HANNINGTON M MUWANGA<br />LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM ;<br />ELEPHANTIASIS<br />KAPOSI’S SARCOMA<br />WESTERN BLOT<br />
ELEPHANTIASIS PATIENT<br />
ELEPHANTIASIS<br />Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is best known from dramatic photos of people with gr...
Causes of Elephantiasis<br />Elephantiasis is caused by several different types of parasitic worms, including Wuchereria b...
Symptoms of acute infection of elephantiasis are: <br />Blocked lymph ducts <br />Brawny skin color <br />Enlarged groin l...
Treatments of Elephantiasis<br />Lymphatic filariasis is treated with medication designed to kill the parasite. DEC kills ...
Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with Aids.<b...
Signs and tests<br />The following tests may be performed to diagnose Kaposi's sarcoma:<br />Bronchoscopy<br />CT scan<br ...
Treatments include:<br />Antiviral therapy against the AIDS virus<br />Combination chemotherapy<br />Freezing (cryotherapy...
Prevention<br />Safe sexual practices can prevent HIV infection. This prevents AIDS and its complications, including Kapos...
Kaposi's sarcoma<br />
Western Blot<br />Western blotting is a technique used to identify and locate proteins based on their ability to bind to s...
VIRAL PROTEINS<br />HIV, like any other virus, is composed of a number of different proteins. The Western blot positive co...
RESULT INTERPRETATION<br />. A positive Western blot confirms an HIV infection. A negative Western blot test means the ELI...
WESTERN BLOT PROCESS<br />
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Lymphatic and immune system copy

  1. 1. HANNINGTON M MUWANGA<br />LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM ;<br />ELEPHANTIASIS<br />KAPOSI’S SARCOMA<br />WESTERN BLOT<br />
  2. 2. ELEPHANTIASIS PATIENT<br />
  3. 3. ELEPHANTIASIS<br />Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is best known from dramatic photos of people with grossly enlarged or swollen arms and legs. The disease is caused by parasitic worms, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, all transmitted by mosquitoes. Lymphatic filariasis currently affects 120 million people worldwide, and 40 million of these people have serious disease.When an infected female mosquito bites a person, she may inject the worm larvae, called microfilariae, into the blood. The microfilariae reproduce and spread throughout the bloodstream, where they can live for many years. Often disease symptoms do not appear until years after infection. As the parasites accumulate in the blood vessels, they can restrict circulation and cause fluid to build up in surrounding tissues. The most common, visible signs of infection are excessively enlarged arms, legs, genitalia, and breasts.Medicines to treat lymphatic filariasis are most effective when used soon after infection, but they do have some toxic side effects. In addition, the disease is difficult to detect early. Therefore, improved treatments and laboratory tests are needed. A vaccine is not yet available. <br />
  4. 4. Causes of Elephantiasis<br />Elephantiasis is caused by several different types of parasitic worms, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori. <br />Elephantiasis is caused by obstruction of the lymphatic system, which results in the accumulation of a fluid called lymph in the affected areas. <br />Elephantiasis is transmitted by female mosquitoes. When an infected female mosquito bites a person, she may inject the worm into the bloodstream. The worm reproduces and spread throughout the bloodstream. <br />
  5. 5. Symptoms of acute infection of elephantiasis are: <br />Blocked lymph ducts <br />Brawny skin color <br />Enlarged groin lymph nodes <br />Fever <br />Fibrotic skin tissue <br />Impaired lymphatic drainage <br />Massive leg swelling <br />Massively swollen genitalia and breasts <br />Pain above testicles <br />Pebbly skin appearance <br />Severe swelling <br />Skin ulceration <br />Swollen liver <br />Swollen spleen <br />Thickened skin tissue <br />Verrucous skin appearance <br />White urinary discharge <br />
  6. 6. Treatments of Elephantiasis<br />Lymphatic filariasis is treated with medication designed to kill the parasite. DEC kills the microfilariae quickly and injures or kills the adult worms slowly, if at all. In India, DEC has been given in the form of a medicated salt, which helps prevent spread of the disease. <br />Surgery for massive leg swelling (elephantiasis) with a fluid shunting procedure. <br />Other means of managing lymphatic filariasis are pressure bandages to wrap the swollen limb and elastic stockings to help reduce the pressure. Exercising and elevating a bandaged limb also can help reduce its size. <br />Another form of effective treatment involves rigorous cleaning of the affected areas of the body. <br />
  7. 7. Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with Aids.<br />
  8. 8. Signs and tests<br />The following tests may be performed to diagnose Kaposi's sarcoma:<br />Bronchoscopy<br />CT scan<br />Endoscopy<br />Skin biopsy<br />
  9. 9. Treatments include:<br />Antiviral therapy against the AIDS virus<br />Combination chemotherapy<br />Freezing (cryotherapy)<br />Radiation therapy<br />
  10. 10. Prevention<br />Safe sexual practices can prevent HIV infection. This prevents AIDS and its complications, including Kaposi's sarcoma<br />
  11. 11. Kaposi's sarcoma<br />
  12. 12. Western Blot<br />Western blotting is a technique used to identify and locate proteins based on their ability to bind to specific antibodies. <br />Western blot analysis can detect your protein of interest from a mixture of a great number of proteins. Western blotting can give you information on protein expression<br />
  13. 13. VIRAL PROTEINS<br />HIV, like any other virus, is composed of a number of different proteins. The Western blot positive control lane contains proteins from patient sera as well as HIV proteins. HIV positivity can therefore only be confirmed by the presence of ,<br />viral envelope precursor<br />viral envelope protein binds to CD4<br />viral core protein <br />reverse transcriptase <br />
  14. 14. RESULT INTERPRETATION<br />. A positive Western blot confirms an HIV infection. A negative Western blot test means the ELISA test was a false positive test. The Western blot test can also be indeterminate, in which case additional testing is done to clarify the situation.<br />Negative tests do not rule out HIV infection. There is a period of time called the window period between HIV infection and the appearance of anti-HIV antibodies that can be measured.<br />If a person might have acute or primary HIV infection, and is in the window period, a negative HIV ELISA and Western blot will not rule out HIV infection. More tests for HIV will need to be done.<br />
  15. 15. WESTERN BLOT PROCESS<br />

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