Manufacturing activated carbon


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Activated carbon manufacturing, Coconut Shell Activated Carbon, Palm Shell Activated Carbon, Activated Carbon Industry, Biomass rich Counties, Indonesia, Malaysia, Phillipine, Pyrolysis, Continoues Pyrolysis Technology, Palm Oil mill waste, water treatment, activated carbon adsorption

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Manufacturing activated carbon

  1. 1. Manufacturing Activated CarbonManufacturing Activated CarbonManufacturing Activated CarbonManufacturing Activated Carbon in Biomass Rich Countriesin Biomass Rich Countries (Indonesia, Malaysia &(Indonesia, Malaysia & PPhilippines)hilippines) Eko SB Setyawan
  2. 2. OutlineOutline •• DefinitionDefinition •• Raw MaterialRaw Material •• Process TechnologyProcess Technology •• ApplicationApplication•• ApplicationApplication •• MarketMarket
  3. 3. DefinitionDefinition
  4. 4. Definition Activated carbons are versatile adsorbents. Their adsorptive properties are due to their high surface area, a microporous structure, and a high degree of surface reactivity. They are, used, therefore, to purify, decolorize, deodorize, dechlorinate, separate, and concentrate in order reactivity. They are, used, therefore, to purify, decolorize, deodorize, dechlorinate, separate, and concentrate in order to permit recovery and to filter, remove, or modify the harmful constituents from gases and liquid solutions. Consequently, activated carbon adsorption is of interest to many economic sectors and concern areas as diverse as food, pharmaceutical, chemical, petroleum, nuclear, automobile, and vacuum industries as well as for the treatment of drinking water, industrial and urban waste water, and industrial flue gases.
  5. 5. Activated carbons have a microcrystalline structure. But this microcrystalline structure differs from that of graphite with respect to interlayer spacing, which is 0.335 nm in the case of graphite and ranges between 0.34 and 0.35 nm in activated carbons. The elemental 0.335 nm in the case of graphite and ranges between 0.34 and 0.35 nm in activated carbons. The elemental composition of a typical activated carbon has been found to be 88% C, 0.5% H, 0.5% N, 1.0% S, and 6 to 7% O, with the balance representing inorganic ash constituents. The oxygen content of an activated carbon can vary, however, depending on the type of the source raw material and the conditions of the activation process.
  6. 6. Raw MaterialCoconut Shell Raw Material Palm Kernel Shell
  7. 7. Raw Material Coconut shell and palm shell are the best raw materials for manufacturing of activated carbon because of its hardness. Indonesia is the largest coconut plantation with about 4 million hectares and the largest CPO producer in the world with palm oil plantations more than 7 million ha, which is the ideal location of the source of raw material for production of activated carbon.location of the source of raw material for production of activated carbon. Indonesian coconut plantation area occupies 31.4% of the world with vast coconut plantations of coconut production of approximately 12.915 billion grains (24.4% of world production). And the Philippines famous as the world's largest coconut producer. Coconut shell weight reached 12% of the weight of coconuts. With a heavy coconut average 1.5 kg, the potential of Indonesia, namely coconut shell 2324.7 million tons / year. The number of palm oil mills in Indonesia and Malaysia more than 800 units. When an palm oil mill with a capacity of 30 tons of fresh fruit bunches per hour, it will produce 1.95 tonnes of palm shells / hour or about 46.8 tons / day. Certainly the number of very abundant for the production of activated carbon.
  8. 8. ProcessProcess TechnologyTechnology Continous Slow Pyrolysis (Carbonisation) TechnologyTechnology Activation unit
  9. 9. Process Technology Their preparation involves two main steps: the carbonization of the carbonaceous raw material at temperatures below 800°C and the activation of the carbonized product. Thus, all carbonaceous materials can be converted into activated carbon,materials can be converted into activated carbon, although the properties of the final product will be different, depending on the nature of the raw material used, the nature of the activating agent, and the conditions of the carbonization and activation processes. But only a good hard biomass used as activated charcoal such as coconut shell and palm shell.
  10. 10. During the carbonization process, most of the noncarbon elements such as oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen are eliminated as volatile gaseous species by the pyrolytic decomposition of the starting material. The residual elementary carbonstarting material. The residual elementary carbon atoms group themselves into stacks of flat, aromatic sheets cross-linked in a random manner. These aromatic sheets are irregularly arranged, which leaves free interstices. These interstices give rise to pores, which make activated carbons excellent adsorbents.
  11. 11. During carbonization these pores are filled with the tarry matter or the products of decomposition or at least blocked partially by disorganized carbon. This pore structure in carbonized char is further developed andcarbon. This pore structure in carbonized char is further developed and enhanced during the activation process, which converts the carbonized raw material into a form that contains the greatest possible number of randomly distributed pores of various sizes and shapes, giving rise to an extended and extremely high surface area of the product. The activation of the char is usually carried out in an atmosphere of air, CO2, or steam in the temperature range of 800°C to 900°C. This results in the oxidation of some of the regions within the char in preference to others, so that as combustion proceeds, a preferential etching takes place. This results in the development of a large internal surface, which in some cases may be as high as 2500 m2/g.
  12. 12. Our continuous pyrolysis technology with capacity 60 up to 200 ton/day INPUT would very reliable in theup to 200 ton/day INPUT would very reliable in the process of carbonization. Integration our continuous pyrolysis technology in activated carbon plant would be very beneficial because the most efficient processes (self sustaining process with syngas) and all products can be drawn. Then following with activation process.
  13. 13. Carbonisation (Slow Pyrolysis Process) : Charcoal Production Primitive Charring Tehniques :large quantities of CO2 and unburned methane directly to the atmosphere Closed pit charcoal production Advanced charcoal production : Charcoal as main product, bio-oil and syngas as sideproduct. Syngas can be used in activation process.
  14. 14. Rotary Kiln For many years, rotary kilns have been used across various industries to drive chemical reactions by thermal processing. Rotary kilns have become very established in fields such as cement, lime, and minerals.
  15. 15. Rotary Kiln Rotary kilns can be custom-engineered to meet the thermal processing needs of just about any material.
  16. 16. Rotary Kiln Interior The refractory is what protects the carbon steel shell from the high temperatures within. Two kinds of refractories for lining a rotary kiln: castable, and brick. The choice of refractory is dependent on the rotary kiln temperature, material chemistry, and how abrasive the material is.
  17. 17. Rotary Kiln Refractory Castable refractory has a similar material cost to brick. However, brick installation is much more labor intensive, as each brick is individually installed. This makes the overall cost of a brick lining more expensive than castable. The disadvantage to using castable refractory in a rotary kiln is that it is very susceptible to installation problems. When castable refractory is installed very well, it can nearly match the quality of brick. But if the castable is installed incorrectly, there can be a considerable difference in quality, and the life of the refractory can be severely compromised. Brick refractory is slightly more expensive than castable, but it does not require anchors, and it’s quality is superior.
  18. 18. ApplicationApplicationApplicationApplication
  19. 19. Application The most important application of activated carbon adsorption where large amounts of activated carbons are being consumed and where the consumption is ever increasing is the purification of air and water. There are two types of adsorption systems for the purification of air. One is the purification of air for immediate use in inhabited types of adsorption systems for the purification of air. One is the purification of air for immediate use in inhabited spaces, where free and clean air is a requirement. The other system prevents air pollution of the atmosphere from industrial exhaust streams. The former operates at pollutant concentrations below 10 ppm, generally about 2 to 3 ppm. As the concentration of the pollutant is low, the adsorption filters can work for a long time and the spent carbon can be discarded, because regeneration may be expensive.
  20. 20. Air pollution control requires a different adsorption setup to deal with larger concentrations of the pollutants. The saturated carbon needs to be regenerated by steam, air, or nontoxic gaseousregenerated by steam, air, or nontoxic gaseous treatments. These two applications require activated carbons with different porous structures. The carbons required for the purification of air in inhabited spaces should be highly microporous to affect greater adsorption at lower concentrations. In the case of activated carbons for air pollution control, the pores should have higher adsorption capacity in the concentration range 10 to 500 ppm.
  21. 21. For personal protection when working in a hostile environment, the activated carbons used in respirators are also different. When working in the chemical industry, the respirators can use ordinary activatedindustry, the respirators can use ordinary activated carbons because the pollutants are generally of low toxicity. However, for protection against warfare gases such as chloropicrin, cynogen chloride, hydrocynic acid, and nerve gases, special types of impregnated activated carbons are used in respirators and body garments. These activated carbons can protect by physical adsorption, chemisorption, and catalytic decomposition of the hazardous gases.
  22. 22. More than 800 specific organic and inorganic chemical compounds have been identified in drinking water. These compounds are derived from industrial and municipal discharge, urban and rural runoff, natural decomposition of vegetable and animal matter, and from water and wastevegetable and animal matter, and from water and waste water chlorination practices. Liquid effluents from industry also discharge varying amounts of a variety of chemicals into surface and ground water. Many of these chemicals are carcinogenic and cause many other ailments of varying intensity and character. Several methods such as coagulation, oxidation, aeration, ion exchange, and activated carbon adsorption have been used for the removal of these chemical compounds.
  23. 23. MarketMarket
  24. 24. Market The global activated carbon industry is estimated to be around 1.1 million metric ton. Demand for virgin activated carbon is expected to rise by around 10% annually through 2014, worldwide. The U.S is the largest market, which will also pace global growth based on anticipated new federal regulations mandating mercury removal at coal- fired power plants. Nearly 80% of the total active carbon is consumed forfired power plants. Nearly 80% of the total active carbon is consumed for liquid-phase applications, and the gas-phase applications consume about 20% of the total production. Because the active carbon application for the treatment of waste water is picking up, the production of active carbons is always increasing. The consumption of activecarbon is the highest in the U.S. and Japan, which together consume two to four times more active carbons than European and other Asian countries. The per capita consumption of active carbons per year is 0.5 kg in Japan, 0.4 kg in the U.S., 0.2 kg in Europe, and 0.03 kg in the rest of the world. This is due to the fact that Asian countries by and large have not started using active carbons for water and air pollution control purposes in large quantities.
  25. 25. Contact Waste to Value EntrepreneurWaste to Value Entrepreneur Twitter : @ekosbs Blog :