User-Centred and Participatory
Cartography
Muki Haklay
m.haklay@ucl.ac.uk
@mhaklay
Extreme Citizen Science group
Departmen...
Geographic representations

Valcamonica, Italy. Neolithic
Bronze age (6000 BCE)
http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/histhw/tutca...
• Representations of
geography predate the
development of writing by
at least 2000 years (some
argue by 20,000)
• Moreover...
Modern digital mapping
• Only few digital technologies failures
require physical intervention
User-centred & participatory
cartographies
• Why so difficult? What can we do about
it?
• The evolution & popularisation o...
Usability engineering
Usability engineering is the outcome from
Human-Computer Interaction, Cognitive,
& Behavioural resea...
Do you feel safe?
In which we tell the story of how GIS developers focus so much on
functionality, that they forgot the user

CHAPTER 1: WHY...
1963

Pivar, M., Fredkin, E., and Stommel, H., 1963. Computer-Compiled Oceanographic Atlas: An Experiment in Man-Machine I...
Visions of interactivity
• ‘[I]n preparing a printed atlas certain irrevocable choices of scale, of
map projections … must...
1963

Source: Nick Chrisman
What was it like?
• ‘Absolutely terrible. I mean there
wasn’t a left-handed, barbarous,
mentally deficient technician who
...
GIS road to the mainstream
• 1980s – commercial GIS packages starting
to emerge, range of users grows
• 1990s – Desktop GI...
Why are GIS hard to use?
2005

UE/UX
Haklay and Zafiri (2008) “Usability Engineering for GIS: Learning from a Screenshot.” The Cartographic Journal...
Why are GIS hard to use?
• As Identified by Traynor and Williams (1995):
– GIS is complex: it is based on knowledge from
G...
1993

Web mapping
• Xerox PARC Map
Viewer 1993 -2005
• Demonstration of
the multimedia
capabilities of the
Web

Source: Ts...
1998
2011

Paper vs. computer

UE/UX
Tasks

Paper map

Online map

1. Localisation

47.35 (38.26)

121.35 (71.31)

2. Measureme...
Usability can get emotional

qgis-ux@lists.osgeo.org
Why difficult?

• Complex technology to implement
• Complex technology to master
• Lack of attention from vendors and
deve...
In which we see how the people who are using cartographic
products and geographic technologies changed without us noticing...
1st May 2000 – GPS selective
availability

• ‘In plain English, we are unscrambling the GPS
signal. It is rare that someon...
Web availability and interaction

(CC) Ell Brown (Flickr)
Increased level of education
World population and students in tertiary education,
World Bank data
10000

1000

100

95

99...
Understanding scientific
concepts

© Sanja Gjenero (sxc.hu)

© Nimalan Tharmalingam (sxc.hu)

© Cambridge University Press
2005
2005
2008
2009

Ellul, C., Haklay, M. Francis, L. And Rahemtulla, H., 2009, A Mechanism to Create Community Maps for Non-Technical u...
2013

http://publiclaboratory.org
2013
2008
VGI and usability

Google My Maps – guiding users
in the process of capturing
geographic information

2008
OpenStreetMap

2014
“..not sure if I am missing the
obvious Zoom and Pan
functions…Aaaghhh there they are,
small and hidden”
[P10, 31:40].

UE...
Map Kibera

2010
2013

2006
Citizen science

• Scientific activities in
which non-professional
scientists volunteer to
participate in data
collection,...
iSpot
Mapping for Change
Download WideNoise at http://cs.everyaware.eu
June 2012
June 2012
July 2012
July 2012
August 2012
August 2012
October 2012
October2012
‘Cambrian explosion’
• Web + societal changes are changing
creation and consumption of geographic
information
• New cartog...
In which we consider where the next challenges lie

CHAPTER 3: NEW CHALLENGES
Forest monitoring

Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
1996

Source: cybertracker
2007

Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
2013

Lewis et al. (2007). “Logging in the Congo Basin: What hope for indigenous peoples’ resources and their environments...
Control flow
&
hierarchical
navigation

Go back
(cancel last step)

Go forward
(skip)

OK
Cancel
(save & return (discard &...
Literal
use

Cacao means
cacao
(and just that).

Categorical
use
1 – later 3 – example(s)
represent any wild fruits.

2 ex...
68
69
Visualise change over time
Summary
• Usability engineering requires
compromises: not what ought to be, but
how things work (e.g. conforming with
Goog...
Further information
• See ucl.ac.uk/excites
• Blog: povesham.wordpress.com
uclexcites.wordpress.com
• M.haklay@ucl.ac.uk /...
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
CartoCon 2014 keynote slides
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CartoCon 2014 keynote slides

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Talk titled 'User-centred and Participatory Cartography'

Interest in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has been part of Geographical Information Science (GIScience) and cartography for a long time. Even before the term Geographical Information System (GIS) was invented (Tomlinson, 1967), researchers of “Man Machine Interaction” at MIT where utilising the display capabilities of the latest generation of computers to manipulate oceanic geographical information (Pivar at al., 1963). From this early start, HCI became an integral part of Cartography and GIScience research agendas. Interest focused on expert cartographers and their work in the 1960s and 1970s, and moved to wider range of specialised users in the 1980s and 1990s. This followed the spread of geographic technologies to wider audiences, culminating with the ‘Cambrian Explosion’ of maps on the internet. More recently, with the increased abilities of members of the public to create and share information, cartography became available to many, sometimes under the guise of ‘neogeography’. The talk with cover the evolution of HCI research in Cartography, focusing on participatory GIS and mapping, and demonstrating the importance of user centred design in the sharing of maps within this domain. It ends with examples of citizen science and how cartography play a role within it.

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CartoCon 2014 keynote slides

  1. 1. User-Centred and Participatory Cartography Muki Haklay m.haklay@ucl.ac.uk @mhaklay Extreme Citizen Science group Department of Civil, Environment and Geomatic Engineering, UCL
  2. 2. Geographic representations Valcamonica, Italy. Neolithic Bronze age (6000 BCE) http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/histhw/tutcarto/english/index-hiwi-karto-en.html Sailing maps/Navigation charts, Western Pacific (Peabody Museum, Cambridge) http://hyperbolic-crochet.blogspot.com/2010/09/talking-and-writing-about-math.html
  3. 3. • Representations of geography predate the development of writing by at least 2000 years (some argue by 20,000) • Moreover, they exist in non-literate societies, and semi-literate people routinely participate in mapping activities Carved wooden coastal charts carried in their kayaks by Greenland Inuit (n.d.) Greenland National Museum & Archives. http://www.learner.org/courses/amerhistory/interactives/cartographic/1-2.html
  4. 4. Modern digital mapping • Only few digital technologies failures require physical intervention
  5. 5. User-centred & participatory cartographies • Why so difficult? What can we do about it? • The evolution & popularisation of usable geographic technologies • Participatory & collaborative mapping, Citizen Science and usability engineering
  6. 6. Usability engineering Usability engineering is the outcome from Human-Computer Interaction, Cognitive, & Behavioural research. Devising practical methods to measure a system’s usability in terms of its: Learnability; Efficiency; Memorability; Error rate; User satisfaction … UE/UX
  7. 7. Do you feel safe?
  8. 8. In which we tell the story of how GIS developers focus so much on functionality, that they forgot the user CHAPTER 1: WHY SO DIFFICULT?
  9. 9. 1963 Pivar, M., Fredkin, E., and Stommel, H., 1963. Computer-Compiled Oceanographic Atlas: An Experiment in Man-Machine Interaction, PNAS
  10. 10. Visions of interactivity • ‘[I]n preparing a printed atlas certain irrevocable choices of scale, of map projections … must be made from the vast infinitude of all possible mappings. An atlas-like representation, generated by digital computer and displayed upon a cathode-ray screen, enables the oceanographer to modify these choices at will. Only a high-speed computer has the capacity and speed to follow the quickly shifting demands and questions of a human mind exploring a large field of numbers. … The user will be able to interrogate the display to evoke further information; it will help him track down errors and will offer alternative forms of presentation. Thus, the display on the screen … embodies animation as varying presentations are scanned. In a very real sense, the user “converses” with the machine about the stored data.’ (Pivar et al., 1963, p. 396)
  11. 11. 1963 Source: Nick Chrisman
  12. 12. What was it like? • ‘Absolutely terrible. I mean there wasn’t a left-handed, barbarous, mentally deficient technician who couldn’t do better than the best computer. Terrifying.’ Ian McHarg (1920-2001) in an interview to GIS World, 1995 http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0300/0300gaz4.html
  13. 13. GIS road to the mainstream • 1980s – commercial GIS packages starting to emerge, range of users grows • 1990s – Desktop GIS – more application and use • 2000s – GIS on the web, but not just GIS – SatNavs, ubiquitous computing • 2010s – crowdsourcing, mobile services
  14. 14. Why are GIS hard to use?
  15. 15. 2005 UE/UX Haklay and Zafiri (2008) “Usability Engineering for GIS: Learning from a Screenshot.” The Cartographic Journal, 45(2)
  16. 16. Why are GIS hard to use? • As Identified by Traynor and Williams (1995): – GIS is complex: it is based on knowledge from Geography, Cartography, Databases, Statistics, Computer algorithms and data structures… – Requires users to have or acquire considerable technical knowledge in order to operate the system • Due to the technological challenges, developers and vendors are focusing on functionality and not on interaction UE/UX Traynor and Williams (1995) ‘Why are Geographic Information Systems hard to use?’
  17. 17. 1993 Web mapping • Xerox PARC Map Viewer 1993 -2005 • Demonstration of the multimedia capabilities of the Web Source: Tsue 2007
  18. 18. 1998
  19. 19. 2011 Paper vs. computer UE/UX Tasks Paper map Online map 1. Localisation 47.35 (38.26) 121.35 (71.31) 2. Measurement/scale 44.75 (17.18) 69.95 (71.98) 3. Decode on map 49.50 (23.52) 15.00 (67.08) 4. Decode on legend 17.25 (9.64) 11.75 (38.94) 5. Route planning 286.05 (113.07) 388.85 (210.83)
  20. 20. Usability can get emotional qgis-ux@lists.osgeo.org
  21. 21. Why difficult? • Complex technology to implement • Complex technology to master • Lack of attention from vendors and developers • Combined with misunderstanding of usability
  22. 22. In which we see how the people who are using cartographic products and geographic technologies changed without us noticing CHAPTER 2: COGNITIVE SURPLUS, COLLABORATIVE & PARTICIPATORY MAPPING
  23. 23. 1st May 2000 – GPS selective availability • ‘In plain English, we are unscrambling the GPS signal. It is rare that someone can press a button and make something you already own more valuable – but that’s exactly what’s happening today. All the people who’ve bought a GPS receiver for a boat or a car... will find that they are ten times more accurate as of midnight tonight.’ Dr Neal Lane, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology. http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/EOP/OSTP/html/0053_3.html
  24. 24. Web availability and interaction (CC) Ell Brown (Flickr)
  25. 25. Increased level of education World population and students in tertiary education, World Bank data 10000 1000 100 95 99 107 1999 2000 2001 116 124 132 138 146 154 159 165 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 10 1 Tertiary Ed World Population
  26. 26. Understanding scientific concepts © Sanja Gjenero (sxc.hu) © Nimalan Tharmalingam (sxc.hu) © Cambridge University Press
  27. 27. 2005
  28. 28. 2005
  29. 29. 2008
  30. 30. 2009 Ellul, C., Haklay, M. Francis, L. And Rahemtulla, H., 2009, A Mechanism to Create Community Maps for Non-Technical users, The International Conference on Advanced Geographic Information Systems & Web Services – GEOWS 2009
  31. 31. 2013 http://publiclaboratory.org
  32. 32. 2013
  33. 33. 2008
  34. 34. VGI and usability Google My Maps – guiding users in the process of capturing geographic information 2008
  35. 35. OpenStreetMap 2014
  36. 36. “..not sure if I am missing the obvious Zoom and Pan functions…Aaaghhh there they are, small and hidden” [P10, 31:40]. UE/UX Catherine E. Jones, Patrick Weber, 2012, Towards Usability Engineering for Online Editors of Volunteered Geographic Information: A Perspective on Learnability, Transaction in GIS
  37. 37. Map Kibera 2010
  38. 38. 2013 2006
  39. 39. Citizen science • Scientific activities in which non-professional scientists volunteer to participate in data collection, analysis and dissemination of a scientific project.
  40. 40. iSpot
  41. 41. Mapping for Change
  42. 42. Download WideNoise at http://cs.everyaware.eu
  43. 43. June 2012 June 2012
  44. 44. July 2012 July 2012
  45. 45. August 2012 August 2012
  46. 46. October 2012 October2012
  47. 47. ‘Cambrian explosion’ • Web + societal changes are changing creation and consumption of geographic information • New cartographic needs as a result of location based services • Bottom-up, localised, niche projects as the norm, learning by osmosis • Potential for large scale collaboration • UE & UX impact success
  48. 48. In which we consider where the next challenges lie CHAPTER 3: NEW CHALLENGES
  49. 49. Forest monitoring Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  50. 50. 1996 Source: cybertracker
  51. 51. 2007 Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  52. 52. 2013 Lewis et al. (2007). “Logging in the Congo Basin: What hope for indigenous peoples’ resources and their environments?”. In: Indigenous Affairs 4/06, pp. 8–15. Lewis et al. (2012). “Accessible technologies and FPIC: independent monitoring with forest communities in Cameroon”. In: Biodiversity and culture: exploring community protocols, rights and consent (PLA 65), pp. 151–165.
  53. 53. Control flow & hierarchical navigation Go back (cancel last step) Go forward (skip) OK Cancel (save & return (discard & return to beginning) to beginning) Media capturing devices Audio recording Photo Video recording? Yes/No, satisfaction/dissatisfaction Yes, there is a pharmacy No, there is no pharmacy (and it is in operation). (or it is not in operation). Damage, destruction, obstruction, … Undamaged banana tree Damaged banana tree, or inaccessible field, …
  54. 54. Literal use Cacao means cacao (and just that). Categorical use 1 – later 3 – example(s) represent any wild fruits. 2 examples of nuts represent any nut (tree). Metaphorical use The syringe means any medicinal plant.
  55. 55. 68
  56. 56. 69
  57. 57. Visualise change over time
  58. 58. Summary • Usability engineering requires compromises: not what ought to be, but how things work (e.g. conforming with Google Maps) • Potential of using geographical technologies for all – though making them participatory require effort and careful methodological design • Cartography is critical to many of the applications and challenges ahead.
  59. 59. Further information • See ucl.ac.uk/excites • Blog: povesham.wordpress.com uclexcites.wordpress.com • M.haklay@ucl.ac.uk / @mhaklay

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