Kazakhstan At Glance


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Kazakhstan At Glance

  1. 1. <ul><li>Central Asia: Kazakhstan </li></ul><ul><li>by Yelena Jetpyspayeva, </li></ul><ul><li>Dmitry Kozlov </li></ul><ul><li>Giessen University, May, 2009 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Kazakhstan: Overview (video) </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing Kazakhstan Future by Western Expert (video) </li></ul><ul><li>Politics and media </li></ul><ul><li>Economics and business </li></ul>
  3. 3. Kazakhstan: General Info
  4. 4. Kazakhstan: Borders
  5. 6. Kazakhstan: Political system <ul><li>Presidential republic </li></ul><ul><li>Nursultan Nazarbayev, president since 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-party system, but in fact only 1 pro-president party “Nur Otan” </li></ul><ul><li>Strong presidential power </li></ul><ul><li>Weak opposition, mostly government controlled mass media </li></ul><ul><li>“ Country specific” excuse </li></ul>
  6. 7. Kazakhstan: Int. Organizations <ul><li>Member of UN, NATO, OSCE, CIS, SCO, OIC etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Eurasian Economic Community in 2000 together with Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan </li></ul><ul><li>2010 – OSCE chairmanship </li></ul>
  7. 8. Kazakhstan: Power Focus <ul><li>POWER FOCUS (internalexternal) </li></ul><ul><li>Main players: EU, US, Russia, China </li></ul><ul><li>External players present: </li></ul><ul><li>Asia – Iran, Turkey, India, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>CIS – Ukraine </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions: military; economic; geostrategic; security </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy: multi-dimensional approach </li></ul>
  8. 9. Kazakhstan: Media Situation www.freedomhouse.org 168 place Kazakhstan, 158 place Kyrgyzstan
  9. 10. Comment: Kazakhstan <ul><li>“ Meanwhile, the most popular Russian-language blog platform Livejournal is still blocked in Kazakhstan since October last year. Recently, the opposition websites started suffereing from massive  DDoS attacks  campaign. One of such victims is the website of independent weekly “Respublika”, which often criticizes the prime-minister. </li></ul><ul><li>T he government does not care much about OSCE - and the West does not care much about Kazakh democracy in the times of global crisis. Such coincidence allows Astana to do whatever it wants due to its “country specific”, so the Kazakhstan’s chairmanship will be later perceived as a bad dream by the member states - while Kazakhstan will remain the same Kazakhstan, as its people are used to know it. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Adil A. Nurmakov, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Country Editor for Kazakhstan </li></ul><ul><li>www.neweurasia.net </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Editor for Central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>www.GlobalVoicesOnline.Org </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>“ D uring the blogging panel, Plakhina got up and demanded to know why six of her friends had been arrested for demonstrating against the proposals. </li></ul><ul><li>The moderator, Vladimir Rerikh, a Kazakh journalist, clearly wanted the issue, and Plakhina, to go away. But Danny Schechter, a well-known American progressive journalist,  spoke up on Plakhina's behalf , and she was able to continue pressing her case. Nazarbayeva could be seen talking on her cell phone, leaving the hall and returning several times ”, - </li></ul><ul><li>writes Dan Kennedy. </li></ul>http :// www.guardian.co.uk / commentisfree / cifamerica /2009/ may /05/ kazakhstan-blogging-freedom-of-speech
  11. 12. <ul><li>Major Industries of Kazakhstan Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Key factors of Economy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy of the Economy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Main trends of the Economy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Present Economic Situation </li></ul>KAZAKHSTAN ECONOMY
  12. 13. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR INDUSTRIES :  Chemical Processing, Copper Smelting, </li></ul><ul><li>Forging and Pressing Machines, Instruments, Iron and Steel, Mineral Processing, Mining, Oil Refining, Rolling Equipment, Sugar Refining, Textiles.  MAIN EXPORTS:   Chemicals, Chemical Products, Clothing, Fertilizers, Iron Ore, Machinery, Minerals, Petroleum, Steel, Textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction and processing of NATURAL RESOURCES: </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul><ul><li>play significant role in Economy Development </li></ul>
  13. 15. “ OIL” ISSUE Proven hydrocarbon reserves of Kazakhstan are estimated around 40 billion barrels
  14. 17. Oil production in 2008: 1,54 million barrels/day Expecting oil production in 2009: 1,71 million barrels/day 1,71 million * 40 USD = 68 400 000 USD/day
  15. 18. Kazakhstan produces 1,54 million barrels/day It is planned to produce in 2015 approximately 3 million barrels/day to inter in the TOP 10 OIL PRODUCERS of the World
  16. 19. Kazakhstan´s part of Caspian Sea - largest recoverable crude oil reserves in the region
  17. 21. Kazakhstan oil exports are the foundation of the country’s economy and have ensured that average real GDP growth has stayed above 9 percent recent years.     Oil export in Kazakhstan comprises: approximately 24% of the GDP approximately 65% of the overall export
  18. 22. Oil &Gas export: Northward Westward Southward Eastward
  19. 23. Kazakhstan is a first state among CIS that obtained an investment rating from 2 International Rating Agencies: huge foreign investments to oil&gas and mineral extraction sectors Since 1993 more then 40 billions of USD were invested September 2002 – “Moods Investors Service” INVESTMENT LEVEL May 2004 – “Standards and Poor´s” SECOND RATING OF THE INVESTMENT CLASS May 2009 – „Standard & Poor's“ STABLE INVESTMENT RATING
  20. 24. <ul><li>“ COAL” ISSUE </li></ul><ul><li>Largest recoverable coal reserves of </li></ul><ul><li>Central Asia are in Kazakhstan. </li></ul><ul><li>2-d LARGEST coal producer in the former Soviet Union, after Russia. </li></ul>
  21. 25. “ POWER PRODUCTION” ISSUE Overall installed generating capacity 17 GIGA watts 80% coal-fired 12% Hydro Electric Power Stations 71 Power Plants … including 5 Hydro- Electric Power Stations
  22. 26. Wind Energy Kazakhstan possesses enormous potential of wind energy
  23. 28. The solar energy resource potential is quite great for the vast territory of the largest Central Asian Republic NUMBER OF SUNNY DAYS/YEAR 2200 - 3000 ENERGY OF SOLLAR RADIATION 1300-1800 kW/m 2 /year
  24. 29. NUCLEAR POWER U 3 O 8 Kazakhstan possesses of 2-d largest URANIUM reserves in the World 1,5 million tons
  25. 30. It is planned to provide by 2010 year 15 000 tons of Uranium/year. end of June 2009 - - Kazakhstan-India nuclear fuel agreement 2,500 tons of uranium to the New Delhi
  26. 31. <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture compose approximately 10,3 % of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakhstan is 7-th largest producer of the grain in the world </li></ul>Livestock production : dairy production, leather, meat, wool Agricultural crops : wheat, barely, cotton, rise   Agricultural area: 846 021 sq.km, among which: 205 000 sq.km. are dedicated for PLANTING 611 000 for PASTURES … total area of GERMANY equals 357,021 km 2
  27. 32. “ BAYKONUR” is world´s oldest and largest operational space launch facility Developed SPACE infrastructure Approximately 16 launching are performed annually 1 Launching costs 35 000 000 USD
  28. 33. Majority of Kazakhstan Export are: Fossils, Minerals and Metals
  29. 36. Kazakhstan dependence on oil & gas as well as on mineral resources THUS, There is an urgent necessity to develop final-product industries in Kazakhstan. &quot;Kazakhstan – 2030&quot; – industrial and innovative development strategy. Development of the industries :   Auto and tractors production, non-Ferrous metallurgy, long-term use commodities production, synthetic materials, organic chemistry, production and processing of the oil. Electronics Manufacturing Industry, computers, computing technique, software, telecommunications, robot-production. Bio-technologies, space technologies, fine chemistry
  30. 37. Economy development goes along with the CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT APPROACH CLUSTER – economy sector/industry that will be competitive and effective within a given geographic, economic and environmental surrounding of particular region of Kazakhstan Metallurgy Transport logistic (World bank investment project 2009, US$ 2.125 billion loan for the Kazakhstan South-West Roads Project to help upgrade the trade route linking China to Russia and Western Europe) Textile industry Production materials Food production Oil and gas machinery Tourism   ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT STAGES: 1. ED is determined by basic factors like natural resources 2. ED depends on efficiency, industrialized society 3. ED is based on Innovations and HiTech, i.e. post-industrial society Kazakhstan presently is on the way from 1-st stage to 2-d stage
  31. 38. Economy Development Trends
  32. 39. Present Economic Situation Problems in a Banking Sector Sharp declines in oil and other export prices Widening current account deficit National Currency 20 percent devaluation in early February 2009 Recession of the Economy Government Anti-Crisis Measures supported by National Fund 1. Financial Sector stabilization (4 bilion USD) 2. Real estate market stabilization (4 bilion USD) 3. Small and Medium Enterprises support (1 bilion USD) 4. Agro Industry support (1 bilion USD) 5. Innovativ, Industrial and infrastructure projects (1 bilion USD)
  33. 40. <ul><li>Рахмет! </li></ul><ul><li>Спасибо! </li></ul><ul><li>Vielen Dank! </li></ul><ul><li>Thankx! </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>