Panteio University of Political and SocialSciencesDepartment of Communication, Media and CultureAdvertising and Public Relations LabCrisis Management WorkshopInstructor: Mania Xenou, CEO ReliantCommunicationsHead of Advertising & PR Lab, Assistant ProfessorBetty Tsakarestou (@tsakarestou)
Middle East: Iraq & KurdistanThese are pipeline routes whichemerge from Kourdistan , which isan oil-rich region. If the Kurds cancontrol the pipelines, they can setthe terms of their own statehood.Kurdistan is landlocked. It has no choise but to behave. In orderto profit from its oil it has to export in through Turkey orSyria, and other countries and Iraq itself, and therefore it has tohave amicable relations with them.
Investitions ininfrastructurePerenial conflict in region: Palestine.Infrastucture: Donors are spending billions of dollars on this-commuter railroads and other infrastructure that link the Bank andGaza.If Gaza had a functional port and be linked to the West Bank, youcan have a viable Palestinian State economy.
The Stan CountriesThese countries’borders originate from Stalin’s decrees.He purposely did not want these countries to makesense. He want ethnicities to mingle in ways that wouldallow him to divide and rule.
The possiblescenario for oilpipelinesFor these countries havingthese pipelines is thegolden ticket to the globaleconomy.
Turkmenistan now its contributing gas acrossthe Caspian sea to provide for Europe, andeven a potential Turkman- Afgan- Pakistan-India pipeline as well.
Kazahstan.Emerging politicalplayer. It has shrewly desighnedpipelines to flow across theCaspian, north through Russia andeven to China.
Europe: the most powerful tradeblock in the entire world
The Arab Spring is arevolutionary wave ofdemonstrations, protests andcivil wars in the Arab Worldthat began on 18 December2010.Most of the countries thatsuffer from the bloodyuprisings for the past twoyears are oil producingcountries and some of themare the main gas suppliers forEurope.If the Arab Spring extend toSaudi Arabia the consequencesfor the stability of theworldwide oil market will bedramatic.
Regarding the currentdevelopments in Egypt, theimportance for the oil andgas markets lies upon itsvalue as a transit country.Egypt, despite its seriouspolitical problems, providesa stable administrative andorganizational framework onwhich the foreign oilcompanies feel safe to invest.Libya doubts the sovereignrights of Greece on thehydrocarbon exploration inthe Aegean.
Unlike Turkey, that during the 3 years of the Cold War conflict with Israel cameclose to and stayed in touch with almost all of the countries that suffered fromthe Arab Spring, Greece did absolutely nothing. As a result, the country lost twoallies, Egypt and Libya.
Greece – Turkey Conflict• Delimitation of the continental shelf in theAegean Sea between Greece and Turkey.• Remains an unsolved problem that leads tonon-operation of the Greek EEZ(exclusiveeconomic zone) and the natural wealth that isbelieved to exist.
Italy - GreeceCordially Bilateral Relations -> second trade partner ofGreeceBetween Greece and Italy have been signed the followingagreements: Treaty of Commerce, Shipping and Friendship (San Remo1949/FEK A 306) Agreement on the avoidance of double taxation oninheritances (1964) Agreement on gains of shipping companies (1967, revised in1991 Agreement on Scientific and Technological Cooperation (1983) Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation of Income andCapital (1987) Agreement between Greece and Italy to support theconstruction of the gas pipeline. Ratified by Law 3441/2006and published in the Government Gazette 39 Issue A of27.2.2006.
The most recent evidence of «friendly relations»:WWII Compensations (from Germany to Italy).Inthe Supreme Court of Hague Greece supportedItaly.
Redesigned the energy roadmap of IsraelInside the Jewish state is in progress the planning of thecountry ‘s future "energy road map".It examines the most beneficial ways of exploiting the gasfields already discovered, or intended be identifiedshortly.The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Energy of Israel shallexamine the economic benefits and strategic security ofpossible alternative partnerships in mining andtransportation of gas that will take place towardsEurope through the Mediterranean and towards Asiathrough the Red Sea..
Israel calls for a ultimatum against Iranbefore it takes a military actionIsraeli Minister of Strategic Affairs, Yuval Stainitzrequested on April 7 the great powers to persuade Iran tostop its uranium enrichment program, after completingthe negotiations without any progress.Stainitz: «I believe that what is happening now in Koreashows us how urgent it is to stop the nuclear activities ofIran».«Imagine what will happen in two or three years, notonly in Israel but also in Europe and America if thefanatical and extremist regime in Tehran acquire nuclearweapons», concluded the Israeli minister.
Israel Apology to TurkeyThe formal apology toTurkey is not a strategic shiftin Israels relationship on upto now attitude towardsAnkara, but in essence, is atactical move of Netanyahuto restore his relationshipwith to Obama, because ofthe coldness between thosetwo,caused by the support ofthe first to MittRomney, Obama’s concurrentin the last U.S. presidentialelection.
Cyprus• Cyprus has proceeded in energy cooperation withIsrael and were signed the relative agreementsbetween the two sides, also it has been delineated theEEZ based on the Law of the Sea of 1982.• Some deposits are common for the two neighboringcountries, most Israeli analysts approach their use as acommon endeavor.• Ankara "stresses" the standstill of the Cyprus issue.• Under discussion the establishment of a gasliquefaction terminal in Cyprus and possibly anundersea pipeline from Israel to Cyprus and thence toGreece
Greece• Strive for energy cooperation withIsrael, negotiations between Samara andhis Israeli homologue.• Turkey requires a joint exploitation ofAegean together with Greece. Theirrequest is illegal on the basis of the 1982Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Kostas Loukopoulou: «To face the bigchallenge with the EEZ the country needs:* Intense diplomatic and systematic preparation.* Building alliances based on shared interests.* Integrated legal and technical support.* Create a solid domestic political front.* Establish a national energy strategy.* Communication design for governments and organizations bothoutside and inside.* Further strengthening of the Armed Forces and special design forsafeguarding rights which stem from the EEZ.
Definition of EmergingMarket Economy• Emerging Markets arenations with social orbusiness activity in theprocess of rapid growth andindustrialization.Investments in emergingmarkets come with muchgreater risk due to politicalinstability, domesticinfrastructureproblems, currency volatilityand limited equityopportunities .
BrazilBrazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the worlds seventh largest economy atmarket exchange rates with GDP: US$ 2.425 trillion -> Brazil is one of the fastest-growing majoreconomies in the world with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5 percent. The Brazilianeconomy has been predicted to become one of the five largest in the world in the decades to come!Brazil has a labor force of over a 107 million (ranking 6th worldwide) and unemployment of 6.2%(ranking 64th worldwide).Agriculture and food productionMain products: Coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus, beefAgriculture growth rate: 9.2% (2011)Labor force: 15% of total labor forceGDP of sector: 3.5% of total GDPIndustryMain industries: Automobile industry, petrochemicals, machinery, electronics, cement andconstruction, aircraft, textiles, food and beverages, mining, consumer durables, tourismIndustrial growth rate: 8.8% (2011)Labor force: 21% of total labor forceGDP of sector: 29.7% of total GDPEnergyBrazil is one of the worlds leading producers of hydroelectric power, with a current capacity ofabout 260,000 megawatts. Existing hydroelectric power provides 90 percent of the nationselectricity.
RussiaRussia has a market economy with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and naturalgas. It has the 10th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP: US$1.953 trillion.Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad.In December 2011, Russia finally joined World Trade Organisation, allowing it a greater accessto overseas markets. Some analysts estimate that WTO membership could bring the Russianeconomy a bounce of up to 3 per cent annually.AgricultureThe total area of cultivated land in Russia is the fourth largest in the world. In 1999–2009, Russias agriculture demonstrated steady growth, and the country turned from a grainimporter to the third largest grain exporter after EU and USA. The production of meat hasgrown from 6,813,000 tones in 1999 to 9,331,000 tones in 2009, and continues to grow.EnergyIn recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower.The country has the worlds largest natural gas reserves, the 8th largest oil reserves(around 30percent of Russias GDP), and the second largest coal reserves. Russia is the worlds leadingnatural gas exporter and second largest natural gas producer, while also the largest oil exporterand the largest oil producer.Russia is the 3rd largest electricity producer in the world and the 5th largest renewable energyproducer.Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the worlds firstnuclear power plant. Currently the country is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer.
IndiaIndia is ranked as one of the fastest growing economies in the world and has vast resources andpotential.The average annual GDP reached 6.1% during 2011–12Indias recent economic model is largely capitalist.487.6-million Indian workers consists an important and strong labour force, which is the world’ssecond largest.The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% andthe agricultural sector 18.1%.Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, andpotatoes. Major industries includetextiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, foodprocessing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and softwareamong others.Major (and most significant) exports include petroleum products, textilegoods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufacture. On the otherhand, imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.Other important sectors worth mentioning: telecommunication industry, automotiveindustry, pharmaceutical industry.Indian middle class expands and the economy is benefited through entrepreneurship andconsumption. Nearly 800 millions Indians under 35 will play an important role to the country’seconomic future. Although the economic growth during recent decades was impressive, Indiafaces harsh socio-economic challenges due to the fact that the country contains the largest
China• GDP: US$8.250 trillion -> The worlds second-largest economyand the fastest-growing major economy in the world.• According to the IMF, Chinas annual average GDP growthbetween 2001 and 2010 was 10.5%, and the Chineseeconomy is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of9.5% between 2011 and 2015.• Between 2007 and 2011, Chinas economic growth rate wasequivalent to all of the G7 countries growth combined.• Its high productivity, low labor costs and relatively goodinfrastructure have made it a global leader in manufacturing.• Foreign trade was focused upon as the major vehicle ofgrowth. -> China is a member of the WTO(World TradeOrganization) and is the worlds largest trading power, with atotal international trade value of US$3.87 trillion in 2012.• *Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$2.85 trillion by theend of 2010, an increase of 18.7% over the previousyear, making its reserves by far the worlds largest.
South AfricaThe economy of South Africa is the largest in Africa.Mining has been the basic ingredient behind thesuccess and development of South Africa’s economy. Itis one of the world’s leading mining and mineral-processing countries.Minings contribution to the national GDP representsalmost 60% of exports.The agricultural exports of South Africa include: ediblefruit and nuts, beverages, preservedfood, tobacco, cereals among others.Other key economic sectors including: manufacturingproducts , fishery, vehicle manufacturing (productionplants), clothing andtextiles, telecommunication, energy, financial andbusiness services, real estate, tourism (famous touristdestination), transportation, and wholesale.