely policy? • Alignment on seed subsidy and supports in : NSC and private sectors
  • 17. Seed System: Seed Marketing and Trade Structure • Inadequate seed marketing studies, intelligenc e • Poor Business enterprise: capacity and investment in marketing research • Infrastructure and labs • Weak structure and initiatives for scaling-up superior varieties, registere d hybrids Conduct • Updated seed Acts, Regulations and Guidelines : Seed Vision 2025 • Varietal Registration, Contract Farming, Compensatio n, IPR and FR Bill, promote PPP ?? • Lack commitment • High tariffs and bureaucratic delays in export markets • Cross border trade of seeds: formal/informal Performance • Uncontrolled flow of exotic seeds • Quality seeds and varieties • Low returns and B/C ratio-less incentives • Unregistered varieties of OPVs and hybrids • Inadequate performance monitoring and initiatives to promote superior varieties
  • 18. Policy Interventions and Guidelines •Regional release, friendly release/registration, decentralized release and certification, VARRS? Varietal release and registration • Incentives, mechanism, guidelines, WTO/TRIPS bindings, commitments FR , IPR, WTO, TRIPS • Compensation, quality, biosafety, insurance, subsidy, Hybrid variety Consumer protection and competition • Quality, competitive, biosafety, Hybrid var, buffer-stock, Harmonization, Plant quarantine capacity, WTO/TRIPS, IPR Import and export • Incentive, support price, implementation, Benefit/Cost analysis, market intelligence, subsidy aligned Pricing and incentives • GMO policy and guidelines, Harmonization, Capacity building(labs, staff, resources ) Biosafety regulations and implementation
  • 19. FINAL WAY-OUTS Seed industry slowly growing: components of the seed chain- integrated, demand driven, and efficient Work as business enterprise- with focused plans priorities, strategies, market analysis, and implementation strategy: costs and incentives Quality control is vital- a robust mechanism is important at various levels of production, processing, certification, storage and use Existing seed policies and regulations must be proactive to promote integrated initiatives and effective implementation Updated infrastructure and plant quarantine, international seed obligations, biosafety regulations to promote seed trade: Harmonization, GMO, Promote effective, efficient and sustainable PPP: Policy, mechanism, incentives & commitments

Editor's Notes

  1. Cereal production: Rice 54%, Maize 23%, Wheat 20% and millet 3%. Rice 2.5% growth in yield, 0.8% in area and 3.6% in production.GDP and AGDP growth estimated to decline to 3.5% (4.5%) and 1.6% (3.5%) respectively in 2013 due to drop in rice (11.3%), maize (8%) and millet (2%) production due to poor and erratic rains. 84% HHs food insecure, 43 districts food deficit. Rice import in 2013 Rs 8.5 billion .
  2. Net returns are &lt; Rs10,000/Ha in all cereals
  3. Only 10 rice, 5 wheat and 5 maize variety popular; Hybrids 80% maize in terai (80K ha), 20-30% rice hybrids-all imported