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Realism naturalism


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Realism naturalism

  1. 1. Realism--Naturalism Regionalism Late Nineteenth Century American Literary Techniques
  2. 2. Real--Natural--Regional <ul><li>Reactions against Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Better described as “writing techniques” than “philosophies” </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalism developed from Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Regional writers could also be Realists or Naturalists </li></ul>
  3. 3. Real--Natural--Regional <ul><li>Romantics / Transcendentalists tried to find the ideal; believed the individual was equal to a god </li></ul><ul><li>Realists focus on “the faithful representation of reality”; believed the individual was simply a person </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalists apply scientific principles to the study of humans without moralizing; believe the individual is a helpless object </li></ul><ul><li>Regionalists try to capture a location: description, dialect, traditions and heritage </li></ul>
  4. 4. Realism <ul><li>Humans control their own destinies; characters act on their environment rather than simply reacting to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Character is superior to circumstance </li></ul>
  5. 5. Realism-Definition <ul><li>About recreating life in literature: “the experienced commonplace.” </li></ul><ul><li>Character more important than plot </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the actualities of any aspect of life without idealism </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses the real over the fantastic </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on morality </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are in control of their own destinies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Realism-Characteristics <ul><li>Character more important than action or plot; complex ethical choices </li></ul><ul><li>Characters appear in real complexity: temperament, motive, social class, past </li></ul><ul><li>Class is important </li></ul><ul><li>Events will be plausible </li></ul><ul><li>Diction is natural, written as people talk, not poetically </li></ul>
  7. 7. Realism in Literature <ul><li>Settings thoroughly familiar to the writer </li></ul><ul><li>Plots emphasizing the norm of daily experience </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary characters studied in depth </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible morality; a world truly reported </li></ul>
  8. 8. Naturalism <ul><li>Characters do not have free will; external and internal forces, environment, or heredity control their behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Determinism: free will does exist, but the will is often enslaved on account of different reasons. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Naturalism-Definition <ul><li>An extension or continuation of Realism with the addition of pessimistic determinism </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with raw and unpleasant experiences which reduce characters to “degrading” behavior in their struggle to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Set in the commonplace and unheroic; life is usually the dull round of daily existence </li></ul>
  10. 10. Naturalism-Characteristics <ul><li>Objectivity and detachment in study of human beings; people are to be studied impartially, without moralizing about their natures/choices </li></ul><ul><li>Characters mostly from lower middle or the lower classes; poor, uneducated, unsophisticated </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of fate; generally the controlling force is society and the surrounding environment </li></ul>
  11. 11. Naturalism in Literature <ul><li>Naturalist introduced new topics to broaden the scope of American fiction: exposure of social conditions and social evils, lives of the lower classes </li></ul><ul><li>Characters conditioned and controlled by the environment, heredity, chance, or instinct </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle for life and to maintain human dignity becomes heroic </li></ul>
  12. 12. Regionalism <ul><li>Also called “local color” literature </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the characters, dialect, customs, landscape, and other features particular to a specific region. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically a short story technique </li></ul><ul><li>May at times seem overly sentimental or nostalgic </li></ul>
  13. 13. Regionalism <ul><li>Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on nature and the limits it sets. Settings are frequently remote and are always integral to the story. Setting may sometimes become a character in itself. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Regionalism <ul><li>Characters </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with the character of the region rather than the individual; characters may become “character types” sometimes stereotypical. Marked by adherence to the old ways, dialect, and personality traits central to the region. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Regionalism <ul><li>Narrator </li></ul><ul><li>Typically an educated observer from another area; serves as a go-between for audience and rural folk of the story </li></ul><ul><li>Plots </li></ul><ul><li>Little action; stories include storytelling by the characters and revolve around community and its rituals </li></ul>
  16. 16. Regionalism <ul><li>Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Antipathy toward change </li></ul><ul><li>Nostalgia for a past “golden age” </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration of community and acceptance in the face of adversity </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between urban ways and old-fashioned rural values </li></ul>