Lymphatic and Immune SystemTerms Biology 120 Presentation 6 Allyson Lofgren Professor Abdullah
H.I.V.Human Immunodeficiency Virus H.I.V. is the virus that can lead to a person developing A.I.D.S. H.I.V. attacks the patient’s immune system, specifically the T-Cells (also know as the CD4 cells). Eventually, H.I.V. kills so many T-Cells that the body cannot fight infections any longer.
Causes of H.I.V. H.I.V. is found in body fluids like Blood Vaginal fluids Semen Rectal MucousThese fluids can be passed on by Blood transfusions Unprotected sex Medical accidents Intravenous drug users sharing needles
Symptoms of H.I.V. • No Symptoms • Some patients show no apparent symptoms. The patient sometimes only begin to feel sick when they develop A.I.D.S. • Also called the Chronic or Latent phase • Acute Retroviral Syndrome (ARS) • An early symptom that manifests as a horrible flu • Vomiting • Soreness • Fatigue • Fever • It (ARS) is the body’s first response to infection
Treatments for H.I.V. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the current treatment for A.I.D.S. and H.I.V. ART keeps the amount of H.I.V. in the body in check Stops the virus from reproducing Blocks the virus from entering more cells ART does not cure H.I.V. or A.I.D.S.
A.I.D.SAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients are not directly infected with A.I.D.S. They are infected with HIV and may develop A.I.D.S. as a result of the infection. According to the CDC, a patient must fulfill the following criteria to have A.I.D.S. CD4 count drops to below 200. Threshold for a poor immune system Viral load increases to levels considered high. The virus is reproducing in high quantities The presence of opportunistic infections. The body is becoming sick with infections because the immune system cannot fight them.
Symptoms of A.I.D.S. A.I.D.S. symptoms are the result of infections that normally do not happen in healthy people Chills Fevers Sweats Swollen lymph glands Weakness Weight loss
Treatments for A.I.D.S Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the current treatment for A.I.D.S. and H.I.V. ART keeps the amount of H.I.V. in the body in check Stops the virus from reproducing Blocks the virus from entering more cells ART does not cure A.I.D.S.
Elephantiasis also known as Lymphatic Filariasis Elephantiasis is the enlargement and disfigurement caused by blockage of the lymphatic system It is much more common in subtropic and tropical areas of the world 1/3 of the patients live in India 1/3 of the patients live in Africa
Cause of Elephantiasis Elephantiasis is caused by parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi living in the host’s lymphatic system. The worms block the lymph nodes so the fluids can not drain and the body part swells Elephantiasis is spread by mosquitoes Mosquitoes bite infected patients and pick up the microfilariae (immature worm) that develop, inside the mosquito, into the infective stage in 1 to 3 weeks. The mosquito larvae move to its mouth and enter a person’s skin while the mosquito bites them.
Symptoms of Elephantiasis Acute swelling and disfigurement Limbs Genitals Breasts Kidneys Lymphatic system
Treatments for Elephantiasis Albendazole and DEC kills the parasite Deep cleaning of the infected area or areas that have been affected by the blockage increases the flow of the lymphatic fluids
Works Cited Staff of U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, “Guidelines fo the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV- Infected Adults and Adolescents”, http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines Staff of CDC, “Symptoms & Signs”, http://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/overview/signs-and-symptoms/index.html Staff of Aids.org, “What is A.I.D.S.?”, updated 2011, http://www.aids.org/topics/aids-factsheets/aids-background-information/what- is-aids/ Staff of Center For Disease Control, Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, “Fact Sheets”, 11/30/10, http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/ Goldman L, Ausiello, Del Rio C, Curran JWSterling TR, Chaisson RE, “A.I.D.S.”, 05/25/10, The New York Times On Line, http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/aids/overview.html Staff of World Health Organization, “Lymphatic filariasis, Fact Sheet # 102”, 2011, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs102/en/