NA
Natural Approach:NA
The term natural approach (or natural method) was first used in the
nineteenth century to describe ...
These can be combined with communicative speaking tasks, such as
„describe-and-draw‟ or „spot-the-difference‟, where learn...
Credit : http://www.onestopenglish.com/support/ask-theexperts/methodology-questions/methodology-the-naturalapproach/146401...
Framework for Reference (CEFR) has no section for culture but several
cultural references spread through its examples. Pre...
misunderstanding between cultures and presents them for discussion. We
should exchange our recommendations on materials. I...
Conclusion
When we discuss the teaching of cultural awareness as a skill as opposed
to teaching cultural information, we h...
issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner‟s words, it entails the ability to
detect patterns, reason deductively and think ...
Many people recognize that each person prefers different learning styles
and techniques. Learning styles group common ways...
can create positive and negative spirals that reinforce the belief that one is
“smart” or “dumb”.
By recognizing and under...
Research shows us that each learning style uses different parts of the brain.
By involving more of the brain during learni...
Learning or instructional strategies determine the approach for achieving
the learning objectives and are included in the ...
Thus the learning objectives point you towards the instructional strategies,
while the instructional strategies will point...
methods (bottom rows. Bloom‟s Taxonomy (the right three columns) runs
from top to bottom, with the lower level behaviors b...
3. Team Game – place students in heterogeneous groups of 4-5 by ability
and have them review material during this “team” p...
Authentic Material in teaching English

Using authentic materials is one of the mainstays of an imaginative and
motivating...
Aren‟t authentic materials too difficult?Yes they are, but that‟s the point!
Your text, written or recorded, is likely to ...
broadcasts. The task should be simple and relatively undemanding, and it
is important to pre-teach key vocabulary so as to...
Authentic material
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Authentic material

  1. 1. NA Natural Approach:NA The term natural approach (or natural method) was first used in the nineteenth century to describe teaching methods, such as the direct method, that attempted to mirror the processes of learning a first language. Translation and grammar explanations were rejected, learners were exposed to sequences of actions, and the spoken form was taught before the written form. The term was resurrected by Tracy Terrell in the 1970s to describe a similar kind of approach. Learners were initially exposed to meaningful language, not forced to speak until they felt ready to, and not corrected or given explicit grammar instruction. The method was characterized by a lot of teacher talk, made intelligible through the use of visual aids and actions. The method was endorsed by Stephen Krashen, whose input hypothesis gave it theoretical validity. It also shared many principles in common with Total Physical Response (TPR). These included the importance of comprehensible input, and of promoting positive affect in the learning process. The natural approach seems to have become absorbed into what are generally known as humanistic teaching practices and whole language learning. As for practical ways of implementing these principles, this will depend on the level of the class. At beginner level, lots of TPR activities are called for, where learners simply respond to instructions by performing physical actions, such as pointing at things, handing each other objects, standing, walking, sitting down, writing and drawing. At higher levels, the focus is still on providing comprehensible input, in the form of listening or reading tasks, where learners order pictures, fill in grids, follow maps, and so on.
  2. 2. These can be combined with communicative speaking tasks, such as „describe-and-draw‟ or „spot-the-difference‟, where learners work in pairs to exchange information about pictures. The important thing is that there is no grammar „agenda‟ as such: the learners perform the tasks to the best of their ability. New input – and hence the „push‟ to improve – comes from watching the teacher or a more proficient speaker perform the same tasks. In this sense, the natural approach is not much different from task-based learning, but with perhaps more emphasis on comprehension than production. A typical natural approach lesson at elementary to intermediate level might go something like this: 1. The teacher shows a set of pictures of, say, food and drink, repeating the word that goes with each with one; the students simply watch and listen. 2. The pictures are displayed around the room, and the students are asked to point at the appropriate picture when the teacher names it. 3. The students listen to a tape of a person (or the teacher) describing what they habitually eat at different meals; the students tick the items they hear on a worksheet. 4. The students are then given a gapped transcript of the previous listening activity, and they fill in the gaps from memory, before listening again to check. 5. The students, in pairs, take turns to read aloud the transcript to one another. 6. The students, still in their pairs, tell each other what they typically eat, using the transcript as a model. 7. They repeat the task with another partner, this time without referring to the model.
  3. 3. Credit : http://www.onestopenglish.com/support/ask-theexperts/methodology-questions/methodology-the-naturalapproach/146401.article Culture Making Culture Happen in English Language Classroom Where does culture fit? What discipline does culture belong to? Culture has many mothers – academic disciplines that have influenced its development. One is linguistics, which has provided the concepts of language analysis that are the basis of inter-cultural communication. Another is psychology, that has provided many of the concepts we use in understanding people‟s motivation and behaviour. Two other disciplines, sociology and anthropology, have both influenced our study of behaviour and also the influences that form social values in different communities. So we can say that cultural awareness is an interdisciplinary subject that draws on the resources of a variety of humanistic disciplines to profile the aptitudes and skills required to understand and work successfully in another culture. To my mind, the skills of cultural awareness are part of the newly developed subject of emotional intelligence, created by psychologist Daniel Goleman at Harvard University. However, you may well identify other „mothers‟ and other antecedents and other homes for the study of cultural awareness or cultural competence. Culture in the curriculum Once you have discussed the roots of culture then you can search for its appearance in the curriculum. The Council of Europe Common European
  4. 4. Framework for Reference (CEFR) has no section for culture but several cultural references spread through its examples. Pretty much all textbooks at secondary level and upwards now have a cultural syllabus and many primary ELT books make room for a „culture spot‟ or „cultural corner‟. My concern in such resources is that the syllabus is really „tacked on‟ to the topic area of the textbook unit and has no real consistency of development as a skills set on its own. One writer, Simon Greenall, who has an informed interest in this subject, has tried to tackle the cultural agenda in his Macmillan textbook „People like Us‟. Simon chooses other cultures as his subject. But should we be teaching a specific culture? For example, British or US culture. If so, why exclude Australian, Canadian, New Zealand, Singapore or Indian culture, all of whom have English medium instruction, as do some other countries. When should we introduce culture in English language teaching? Do students need to understand basic English before they begin looking at culture and if so what level are we talking about? Is it A1, A2, or B1 or even B2 according to the CEFR (Council of Europe Framework of Reference)? It would be good to have your views and your experience. Cultural materials Culture tends to be relegated to a specific section in textbooks or to be the subject of readers. Yet you could argue that every photo, drawing, reading package and dialogue is the subject not just of linguistic exploitation but of cultural discussion and debate. Nowadays our textbooks contain print, audio, CDROM and DVD components and even dedicated websites. Are these better avenues for teaching cultural awareness and if so what should we be putting in them? Teachers of Professional English often complain about the lack of „critical incident methodology‟ video material which highlights key areas of
  5. 5. misunderstanding between cultures and presents them for discussion. We should exchange our recommendations on materials. I‟ll gladly share mine if you‟ll share yours. An important question is how can we best incorporate cultural material in our teaching materials? Should we provide more cultural input in our ELT textbooks or should we „deculturalise‟ our textbooks to give them the widest application? The issue of de-coupling English language from cultural assumptions and background is a longstanding debate in ELT. Once again it would be good to know what you think. Cultural methodology How should we teach cultural awareness? Should we be teaching it as a special slot, such as a culture corner or culture spot in the lesson, or should each lesson seek to contain a cultural awareness skill that students develop through working through the textbook and associated materials? Should we be teaching the skills of identifying culturally significant information, how to research cultural information and how to develop cultural skills? Should we have lectures and presentations where we tell our students what they need to know? Should we be using task-based learning and discovery techniques to help our students learn for themselves? Are some methods more appropriate than others for teachers who are not native-speakers (and may be less familiar with the culture) or have large classes of sixty or more students? In other words, when do you include culture in your lessons and how do you teach it? What methodology works for you?
  6. 6. Conclusion When we discuss the teaching of cultural awareness as a skill as opposed to teaching cultural information, we have to consider a number of issues, such as the curriculum, the materials and the methodology. The challenge is to initiate a debate on what and how to teach to help develop our children as international citizens of the world, using English and other languages as their lingua franca. There‟s plenty to talk about from the „high ground‟ of theory to the „low ground‟ of what to do in the classroom, both really important. Once again, I really look forward to meeting you on the Internet. MI Multiple Intelligence : MI Howard Gardner initially formulated a list of seven intelligence. His listing was provisional. The first two have been typically valued in schools; the next three are usually associated with the arts; and the final two are what Howard Gardner called „personal intelligences‟ (Gardner 1999: 41-43). Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence. Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate
  7. 7. issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner‟s words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one‟s whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related. Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence. Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one‟s feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner‟s view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. Learning Styles Learning Styles
  8. 8. Many people recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and techniques. Learning styles group common ways that people learn. Everyone has a mix of learning styles. Some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use of the other styles. Others may find that they use different styles in different circumstances. There is no right mix. Nor are your styles fixed. You can develop ability in less dominant styles, as well as further develop styles that you already use well. Many people recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and techniques. Learning styles group common ways that people learn. Everyone has a mix of learning styles. Some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use of the other styles. Others may find that they use different styles in different circumstances. There is no right mix. Nor are your styles fixed. You can develop ability in less dominant styles, as well as further develop styles that you already use well. Using multiple learning styles and ¡multiple intelligences¡ for learning is a relatively new approach. This approach is one that educators have only recently started to recognize. Traditional schooling used (and continues to use) mainly linguistic and logical teaching methods. It also uses a limited range of learning and teaching techniques. Many schools still rely on classroom and book-based teaching, much repetition, and pressured exams for reinforcement and review. A result is that we often label those who use these learning styles and techniques as ¡bright.¡ Those who use less favored learning styles often find themselves in lower classes, with various not-so-complimentary labels and sometimes lower quality teaching. This
  9. 9. can create positive and negative spirals that reinforce the belief that one is “smart” or “dumb”. By recognizing and understanding your own learning styles, you can use techniques better suited to you. This improves the speed and quality of your learning. The Seven Learning Styles Visual (spatial):You prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding. Aural (auditory-musical): You prefer using sound and music. Verbal (linguistic): You prefer using words, both in speech and writing. Physical (kinesthetic): You prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch. Logical (mathematical): You prefer using logic, reasoning and systems. Social (interpersonal): You prefer to learn in groups or with other people. Solitary (intrapersonal): You prefer to work alone and use selfstudy. Why Learning Styles? Understand the basis of learning styles Your learning styles have more influence than you may realize. Your preferred styles guide the way you learn. They also change the way you internally represent experiences, the way you recall information, and even the words you choose. We explore more of these features in this chapter.
  10. 10. Research shows us that each learning style uses different parts of the brain. By involving more of the brain during learning, we remember more of what we learn. Researchers using brain-imaging technologies have been able to find out the key areas of the brain responsible for each learning style. For example: Visual: The occipital lobes at the back of the brain manage the visual sense. Both the occipital and parietal lobes manage spatial orientation. Aural: The temporal lobes handle aural content. The right temporal lobe is especially important for music. Verbal: The temporal and frontal lobes, especially two specialized areas called Broca¡s and Wernicke¡s areas (in the left hemisphere of these two lobes). Physical: The cerebellum and the motor cortex (at the back of the frontal lobe) handle much of our physical movement. Logical: The parietal lobes, especially the left side, drive our logical thinking. Social: The frontal and temporal lobes handle much of our social activities. The limbic system (not shown apart from the hippocampus) also influences both the social and solitary styles. The limbic system has a lot to do with emotions, moods and aggression. Solitary: The frontal and parietal lobes, and the limbic system, are also active with this style. Learning Strategies Learning Strategies
  11. 11. Learning or instructional strategies determine the approach for achieving the learning objectives and are included in the pre-instructional activities, information presentation, learner activities, testing, and follow-through. The strategies are usually tied to the needs and interests of students to enhance learning and are based on many types of learning styles (Ekwensi, Moranski, &Townsend-Sweet, 2006). Thus the learning objectives point you towards the instructional strategies, while the instructional strategies will point you to the medium that will actually deliver the instruction, such as elearning, self-study, classroom, or OJT. However, do not fall into the trap of using only one medium when designing your course. . . use a blended approach. Although some people use the terms interchangeably, objectives, strategies, and media, all have separate meanings. For example, your learning objective might be “Pull the correct items for a customer order;” the instructional strategies are a demonstration, have a question and answer period, and then receive hands-on practice by actually performing the job, while the media might be a combination of elearning and OJT. Learning Strategies or Instructional Strategies Learning or instructional strategies determine the approach for achieving the learning objectives and are included in the pre-instructional activities, information presentation, learner activities, testing, and follow-through. The strategies are usually tied to the needs and interests of students to enhance learning and are based on many types of learning styles (Ekwensi, Moranski, &Townsend-Sweet, 2006).
  12. 12. Thus the learning objectives point you towards the instructional strategies, while the instructional strategies will point you to the medium that will actually deliver the instruction, such as elearning, self-study, classroom, or OJT. However, do not fall into the trap of using only one medium when designing your course. . . use a blended approach. Although some people use the terms interchangeably, objectives, strategies, and media, all have separate meanings. For example, your learning objective might be “Pull the correct items for a customer order;” the instructional strategies are a demonstration, have a question and answer period, and then receive hands-on practice by actually performing the job, while the media might be a combination of elearning and OJT. The Instructional Strategy Selection Chart shown below is a general guideline for selecting the learning strategy. It is based on Bloom‟s Taxonomy (Learning Domains). The matrix generally runs from the passive learning methods (top rows) to the more active participation methods (bottom rows. Bloom‟s Taxonomy (the right three columns) runs from top to bottom, with the lower level behaviors being on top and the higher behaviors being on the bottom. That is, there is a direct correlation in learning: Lower levels of performance can normally be taught using the more passive learning methods. Higher levels of performance usually require some sort of action or involvement by the learners. The Instructional Strategy Selection Chart shown below is a general guideline for selecting the learning strategy. It is based on Bloom‟s Taxonomy (Learning Domains). The matrix generally runs from the passive learning methods (top rows) to the more active participation
  13. 13. methods (bottom rows. Bloom‟s Taxonomy (the right three columns) runs from top to bottom, with the lower level behaviors being on top and the higher behaviors being on the bottom. That is, there is a direct correlation in learning: Lower levels of performance can normally be taught using the more passive learning methods. Higher levels of performance usually require some sort of action or involvement by the learners. Co-op learning Cooperative learning How to use Cooperative learning Steps: 1. Select a instructional topic and present it to the students (e.g. the Constitution). 2. Develop a list of questions on the topic. Number them. Cut out small pieces of paper and number them so that the total matches the number of questions that you have developed for the topic to measure understanding (e.g. if you have 35 questions, create small pieces of paper with numbers 1-35 on them). Give a set of questions to one student in each group who reads the questions as their corresponding numbers are drawn from the pile. *Tip: have students place any numbers for which they were unable to come up with the correct answers in a small bag. Collect those numbers and use them to guide what you will reteach.
  14. 14. 3. Team Game – place students in heterogeneous groups of 4-5 by ability and have them review material during this “team” phase by selecting a number from the pile. Groups must be equal in size. Give each group a “Letter Identity” (e.g. Group A) and each student a Number Identity (e.g. Student 1). Students must answer the question that matches the number they selected from the pile. For example, if a student selects #22 from the pile and question #22 is “Why is government divided into 3 branches,” that student is challenged to answer that question. If he or she cannot come up with an answer, a teammate can “steal” the question. Teams share knowledge during this phase of the lesson. (i.e. teach their teammates). 4. Tournament- place students in new groups made up of individuals from each of the “Team Review” tables (step 2). All “Students 1s” go to Table 1 (these might be lower achieving students) while all “Student 2s” (higher achieving) go to Table 2. In the “Game” phase, students are placed in homogeneous groups with students of similar ability and compete against one another. For every question a student answers correctly, he or she earns a point. One person at each “tournament table” must keep scores for every individual at the “Game” table. 5. Students return to their Team Game tables and report their scores. Team scores are compared and the winning team earns a reward. 6. Students take an assessment. The scores for each Team (e.g. A, B, C…) are compiled and averaged. Offer “bonus points” for the team that earns the highest average and/or “improvement points” to the team that improves its average the most over previous assessments. Authentic Material
  15. 15. Authentic Material in teaching English Using authentic materials is one of the mainstays of an imaginative and motivating higher level course, but rarely features at levels lower than intermediate. There are several reasons for this, primarily a kind of fear that students will panic when faced with language that is largely unfamiliar, and a feeling that to prevent this the language should be edited to the students‟ level. This is an unnecessary fear, as using authentic materials can be rewarding and stimulating for both teacher and students. Sources Aren‟t authentic materials too difficult? An example The question of levels Dealing with unknown language Conclusion SourcesWhen people first think of authentic materials they usually assume that we are talking about newspaper and magazine articles. However, the term can also encompass such things as songs, web pages, radio & TV broadcasts, films, leaflets, flyers, posters, indeed anything written in the target language and used unedited in the classroom. The materials used, will of course, depend on the ‘usual’ factors: topic target language area skills students‟ needs and interests It‟s no good trying to get your students fascinated by a text on the latest art movie if they are all fans of action films. You might as well save your time and energy and just use the text book!
  16. 16. Aren‟t authentic materials too difficult?Yes they are, but that‟s the point! Your text, written or recorded, is likely to be too hard, even, in some cases, for advanced students. The trick, regardless of the text used, is not to edit and grade the text, but to grade the task according to your students‟ abilities. This is for three reasons: most importantly, it reflects the kind of situation your students may face in an English-speaking environment, it saves you time and energy (more of an added bonus than a reason) and lastly it encourages and motivates your students when they can ‘conquer’ a real text. An exampleThe same text could be used in a variety of different ways. Let us take a tourist information leaflet. This kind of authentic material has the added advantage that it can be easily and swiftly ordered for free and in multiple copies from tourist boards and agencies. This also removes issues of copyright, which is a common problem of using authentic materials and should be checked depending on your particular situation. (Some countries allow a small number of copies to be made for educational purposes, but this can vary.) With a little pre-teaching a low level class can use the leaflet to find out key information,‘What is the telephone number for..?’ or ’When is..?’ and so on. At higher levels the same text could be used together with similar or related texts to form part of a research project (in this case, web sites, posters and similar leaflets spring to mind). The question of levelsNaturally certain texts will lend themselves more easily to certain levels. At lower levels some possibilities include leaflets, timetables, menus, short headline type reports, audio and video advertising, or short news
  17. 17. broadcasts. The task should be simple and relatively undemanding, and it is important to pre-teach key vocabulary so as to prevent panic. At more intermediate levels this list could be expanded to include longer articles, four or five minute TV or radio news reports, a higher quantity of shorter items, or even whole TV programmes, if your copyright agreements allow it. Again pre-teaching is important, although your students should be able to deal with unknown vocabulary to some extent. At higher levels it‟s a case of anything goes. At an advanced level students should have some tactics for dealing with new vocabulary without panicking, but it‟s still useful to have a few quick definitions to hand for some of the trickier stuff! Dealing with unknown languageAs can be seen, a key skill here is dealing with unknown language, in particular vocabulary. It is hard to cover this topic here, as there are several methods, although one which seems immediately appropriate is the skill of ignoring it, if they can complete the task without it! Especially with lower levels, it needs to be emphasised that students do not have to understand everything. I‟ve found that students don‟t often believe you until you go through a few tasks with them. Teaching them this skill, and developing their confidence at coping with the unknown is an important element in their development as independent learners. ConclusionAs can be seen, using authentic materials is a relatively easy and convenient way of improving not only your students‟ general skills, but also their confidence in a real situation. This is only a brief introduction to the ideas involved, but some of these ideas could easily be expanded to form part of a motivating and effective course. If you have any suggestions or tips for using authentic materials in the class you would like to share on this site, contact us.

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