From crowdsourced geographic
information to participatory citizen science
- exploitation or empowerment?
Muki Haklay @mhak...
(cc) Development Seed
Source: Kate Jones, UCL/ZSL see http://www.ibats.org.uk/
Outline
• Ways of thinking through technology
• Albert Borgmann’s philosophy of technology
– The device paradigm
– Focal p...
Thinking through technology
©Stock.XCHNG
©Stock.XCHNG
©Stock.XCHNG
Borgmann’s philosophy of
technology
The Device Paradigm
(cc) CJ Sorg©Stock.XCHNG
(cc) Ed & Eddie
(cc) Ed & Eddie
(cc) 1950sUnlimited
Focal things and practices
©Stock.XCHNG
Focal things and practices
©Stock.XCHNG
Natural information: about reality
©Stock.XCHNG
Cultural information: for reality
©Stock.XCHNG
Technological information: as reality
(cc) Kanko*
Core concepts
• Device paradigm – the tendency of technology
to replace efficiency and automation for
meaningful human act...
NASA 24/12/1968
Source: Eric Fischer
Flickr – Locals (blue)
vs. Tourists (red)
Digiplace: filtered by software & people
27
Limits of technological
information
• “A map that is rapidly assembled through a sequence
of points and clicks is far l...
The story so far …
• GIS and digital mapping work towards
creation of technological information –
information as reality
•...
Crowdsourced geographic
information (VGI)
• The wide use of tools such as GPS,
smartphone and the Web by professional
and ...
Volunteer rainfall observer Rick
Grocke checks the rain gauge at
Tanami Downs cattle station in the
Northern Territory of ...
Citizen Science: iSpot
(cc) Urbanwide - flickr
(cc) Nick black
OpenStreetMap – Map Kibera
More information at http://publiclaboratory.org
Noise mapping
Mapping for Change
LCY noise mapping study at http://bit.ly/LCYNoise
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00
dBA
Sound Readings - No Flights
0
10
20...
Mapping for Change
June 2012
June 2012
July 2012
July 2012
August 2012
August 2012
October 2012
October2012
Forest monitoring
Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
Lewis et al. (2007). “Logging in the Congo Basin: What hope for indigenous peoples’ resources and their environments?”.
In...
Summary
• The Device Paradigm can be identified in most
of the major digital mapping activities and
services
• Values are ...
Open questions
• How does the device paradigm of technology
limits what we can do with mapping?
• Which focal practices ca...
Credits
Support for the research kindly provided by:
UCL Graduate School Research Fund
ESRC ‘Conserving Biodiversity That ...
• Follow us:
– http://www.ucl.ac.uk/excites
– Twitter: @UCL_ExCiteS
– Blog: http://uclexcites.wordpress.com
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?
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From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?

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Slides from presentation at Leicester Geography seminar March 2014, which is based on earlier discussion in a 'thinking and doing digital mapping' workshop in June 2013 in http://blog.digitalcartography.eu/2013/03/26/june-workshop-thinking-and-doing-digital-mapping/ as part of Charting the Digital project http://digitalcartography.eu/

The presentation discusses Volunteered Geographic Information (crowdsourced information) and Citizen Science, using the philosophy of technology of Albert Borgmann.

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From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation  or empowerment?

  1. 1. From crowdsourced geographic information to participatory citizen science - exploitation or empowerment? Muki Haklay @mhaklay Extreme Citizen Science group @ucl_excites
  2. 2. (cc) Development Seed
  3. 3. Source: Kate Jones, UCL/ZSL see http://www.ibats.org.uk/
  4. 4. Outline • Ways of thinking through technology • Albert Borgmann’s philosophy of technology – The device paradigm – Focal practices – Natural, Cultural and Technological Information • Cartography, Geographical Information Systems and the limits of technological information • Are crowdsourcing/neogeography/participatory mapping making any difference?
  5. 5. Thinking through technology ©Stock.XCHNG
  6. 6. ©Stock.XCHNG
  7. 7. ©Stock.XCHNG
  8. 8. Borgmann’s philosophy of technology
  9. 9. The Device Paradigm (cc) CJ Sorg©Stock.XCHNG
  10. 10. (cc) Ed & Eddie
  11. 11. (cc) Ed & Eddie (cc) 1950sUnlimited
  12. 12. Focal things and practices ©Stock.XCHNG
  13. 13. Focal things and practices ©Stock.XCHNG
  14. 14. Natural information: about reality ©Stock.XCHNG
  15. 15. Cultural information: for reality ©Stock.XCHNG
  16. 16. Technological information: as reality (cc) Kanko*
  17. 17. Core concepts • Device paradigm – the tendency of technology to replace efficiency and automation for meaningful human activities • Focal things and practices – deeply meaningful artefacts and practices • Natural information: information about reality • Cultural information: information for reality • Technological information: replacing reality
  18. 18. NASA 24/12/1968
  19. 19. Source: Eric Fischer Flickr – Locals (blue) vs. Tourists (red)
  20. 20. Digiplace: filtered by software & people
  21. 21. 27 Limits of technological information • “A map that is rapidly assembled through a sequence of points and clicks is far less deeply understood and less thoughtfully crafted than one that is laboriously drawn on a table” (p. 176) • “If you imagine yourself in control of a perfect GIS, nothing any longer presents itself with any authority. Anything might as well be an impediment to inquiry” (p. 177) Source: Borgmann, A. (1999) Holding On to Reality, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  22. 22. The story so far … • GIS and digital mapping work towards creation of technological information – information as reality • They provide an example for the device paradigm: prioritising efficiency and reductionist functionality over wider social practices and activities • Is there an alternative to this force and direction?
  23. 23. Crowdsourced geographic information (VGI) • The wide use of tools such as GPS, smartphone and the Web by professional and non-professional participants to create and disseminate geographic information (VGI – Goodchild 2007)
  24. 24. Volunteer rainfall observer Rick Grocke checks the rain gauge at Tanami Downs cattle station in the Northern Territory of Australia WMO–No. 919 Audubon Cal. Citizen science • Scientific activities in which non- professional scientists volunteer to participate in data collection, analysis and dissemination of a scientific project.
  25. 25. Citizen Science: iSpot
  26. 26. (cc) Urbanwide - flickr (cc) Nick black
  27. 27. OpenStreetMap – Map Kibera
  28. 28. More information at http://publiclaboratory.org
  29. 29. Noise mapping Mapping for Change LCY noise mapping study at http://bit.ly/LCYNoise
  30. 30. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 dBA Sound Readings - No Flights 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 dBA Sound Readings - Normal Flights Source: Wikimedia Eyjafjallajökull – April 2010
  31. 31. Mapping for Change
  32. 32. June 2012 June 2012
  33. 33. July 2012 July 2012
  34. 34. August 2012 August 2012
  35. 35. October 2012 October2012
  36. 36. Forest monitoring Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  37. 37. Lewis et al. (2007). “Logging in the Congo Basin: What hope for indigenous peoples’ resources and their environments?”. In: Indigenous Affairs 4/06, pp. 8–15. Lewis et al. (2012). “Accessible technologies and FPIC: independent monitoring with forest communities in Cameroon”. In: Biodiversity and culture: exploring community protocols, rights and consent (PLA 65), pp. 151–165.
  38. 38. Summary • The Device Paradigm can be identified in most of the major digital mapping activities and services • Values are well embedded in technology and many times operate against focal practices and things • However, alternatives can be developed but they require special attention and action
  39. 39. Open questions • How does the device paradigm of technology limits what we can do with mapping? • Which focal practices can we create and support without falling into technical fixes? • What is the value in these small scale activities of ‘heroic mapping’ (Ed Parsons’ term)?
  40. 40. Credits Support for the research kindly provided by: UCL Graduate School Research Fund ESRC ‘Conserving Biodiversity That Matters: The Value of Brownfield Sites’ project RGS/IBG Small Research Grant UrbanBuzz: Building Sustainable Communities (HEFCE) London Sustainability Exchange (LSx) London 21 Sustainability Network EPSRC Challenging Engineering Award ‘Extreme Citizen Science’ EPSRC Adaptable Suburbs project EU FP7 EveryAware project Google Research Awards Amazon Web Services Education Grants Our special thanks to the participants and the communities that work with us And to our partners: Royal Geographical Society, ESRI, Helveta and U-Blox
  41. 41. • Follow us: – http://www.ucl.ac.uk/excites – Twitter: @UCL_ExCiteS – Blog: http://uclexcites.wordpress.com

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