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Agriculture Extension system

  2. INTRODUCTION  Indian agricultural scheme- played a critical role in enhancing food production in India.  Focus shifted from production of food grains to income from agriculture, commercial farming and agri-business.  Union government play a major role in agricultural extension system by formulating different policies and provides road map through these policies, programmes and budgetary supports to the agriculture sector.
  3.  State government formulate region specific development programmes through its state development departments.  ICAR - an apex body of agricultural extension system at national level, supports research and extension to evolve effective transfer of technology models.  SAUs also contemplates to develop extension models suitable to take up transfer of technology besides implementing the model evolved by ICAR.  Voluntary organizations also play a crucial role in system by implementing the extension projects and work as per guidelines of each project.
  4.  Derived from the Latin word- ‘ex’ means ‘out’ tensio’ means ‘stretching’.  Education- a process of developing capabilities of the individuals so that they can adequately respond to their situation.
  5.  When and where did it originally begin  The word “Extension” was first time used in Britain in 1840 in the form of “University Extension” or “Extension of the University”.  In 1850, William Sewell of Britain used it in his report entitled “suggestions for the extension of the university”.  But, this word was first used in a practical way by James Stuart (Father of University Extension) of Trinity College, Cambridge University in 1867-68, when he was addressing “Women Association and Working Men’s Clubs” of North England.  In a formal way, Cambridge University in 1873, London University in
  6.  1876 and Oxford University in 1878 developed extension system, which worked among people. In 1880, his work came to be known as “Extension movement”.  In the eighth decade of the 19th century, the word Extension was used in the form of Extension education in U.S.A.  Why Extension  it is necessary that there should be such an institution, which should act as a bridge between scientists and farmers, it should introduce new techniques to the farmers and address the problems of farmers to the scientists. Research Centre ◄►Extension Personnel ◄► Problems of People.
  7.  Such an institution, which mediates between farmers and scientists was established and is called “ Extension system”.  Why Study Extension  It is more important to lay emphasis on “How to teach” instead of on “What to teach” so that the people can be encouraged to adopt new research techniques easily.  In other words, if a person is very knowledgeable of various methods and techniques but does not know how to explain them or express them, then his knowledge has no meaning. Therefore, the power to express knowledge and viewpoint also plays a crucial role.
  8. HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SYSTEM IN INDIA  A knowledge of early extension efforts shall serve as a useful background in understanding the development of system of agricultural extension in India.  The early extension efforts had two distinct pattern:-  There were attempts by some benevolent persons and private agencies to improve rural life  Attempts were made at the government level to initiate some projects to solve the pressing problems in agriculture
  9.  attempts were made by some benevolent persons and private agencies  Model Village Programme  Shri Niketan Project  Gurgaon Project  Gandhian Constructive Programme  Rural Reconstruction Programme  Marthandam Project  Indian Village Service
  10.  Attempts were made at the government level  The Famine Commission  The Government of India Act of 1919  The Royal Commission on Agriculture in India  Firka Development Scheme  Etawah Pilot Project  Fiskal Commission  Grow More Food Campaign
  11. COMPONENTS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SYSTEM  There are four major components of the Indian extension or transfer of technology system:-  Agricultural extension service with the state government  Extension education system of ICAR  Extension programme of input industries in public and private sectors and NGOs  Special rural development programmes of central and state governments
  12. EXTENSION APPROACHES OF STATE GOVERNMENT  The central government implements several scheme having transfer of technology through state government.  The main extension system comprises the Directorate of Extension in Union Ministry of Agriculture, that plans extension activities at national level and disseminates information through mass media and publication of literature.  There are various programmes implemented by the central government through state government
  13. 1. CDP (Community Development Programme) 2. NES (National Extension Service) 3. IADP (Intensive agriculture District Programme) 4. IAAP (Intensive Agricultural Area Programme) 5. HYVP (High Yielding Variety Programme) 6. SFDA (Small farmers Development Agency) 7. MFAL (Marginal Farmer and Agricultural Labour Development Programme) 8. IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme) 9. T&V System (Training and Visit System) 10. ATMA (Agriculture Technology Management Agency)
  14. ICAR ( INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH)  The ICAR plays a catalytic and supportive role in agricultural extension system  This system has three approaches  Special transfer of technology programme  Transfer of technology and training by the KVKs and TTCs  Training to the master trainers (subject matter specialist) through monthly workshop
  15.  Special transfer of technology programme 1. NDP (National Demonstration Project) 2. ORP (Operational Research Project) 3. LLP (Lab to Land Programme) 4. NARP (National Agricultural Research Project)
  16.  Transfer of technology and training by the KVKs and TTCs KVK (Krishi Vigyan Kendra)  The ICAR started a scheme to establish KVKs in the country during 1974.  There are 631 KVK in India during 2012.  The main objective of KVK is to provide need based and skill oriented vocational training to the farmers.  It conduct on farm testing to identify location specific agricultural technologies.  KVKs are creating awareness about improved agricultural technologies through large number of extension programmes.
  17.  Critical and quality inputs are produced by the KVKs and made available to the farmers.  There are three fundamental principles of KVK:- 1. Agricultural production as the prime goal 2. Work experience as the main method of imparting training 3. Priority to the weaker section of the society TTCs (trainers’ training centres)  TTC have been established in specialized subject in the ICAR institutions for in-service training to the trainers/teachers of the KVK  Main objectives of TTC is to help the participants to set up income generating units in their own operation areas.
  18. INPUT INDUSTRIES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS AND MEDIA ORGANIZATIONS  Private input companies are involved only in the transfer of chemical, mechanical and biological technologies developed by them.  Public sector companies and seed corporations also undertake transfer of technology activities related to the sale of their products i.e., farm inputs.  The Media organizations (Print and electronic media) are disseminating timely information on weather, technical information and marketing
  19. SAUS (STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY)  The SAUs play a major role in agricultural extension system.  The SAUs have evolved several innovative extension models to effectively reach the farming community.  The SAUs publish agriculture literature (books, package of practices, booklets, folders, and leaflets) in local languages.  Mobile message services and Kissan Call Centre are providing timely information to the farming community regarding agricultural technologies, weather data and market information.
  20. EXTENSION ROLES OF AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITIES  The university education commission (1994) recommended the establishment of ‘rural university’ in India.  The two joint American teams on agri. Research and education (1954-55 and 1959-60) recommended the setting up of agri. University.  The 1st agri. University was established at Pantnagar in 1960.  The extension role of agri. Universities are:- 1. State wise responsibility for teaching, research and extension.
  21. 2. Integration of teaching, research and extension at all level of university administration. 3. Multi-disciplinary team work 4. Quick communication of new knowledge 5. To provide specialized training to the rural youth, adult men and women. 6. Acceptance of philosophy of service to agriculture and rural community.  The role of extension education set up in the agri. University should be broadly as follows:- 1. Teaching in extension education
  22.  The agri. University should perform mainly the following functions:- 1. Conduct survey and pinpoint farmers’ problems for research 2. Conduct adaptive/on farm trial 3. Conduct demonstration on farmers’ field 4. Provide advisory service to the farmer 5. Conduct training programmes 6. Provide information communication supports 7. Evaluate the project works and identify problems for further research
  23. VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS OR NGOS  The voluntary organizations play a very important role in agricultural extension system.  They are more competent at facilitating farmers to learn from own experiences and from each other.  The characteristics of these organizations according to Hedge (1993) 1. Most VOs have been established with the basic objective of serving the rural community 2. Most VOs are small organizations that concentrate on a particular area
  24. 3. VOs may be able to persuade farmers to adopt new technologies 4. VOs can modify general plans and models to suit local needs 5. VOs generally are strong in programme management 6. VOs are primary service organizations and generally hard working and efficient in comparison to government extension agencies.