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T O K Intro To Ethics


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SIS TOK related intro to Ethics

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T O K Intro To Ethics

  1. 1. An Introduction to Ethics SIS Theory of Knowledge
  2. 2. ETHICS and the US Presidential election?
  3. 3. Politics and Ethics… <ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. Do the right thing…
  5. 5. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? ‘ One of the things that distinguishes humans from other animals is our ability to make moral decisions.’
  6. 6. Session1: Key Issues <ul><li>What is ethics and morality? </li></ul><ul><li>Are moral standards Universal or Relative ? </li></ul>
  8. 8. ‘ If you’re going to study ethics seriously, you must be prepared to examine your views critically and be open to a range of ideas that may be quite different from your own’. R.Bowie Are you ready for the challenge of studying ethics??
  9. 9. What is ethics? <ul><li>Ethics : from Greek word ethikos, meaning ‘character’. Refers to customary way to behave in society </li></ul><ul><li>Morality : from Latin word moralis, concerned with which actions are right and which are wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Today terms are used interchangeably </li></ul>
  10. 10. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? WHAT makes an action come within the scope of morality? WHAT sorts of things is morality all about? WHAT makes an act enter the moral arena? WHAT criteria do we use in order to identify moral actions?
  11. 11. Task : What makes something moral? <ul><li>Complete M.O.R.A.L. questionnaire on pg.9 of workbook. Decide whether they are good, bad or morally neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Make a table listing some of the features that moral actions / morally neutral actions have in common </li></ul><ul><li>Examine range of magazine tabloid articles / newspaper headline. Categorize actions into good, bad or morally neutral (bring one example of each to tomorrow’s lesson) </li></ul>
  12. 12. What makes an action ‘moral’? <ul><li>A moral act involves an agent </li></ul><ul><li>A moral act involves intention </li></ul><ul><li>A moral act affects others </li></ul>
  13. 13. KEY CONCEPT: <ul><li>AGENCY : The capacity to reflect and decide what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Can only humans be moral AGENTS? </li></ul>
  15. 15. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? Are there situations when an action might be right and other situations when the same action might be wrong? Is one culture or religious view of morality as good as that of another culture or religion? Are there some actions which are ALWAYS right? Are there certain moral rules that exist for all times and for all places?
  16. 16. The nomadic Masai of East Africa practice polygamy and wife-lending between men of the same age group. Some Westerners practise open marriages, whereby spouses engage other spouses in shared and open sexual relations. Christians practice monogamy. Is any one way morally better or morally worse than another?
  17. 17. KEY CONCEPT: <ul><li>RELATIVISM : Theory that the truth is different for different people </li></ul><ul><li>ABSOLUTISM : Theory that there are moral principles that are always and everywhere applicable </li></ul>
  18. 18. KEY CONCEPT: <ul><li>ETHICAL RELATIVISM : Morality relative to the norms of ones culture. No universal moral standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual ethical relativism </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural ethical relativism </li></ul>
  19. 19. IS IT ALL RELATIVE? Can you think of any criticisms of relativism?
  20. 20. KEY CONCEPT: <ul><li>ETHICAL ABSOLUTISM : Theory that there are moral principles that are always and everywhere applicable. </li></ul><ul><li>Right and wrong based on constant objective moral principles </li></ul><ul><li>Moral quality of an act inherent in the quality of the act itself. </li></ul>
  21. 21. IS IT ALL RELATIVE? Can you think of any criticisms of absolutism?
  22. 22. Research Task <ul><li>Visit </li></ul><ul><li>Find out more about ‘Honour Crimes’ and ‘Forced marriage’, ‘Slavery’ </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the cases / issues for the class </li></ul><ul><li>What is your response to the issues? </li></ul><ul><li>How would a Ethical relativist respond? </li></ul><ul><li>How would a Ethical absolutist respond? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ethics reflection 1: <ul><li>‘ Are there certain moral rules that exist for all times and for all places?’ </li></ul>