Ch 21 Decline Of Soveit Union

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Ch 21 Decline Of Soveit Union

  1. 1. DECLINE OF THE SOVIET UNION
  2. 2. <ul><li>LEONID BREZHNEV replaces Khrushchev in 1964 </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Breznev Doctrine says USSR can step in if communism is threatened in another communist state </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Life under Breznev: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Relaxed rule (art, lit) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Those who speak </li></ul><ul><li>out ( DISSIDENTS ) </li></ul><ul><li>punished . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3.Big problems such as alcoholism, poor economy & hi infant mortality </li></ul><ul><li>4. Also inefficient govt, weak farming system & lack of incentives </li></ul><ul><li>for workers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>5. Communist ruling class corrupt & has hi living standards ( compared to everyone else ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>. 1970s: US & USSR enter phase called DÉTENTE - relaxed tensions with improved relations. ( US gives grain) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>1979: Soviets invade Afghanistan to est a pro Soviet govt </li></ul><ul><li>Ends détente . </li></ul><ul><li>Side issues: </li></ul><ul><li>US embargo, </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic ban </li></ul>
  9. 9. RONALD REAGAN <ul><li>Pres Ronald Reagan calls USSR the “ EVIL EMPIRE ”. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>US begins to build up arms & gives military aid to Afghanistan </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mikhail Gorbechev <ul><li>MIKHAIL GORBECHEV leader wants to, rethink Soviet policy by 1985. </li></ul><ul><li>Reformers call for PERESTROIKA - or restructuring. </li></ul>
  12. 12. PERESTROIKA <ul><li>Eco was 1 st focus & he started a MARKET ECONOMY - </li></ul><ul><li>Based on supply & demand & resources controlled & owned by individuals who compete for profits </li></ul>
  13. 13. GORBY <ul><li>1988: Gorby allows people to be elected to a new parliament & organize poli parties </li></ul><ul><li>(Congress of People Deputies) </li></ul>
  14. 14. END OF THE USSR <ul><li>Many problems: </li></ul><ul><li>92 different nationalities, 112 languages, too multiethnic & big pop. </li></ul><ul><li>KGB, leaders, military don’t want to lose privileges, fear break up. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!! </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist movement emerges w/ calls for independence in 1989-1990. </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia, Latvia, </li></ul><ul><li>Estonia, Moldavia, Lithuania, </li></ul><ul><li>Uzbekistan, </li></ul><ul><li>Azerbaijan </li></ul>
  16. 16. YELTSIN <ul><li>. Aug 19, 1991, Commies try to arrest Gorby, but fail when </li></ul><ul><li>Boris Yelstin ( Russia pres ) & citizens stops it </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The UKRAINE moved first for independence on Dec. 1, 1991, followed by others </li></ul>
  18. 18. GONE WITH THE WIND <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!!! </li></ul><ul><li>By late 1991- USSR doesnt exist </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 25, 1991, Gorby resigns & turns it over to BORIS YELTSIN </li></ul><ul><li>too many social & eco problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized crime rises </li></ul>
  19. 19. YELTSIN <ul><li>Yeltsin doesn’t want former satellite nations to join NATO & sends troops to Chechnya to keep it part of Russia . </li></ul>
  20. 20. VLADIMIR PUTIN <ul><li>In 1999, Vladimir Putin replaced Yeltsin. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!! </li></ul><ul><li>He cont reforms of free sale of land, tax cuts & joins World Trade Org. </li></ul><ul><li>Cont. bombing of Chechnya </li></ul>
  22. 22. GROZNY
  23. 23. EASTERN EUROPE
  24. 24. <ul><li>Gorby said USSR would no longer interfere militarily with other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutions break out across E Europe </li></ul>
  25. 25. POLAND <ul><li>1980: Poland rebels </li></ul><ul><li>worker LECH WALESA organized a trade union called SOLIDARITY - gets support of workers & Catholic Church (POPE JOHN PAUL II </li></ul><ul><li>is Polish), </li></ul><ul><li>but is arrested . </li></ul>
  26. 26. POLAND <ul><li>1988 Poland agrees to free elections. </li></ul><ul><li>Walesa elected pres in 1990 . </li></ul><ul><li>Eco problems due to fast change to free market . </li></ul>
  27. 27. CZECHOSLOVAKIA <ul><li>1988-89 demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>VACLAV HAVAL elected new pres. </li></ul><ul><li>2 ethnic groups emerge </li></ul><ul><li>& 1993 split into </li></ul><ul><li>CZECH REPUBLIC </li></ul><ul><li>& SLOVAKIA </li></ul>
  28. 28. ROMANIA <ul><li>NICOLAE CEAUSCAU - cruel dictator who murdered 1000s w/ secret police . ) </li></ul><ul><li>Secret police </li></ul><ul><li>turn on Nic & </li></ul><ul><li>execute him </li></ul><ul><li>Christmas 1990 . </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>ERICH HONECKER head of Com Party in E. Germ who used secret police </li></ul><ul><li>Mass demonstrations occur . </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Nov 9, 1989. Com govt opens border. 100,000 people cross west & people begin to tear down Berlin Wall. </li></ul>
  31. 31. GERMANY <ul><li>Germany reunited on Oct. 3, 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>Many problems. </li></ul>
  32. 32. YUGOSLAVIA! DON’T WRITE <ul><li>Communist nation under Josip Tito , ( but not a USSR satellite). </li></ul><ul><li>Tito dies 1980 & reps from all republics & provinces in Yugoslavia meet </li></ul>
  33. 33. YUGOSLAVIA <ul><li>1990: Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina & Macedonia ask for independence. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>SLOBADON MILOSVIC (Serbia leader) says no. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants borders redrawn to create greater Serbian state b/c many people there were Serbs ( Slavic like in WWI ) </li></ul>
  35. 35. YUGOSLAVIA <ul><li>Don’t’ write! </li></ul><ul><li>June 1991: Slovenia & Croatia declare independence </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 1991 Yugo army (mostly Serbs) begins attack on Croatia </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>1992: Serbs hit Bosnia-Herzegovinia (Many Bosnians Muslims) </li></ul><ul><li>Serbs used ETHNIC CLEANSING - killing or forcibly removing ethnic groups from lands - </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Don’t write! </li></ul><ul><li>By 1995, 250,000 dead </li></ul><ul><li>More killed later in Kososvo </li></ul>
  38. 38. YUGOSLAVIA <ul><li>DON’T WRITE: 1995 NATO gets involved. </li></ul><ul><li>NATO attacks Serbs who sign treaty on Dec. 14. </li></ul><ul><li>Splits Bosnia into union of Serb Republic & Muslim-Croat federation . </li></ul>
  39. 39. YUGOSLAVIA <ul><li>KOSOVO- an AUTONOMOUS (self governing) area in Yugo with mostly ethnic Albanians . </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Milosevic takes away status & Kosovo Liberation Army forms against Serb rule. </li></ul>
  41. 41. YUGOSLAVIA IS GONE <ul><li>Serb forces massacre ethnic Albanians </li></ul><ul><li>US & NATO step in again </li></ul><ul><li>2000: Milosevic put on trial for war crimes. (died 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Serbia & Montenegro form union </li></ul>

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