Overview• What is educational content?• Challenges in thinking about educational content• Textbooks and content: – Content structures and dynamics in textbooks – Series, Hierarchy, Network/CORE Cycle – Other design issues• Two Examples: Elsevier versus Wikibooks
Content"We learn anywhere, anytime, anyplace;there are opportunities to learn all around useveryday. We learn in the home, office, onthe road. Likewise, educational content canbe shaped to fit all kinds of useful deliverymedia that is convenient, user-friendly, and(most important) serves the educationalneed of members without the content beingshortchanged or trivialized." Smith, J.(2001)
Constructivism• Emphasize knowledge construction, not reproduction• Providing complex learning environments that incorporate authentic (scientific) activity. • Support multiple perspectives and the use of multiple modes of representation.• Case-based/problem-based learning• Represent the natural complexity of the real world
Chambliss & Calfee Textbooks for Learning• “textbooks come in layers, something like an onion. The entire book, the outer husk, as signaled in the table of contents seldom receives the attention it deserves.”• How are the layers of the textbook constituted and combined?• Through structures on the level of sections and rhetoric (“rhetorical patterns”)
How is this done?• Connect: examples, relevant images, aesthetics, questions• Organize: design - column(s), page, section, chapter, table(s) of contents; rhetoric: structures covered above• Reflect: exercises, discussion, references and reviews, questions• Extend: examples, exercises, questions
Conceptual Development• First to Last • Problem and Solution• Least to Most • Whole to Parts Important • Concept to• Known to Unknown Description• Cause and Effect • Similarities and Differences• General and Specific Instances • Spatial ordering
These can all be combined:How many Dimensions are there?
Sample (e)Textbook features• Instructor tools • Learner tools – Instructor support side – Discussion questions – Presentation slides – Extended learning support – – Exam prep Class outlines – Flash cards – Extended resources – Mobile access – LMS-like tools – CD ROMs – Customization – Search – Note-taking – Highlighting – Bookmarking
Traditional textbook development processes• Multiple authors• Editors/proofreaders• Media specialists• Art department• Designers• Reviewers• Production/technical• Copyright specialists
“Psychology is an academic and applied disciplineinvolving the scientific study ofmental processes and behavior. Psych-ology also refers to the application of suchknowledge to various spheres of human activity,including relating to individuals’ daily lives andthe treatment of mental illness.”“Psychology differs from the other social sciences— anthropology, economics, political science, andsociology — in that psychology seeks to explainthe mental processes and behavior ofindividuals.
Pedagogical KnowledgeExhibits a number of characteristics distinguishingit from scientific knowledge. As a rule it ...•only looks at a part of the whole•(radically) simplifies this knowledge•integrates it into a logical-seeming context•avoids contradictions and exceptions•makes knowledge appealing by means of varioustools (slides, films, experiments, murals)•is taught with maximum efficiency