Hodgkin disease or lymphoma is a cancer that begins in cells of the immune system. The immune system fights infections and other diseases. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system.
Certain viruses: Having an infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may increase the risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma. However, lymphoma is not contagious. You can't catch lymphoma from another person. Weakened immune system: The risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma may be increased by having a weakened immune system. Age: Hodgkin lymphoma is most common among teens and adults aged 15 to 35 years and adults aged 55 years and older. Family history: Family members, especially brothers and sisters, of a person with Hodgkin lymphoma or other lymphomas may have an increased chance of developing this disease.
Blood tests: The lab does a complete blood count to check the number of white blood cells and other cells and substances. Chest x-rays: X-ray pictures may show swollen lymph nodes or other signs of disease in your chest. Biopsy: A biopsy is the only sure way to diagnose Hodgkin lymphoma. Your doctor may remove an entire lymph node (excisional biopsy) or only part of a lymph node (incisional biopsy). A thin needle (fine needle aspiration) usually cannot remove a large enough sample for the pathologist to diagnose Hodgkin lymphoma. Removing an entire lymph node is best.
Chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma uses drugs to kill lymphoma cells. It is called systemic therapy because the drugs travel through the bloodstream. The drugs can reach lymphoma cells in almost all parts of the body. Radiation therapy-Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) for Hodgkin lymphoma uses high-energy rays to kill lymphoma cells. It can shrink tumors and help control pain or both. If Hodgkin lymphoma comes back after treatment, doctors call this a relapse or recurrence. People with Hodgkin lymphoma that comes back after treatment may receive high doses of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both, followed by stem cell transplantation.
Hives are raised, often itchy, red welts on the surface of the skin. They are usually an allergic reaction to food or medicine.
Many substances can trigger hives, including: Animal dander (especially cats), Insect bites, Medications, Pollen, Shellfish, fish, nuts, eggs, milk, and other foods
Your doctor can tell if you have hives by looking at your skin. If you have a history of an allergy, then the diagnosis is even more obvious. Occasionally, skin or blood tests are done to confirm that you had an allergic reaction and to test for the substance that caused the allergic response.
Treatment may not be needed if the hives are mild. They may disappear on their own. To reduce itching and swelling: Avoid hot baths or showers. Avoid irritating the area with tight-fitting clothing. Take antihistamines. Diphenhydramine is considered the most effective. If your reaction is severe, especially if the swelling involves your throat, you may require an emergency shot of epinephrine (adrenaline) or steroids. Hives in the throat can block your airway, making it difficult to breathe.
Elephantiasis is a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and male genitals. In some cases the disease can cause certain body parts, such as the scrotum, to swell to the size of a softball or basketball.
Elephantiasis occurs in the presence of microscopic, thread-like parasitic worms such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, all of which are transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the disease itself is a result of a complex interplay between several factors: the worm, the symbiotic Wolbachia bacteria within the worm, the host’s immune response, and the numerous opportunistic infections and disorders that arise.
The only sure way to diagnose lymphatic filariasis is by detecting the parasite itself, either the adult worms or the microfilariae. Microscopic examination of the person's blood may reveal microfilariae. Many times, people who have been infected for a long time do not have microfilariae in their bloodstream. The absence of them, therefore, does not mean necessarily that the person is not infected. In these cases, examining the urine or hydrocele fluid or performing other clinical tests is necessary. Other ways of diagnosis of elephantiasis are: serologic testing sometimes helpful and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia which are, increased blood eosinophils, high filarial antibody titers, high IgE levels and Chest X-Ray shows increased bronchovascular markings
Albendazole is being used with ivermectin to treat the disease, whereas elsewhere in the world, albendazole is used with diethylcarbamazine. Geo-targeting treatments is part of a larger strategy to eventually eliminate Elephantiasis. Another form of effective treatment involves rigorous cleaning of the affected areas of the body. In addition, surgical treatment may be helpful for issues related to scrotal elephantiasis and hydrocele. However, surgery is generally ineffective at correcting elephantiasis of the limbs.