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Into the Night - Citizen Science Training day - introduction to citizen science

Setting, running and evaluating - In this session, we will provide a brief overview of the types of citizen science that are relevant in addressing environmental challenges. We will look at classifications of citizen science projects, explore their potential goals, the process of recruitment and retention as well as the need to start project evaluation from an early stage. Participants will have the opportunity to engage in a short exercise to consider how these elements can be used in the design of a citizen science project.

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Into the Night - Citizen Science Training day - introduction to citizen science

  1. 1. Introduction to Environmental Citizen Science projects Muki Haklay Extreme Citizen Science (ExCiteS) research group, UCL @mhaklay
  2. 2. Into The Night • April 2014: US National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) on Anthropogenic Sensory Stimuli as Drivers of Evolution: A conceptual synthesis and roadmap for an integrated citizen-science research network (organised by Caren Cooper, Clinton D Francis, Jesse Barber)
  3. 3. A bit of background… • End 2014: Call for new Citizen Science project launched: New ideas for a UK-based citizen science project are being sought by Earthwatch. • Proposal: Sound and Light / Son et lumière – a sustainable sensory landscape for humans and nature • Team: Muki Haklay (UCL), Caren Cooper (North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences), Kate Jones (UCL), David McAlpine (UCL), Barbara Helm (University of Glasgow), Elizabeth Boakes (UCL) • September 2015: First exploratory workshop • September 2016: Second exploratory workshop • December 2016: Funding from NERC
  4. 4. Project aims and objectives • To investigate wellbeing benefits of dark skies and natural sounds as ecosystem services for plant and animal taxa, including humans. • An extensive citizen science project to explore the evolutionary impacts of anthropogenic sound and light on plant and animal taxa, in particular birds and bats. • To understand the interdependence of human health and wellbeing in relation to nearby animal and plant systems, and thus providing a demonstration of the ‘One Health’ framework
  5. 5. Growing awareness
  6. 6. If we have ‘nature deficit disorder’, should we have ‘star deficit disorder’? (cc) Tom Hall
  7. 7. Co-designed project EarthWatch Scientists Participants National Parks NGOs (TCV) Corporate partners
  8. 8. • Training day • Workshops for co-designing citizen science projects – 16th and 17th February • Earth Hour citizen science pilots – 25th March (opportunities for community scientists!) Activities in Into the Night
  9. 9. Outline • Environmental Citizen Science – an overview • Classifying citizen science activities • Setting a project – considerations • Recruiting and retaining participants • Evaluating
  10. 10. Citizen Science overview Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Marine Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
  11. 11. Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Marine Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science Citizen Science overview Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
  12. 12. Biodiversity/Ecology Participating in Big Garden Birdwatch (source: RSPB) Participating in a BioBlitz (source: OPAL)
  13. 13. © Audubon Cal. Jennifer Jewett / USFWS © WMO–No. 919 Meteorology
  14. 14. Coastal zones
  15. 15. Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Marine Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
  16. 16. Volunteer computing You can join World Community Grid at http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/
  17. 17. Volunteer Thinking
  18. 18. Passive Sensing
  19. 19. Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Marine Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science
  20. 20. Mapping for Change EveryAware website at http://www.everyaware.eu
  21. 21. DIY Science
  22. 22. CLASSIFYING CITIZEN SCIENCE ACTIVITIES
  23. 23. Typology of Citizen Science • Contractual projects, communities ask professional researchers to conduct a specific scientific investigation • Contributory projects, generally designed by scientists and for which members of the public primarily contribute data; • Collaborative projects, generally designed by scientists and members of the public contribute data but might refine project design, analyze data, and/or disseminate findings; • Co-Created projects, designed by scientists and members of the public working together and some of the public participants are actively involved in most or all aspects of the research process; • Collegial contributions, non-credentialed individuals conduct research independently with varying degrees of expected recognition by institutionalized science and/or professionals. Shirk et al. 2012. Public participation in scientific research: a framework for deliberate design. Ecology and Society 17(2): 29.
  24. 24. Adjusted from Cooper, Dickinson, Phillips & Bonney, 2007, Citizen Science as tool for conservation in residential ecosystems. Ecology and Society 12(2) Question Study Design Data Collection Data Analysis and Interpretation Understanding results Management Action Geographic scope of project Nature of people taking action Research priority Education priority Traditional Science Scientific Consulting* Contributory Citizen Science Collaborative Citizen Science Participatory Action Research Variable Narrow NarrowBroad Broad Managers Community Groups Managers Individuals Community Groups Highest Medium High High Medium Low Medium High High High *often called Science Shops Community Science Co-created Citizen Science Narrow High High All √ √√√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Public Scientists √ √ √
  25. 25. Participation in citizen science • Collaborative science – problem definition, data collection and analysis Level 4 ‘Extreme citizen science’ • Participation in problem definition and data collection Level 3 ‘Participatory science’ • Citizens as basic interpreters Level 2 ‘Distributed intelligence’ • Citizens as sensors Level 1 ‘Crowdsourcing’ Haklay. 2013. Citizen Science and volunteered geographic information: Overview and typology of participation, Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
  26. 26. SETTING A PROJECT
  27. 27. Project goals Increasing awareness Collecting data Improving STEM education Addressing local issue Addressing social issue Balancing act
  28. 28. ECSA 10 principles 1. Citizen science projects actively involve citizens in scientific endeavour that generates new knowledge or understanding. 2. Citizen science projects have a genuine science outcome. 3. Both the professional scientists and the citizen scientists benefit from taking part. 4. Citizen scientists may, if they wish, participate in multiple stages of the scientific process. 5. Citizen scientists receive feedback from the project. 6. Citizen science is considered a research approach like any other, with limitations and biases that should be considered and controlled for. 7. Citizen science project data and meta-data are made publicly available and where possible, results are published in an open access format. 8. Citizen scientists are acknowledged in project results and publications. 9. Citizen science programmes are evaluated for their scientific output, data quality, participant experience and wider societal or policy impact. 10. The leaders of citizen science projects take into consideration legal and ethical issues surrounding copyright, intellectual property, data sharing agreements, confidentiality, attribution, and the environmental impact of any activities.
  29. 29. Citizen Science design framework Shirk, J. L., H. L. Ballard, C. C. Wilderman, T. Phillips, A. Wiggins, R. Jordan, E. McCallie, M., Minarchek, B. V. Lewenstein, M. E. Krasny, and R. Bonney. 2012. Public participation in scientific research: a framework for deliberate design. Ecology and Society 17(2): 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04705-170229
  30. 30. RUNNING AND EVALUATING
  31. 31. Recruitment & retainment • What will be the reason to join? • How to reach potential participants? • What is the process of joining (‘on boarding’)? • Consider the goals, and how they are evaluated
  32. 32. Different constituencies • Public - participants in events, volunteers, marginalised groups • Intermediaries - museums, science shops, universities, NGOs, Environment Protection Agencies • Scientists - ecologists, physics, life science, medicine, social science, humanities • Policy - civil servants, decision makers, political groups, civic society
  33. 33. Retaining participants • Plan for on going communication to encourage participants to continue their involvement • Provide meaningful feedback to participants as they go along • Pay attention to participants needs
  34. 34. Evaluation • Funders, managers, and you, as project manager, need to consider how the project will be evaluated • Evaluation can take significant resources from the project if not planned properly • Evaluation should be planned from the start • A popular framework for evaluation: theory of change / logic model
  35. 35. Theory of Change, Logic Models • Methodologies that emerged in the mid 1990s, used by Non-Governmental Organisations, Governmental organisations – specifically in the context of planning and evaluating social change • Theory in the sense of ‘this is how we think things ought to work’. We want the theory to be plausible, feasible & testable • Logic in the sense of ‘the relationship between elements and between an element and the whole’
  36. 36. Framework for PPSR Shirk, J. L., H. L. Ballard, C. C. Wilderman, T. Phillips, A. Wiggins, R. Jordan, E. McCallie, M., Minarchek, B. V. Lewenstein, M. E. Krasny, and R. Bonney. 2012. Public participation in scientific research: a framework for deliberate design. Ecology and Society 17(2): 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04705-170229
  37. 37. Developing Logic Model • Working backward, from long term objectives to the resources. Relies on the following elements: • Inputs – resources that we have: participants, volunteers, social media followers, funding, existing guides • Activities – things that we do: events, exhibition, online activities • Outputs - products from the project: policy briefing, guidelines, websites, trained participants • Outcomes (short, medium) - changes that the project led at individual, group, and policy levels • Impacts (long) - systematic change that the project led to.
  38. 38. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant
  39. 39. Your turn! • On your tables, there are descriptions of two briefs about wellbeing and nature impacts of light pollution • In groups of 3, consider how we are going to engage people in a citizen science project about one of these topics – identify the type of the project (according to one of the classifications) and the goals of the project

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