Media and Pedagogical Normativity Dr. Norm Friesen
Overview• Media = “talk and action,” reading & writing, technical media• Normativity = performance standards & the “common good” affirmed in Bildung• Two traditions: – Media as neutral, particularly inside the classroom – Media as constitutive of the good and values of education from the start
[I] did myself, by the understandingwhich Thou, my God, gavest me,practice the sounds in my memory.Then they named anything, and asthey spoke turned towards it, I sawand remembered that they called whatthey would point out by the name theyuttered.... By repeatedly hearing wordsin particular positions in varioussentences, I gradually learned whichthings the various words stood for;and having acclimated my mouth tothese signs, I thereby gave utteranceto my will.
be clear, and by that, firmand solid, if whatever istaught and learned, be notobscure, or confused, butapparent, distinct, andarticulate, as the fingers onthe hands. The ground of thisbusiness, is that sensualobjects may be rightlypresented to the senses, forfear they may not bereceived.
I say, and say it againaloud, that this last isthe foundation of allthe rest: because wecan neither act norspeak wisely, unlesswe first rightly under-stand all the thingswhich are to be done,and whereof we are tospeak.
• Modality principle: People learn better from animation and narration than from animation and on-screen text.• Redundancy principle: People learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and on-screen text.• Coherence principle: People learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included.• Spatial contiguity principle: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen.
writing is inferior to speech. For it is like a picture,which can give no answer to a question, and has onlya deceitful likeness of a living creature. It has nopower of adaptation, but uses the same words for all.It is not a legitimate son of knowledge, but a bastard,and when an attack is made upon this bastardneither parent nor anyone else is there to defend it.The husbandman will not seriously incline to sow hisseed in such a hot–bed or garden of Adonis; he willrather sow in the natural soil of the human soulwhich has depth of earth
three ways of writing correspondalmost exactly to three differentstages according to which onecan consider men gathered intoa nation. The depicting of objectsis appropriate to a savagepeople; signs of words and ofpropositions, to a barbaricpeople; and the alphabet tocivilized people. (1966, 17)
for 2500 years the philosophers of the Western world have excluded all technologyfrom the matter-form in entelechy treatment. Innis spent much of his life trying to explain how Greek culture had been destroyed by writing and its effects on their oral tradition. Innis also spent much of his life trying to draw attention to the psychic and social consequences of technologies. It did not occur to him that our philosophy systematically excludes t e c h n e from its meditations. Only natural and living forms are classified as hylo-morphic. (Letters)
…the ground rules according to which reality is constructed forchildren are not simply changed; instead, a whole new systemof rules emerges. Culture is no longer presented to the childas a seamless whole, but only in part. The part that ispresented is offered through a kind of pedagogical rehearsalor practice, as it would be for someone from a foreign land. …the realm of schooling consists of a huge montage of imagesand representations which are not “the things themselves” butthat instead “point out” things and phenomena. Oureducational system would descend into chaos if our schoolswere suddenly emptied of …all educational [images andillustrations,] all “academic subjects” and textbooks –including forms of representation such as this book. This[constitutes the] massive arsenal of educational contents,methods and aims, through which modern educationalpractice has evolved.