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Chapter 30a


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Chapter 30a

  2. 2. The Revolutionary Era in the Soviet Union COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES Russia CIS Member States Associate States Former Socialist Republics uninvolved in CIS
  3. 3. The Gorbachev Era (1985-1991) When Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union in 1985 he began to institute a series of reform programs that were designed to save an empire that was declining. He felt that if the USSR was to compete with the US and the West, it had to change and be more realistic about its shortcomings. Growth of nationalist movements within USSR.
  4. 4. The End of the Soviet Union (1991) Gorbachev struggled to please conservatives and liberals. Failed right-wing coup in August 1991. The USSR dissolved in December 1991 after Ukraine voted for independence, and leaders of the republics announced it “ceased to exist” Replaced by a less powerful, voluntary Commonwealth of Independent States Gorbachev resigned and Boris Yeltsin became President
  5. 5. The New Russia (1991-1999) Marred by a poor economy, social disorder, organized crime. Yeltsin fought against communists and nationalists over the role of president and the structure of government Financially burdening war in Chechnya, a Muslim region seeking independence.
  6. 6. The Putin Era (1999-present) Yeltsin resigned in 1999 and was replaced by Vladimir Putin (ex-KGB). Strengthened powers of the central government. Escalated the war in Chechnya. Growth of the economy overall, but vast income disparities Silencing of media dissent
  7. 7. Question 1 The ruling policies of Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union a) included the forcible d) grew out of Russian exportation of Russian misperceptions of United Communism to Central and States strengths and failed South America. to appreciate that American b) evoked a "New Thinking" military spending and tax about world affairs and the reductions under Ronald balance of power leading to Reagan had greatly new arms limitation treaties increased American budget and greater autonomy for deficits. Communist regimes in e) led to a reform of Soviet Eastern Europe. Communism and the c) increased political permanent strengthening of repression in Russia and in the Soviet regime. Eastern Europe.
  8. 8. Question 2 Mikhail Gorbachev's radical reforms included all of the following except a) the creation of a new d) to initiate policies of Soviet Parliament. perestroika and b) the creation of a market glasnost. economy with limited e) the termination of the free enterprise and office of president of private property. the Soviet Union. c) to open discussion of Soviet weaknesses in public.
  9. 9. Question 3 After the breakup of the Soviet Union, the leader of Russia became a) Boris Yeltsin. b) Andrei Sakharov. c) Leonid Brezhnev. d) Josif Venediktov. e) Vladimir Putin.
  10. 10. Question 4 After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia struggled with all of the following except: a) a renewed d) economic hardships. Communist Party e) a president who was majority which took often ill. over the government. b) organized crime. c) an uprising in largely Muslim Chechnya.
  11. 11. Question 5 Under Vladimir Putin's presidency, all of the following have occurred except: a) power was centralized d) the economy grew in the federal significantly and the government. government had a b) Russia ended its budget surplus. involvement in e) the economy Chechnya. significantly c) as many as 40 percent depended upon of the population lived exports of oil and natural gas. in poverty.
  12. 12. Question 6 The first and most successful independence movements among the Soviet republics during Gorbachev's rule occurred in the Baltic area of a) Afghanistan. b) Azerbaijan. c) Lithuania. d) Georgia. e) Chechnya.
  13. 13. Question 7 Boris Yeltsin was succeeded as president of Russia by a) Lech Walesa. b) Mikhail Gorbachev. c) Vladimir Putin. d) Yuri Andropov. e) Andrei Sakharov.
  14. 14. Eastern Europe: The Revolutions of 1989 and the Collapse of Communist Order EASTERN EUROPE: AFTER THE FALL Former Soviet Union Formerly Under Soviet Influence Former Czechoslovakia Former Yugoslavia Other Nations
  15. 15. The Fall Under Gorbachev, the USSR was no longer going to interfere in the internal affairs of the Eastern bloc nations. This signaled the end of communist regimes. Each former satellite had a slightly different transition to a world without Russian control . Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary’s transformation was relatively peaceful. Romania’s army no longer obeyed Ceausescu’s orders and in fact, turned on him. Cutting holes in flags was common
  16. 16. After the Fall Once the initial euphoria of a post-Soviet world set in many East European nations faced daunting problems including a lack of democratic tradition and weak economies. Ethnic squabbling emerged particularly in Czechoslovakia. Many nations applied for inclusion into the European Union or NATO. Some worried about West Europe’s dominance.
  17. 17. The Reunification of Germany Germany reunited in 1990. The former East Germany was absorbed by West Germany and Berlin became the capital once more. The Christian Democrats were the major party engineering the re- unification.
  18. 18. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia The change sweeping through East Europe affected Yugoslavia and without strongman Marshal Tito the situation turned violent. Croatia and Slovenia tried to leave the federation and the largely Serbian Yugoslav army battled them. Eventually Slovenia and Croatia gained independence. Bosnia was to be a different story. Oh, the horror
  19. 19. War in Bosnia In Bosnia a four year war drug on with the Serbs attempting to drive non-Serbs from the areas under their control in a policy of ethnic cleansing. The US and NATO began a bombing campaign that forced the Serbs to sign a peace treaty called the Dayton Accords. Bosnia was split into a loose union and NATO peacekeepers have been there since 1995.
  20. 20. War in Kosovo Fighting then erupted in the province of Kosovo which was inhabited by Albanians and Serbs. The Serbs, under the leadership of Slobodan Milosevic, a Serb nationalist, attempted to do in Kosovo what they had done in Bosnia. Again, under NATO pressure, the Serbs had to back down.
  21. 21. The Aftermath From 1991 to 2000 Yugoslavia was torn apart by war and ethnic strife. All six republics that had formed Yugoslavia after WWI are once again separate republics but it is an uneasy peace. Slobodan Milosevic was put on trial for crimes against humanity but he died while in prison.
  22. 22. Question 8 The Solidarity movement in Poland a) was temporarily d) lacked solidarity and crushed by General Lech Walesa in 1981. quickly disintegrated b) failed to gain massive and disappeared in support due to stiff 1980. opposition from the conservative Polish e) ended the Catholic church. Communist c) was formed by monopoly of power in Wladyslaw Gomulka in 1956. 1988-1989.
  23. 23. Question 9 In 1988, the first free parliamentary elections to occur in Eastern Europe for forty years took place in a) Hungary. b) Austria. c) Poland. d) Estonia. e) Lithuania.
  24. 24. Question 10 The leader of Czechoslovakia in 1990 who replaced the Communist government was the former dissident writer and philosopher a) Kádár. b) Husák. c) Dubcek. d) Havel. e) Dubrovnik.
  25. 25. Question 11 The brutal dictatorial Communist government of Nicolae Ceausecu came to an end 1989 in a) Czechoslovakia. b) Bulgaria. c) East Germany. d) Romania. e) Yugoslavia.
  26. 26. Question 12 An Eastern European republic that, fueled by ethnic rivalries, came into existence in 1993 with the breakup of a previously existing state is a) Lithuania. b) Estonia. c) Albania. d) Lichtenstein. e) Slovakia.
  27. 27. Question 13 Probably the most symbolic events ending the Cold War was a) the death of Mao. d) the fall of the Berlin b) the Helsinki Accords. Wall. c) Russia's defeat in the e) the election of Boris Afghan war. Yeltsin as president of the Soviet Union.
  28. 28. Question 14 The politician who kept the fractious state of Yugoslavia together for decades after World War II was a) Marshall Tito. b) General Filopovic. c) President Milosevic. d) Prime Minister Kostunica. e) Marshall Petain.
  29. 29. Question 15 Yugoslavia was divided into warring factions because of a) demands for ethnic separatism. b) differences of political goals. c) support of the Serbs. d) lack of cultural diversity. e) religious uniformity.
  30. 30. Question 16 The Dayton Accords of November 1995 a) recognized the d) did not require the recreation of a unified Yugoslavia. use of military force b) brought an end to the by NATO for their war in Bosnia with a achievement. peace plan acceptable to Bosnian Muslims, e) failed due to Croatians, and Serbs. intervention by the c) were achieved despite European the opposition of the United States. Community.
  31. 31. Question 17 The tactic of "ethnic cleansing," murdering or forcibly removing ethnic minorities from their lands in the former Yugoslavia, is a savage strategy of modern political terror practiced most brutally by a) Serbs. b) Croatians. c) Bosnians. d) Herzgovenians. e) Slovenes.
  32. 32. Question 18 The Yugoslavian president ousted from power in 2000 and who was subsequently put on trial for war crimes against humanity was a) Vojislav Kostunica. b) Nicolae Ceausescu. c) Wladyslaw Gomulka. d) Todor Zhivkov. e) Slobodan Milosevic.
  33. 33. Western Europe and the Search for Unity European Union Member
  34. 34. Germany Restored Reuniting the two Germanies proved harder than first thought. Integrating the East’s command economy was expensive and the Christian Democrats were punished in subsequent elections. The Social Democrats were not any more successful.
  35. 35. Post-Thatcher Britain As Thatcher’s post- Falkland War popularity waned her conservative economics caused her to lose her post. She was replaced by John Major and then Labour made a comeback with the charismatic and Christian Tony Blair. The UK’s economy under Blair was strong but his foray into Iraq with George Bush in 2003 cost him politically.
  36. 36. France: A Move to the Right France was attempting to deal with high unemployment exacerbated by immigration from her former colonies in Africa. As her politics shifted to the right, riots broke out in many of the Moslem ghettoes surrounding the urban centers. Nicolas Sarkozy was elected as a reformer.
  37. 37. Corruption in Italy Since WWII Italy has been plagued by government instability brought on by weak coalition governments Corruption and the resulting public cynicism have also troubled the peninsula Voters have turned to the left in recent elections
  38. 38. The Unification of Europe The European Union (EU) is a huge economic and monetary market but it is not a United States of Europe especially in regard to national politics and foreign policy. 13 nations are using the Euro as a common currency, travel restrictions have been eased Problems include the inclusion of southeastern Europe, immigration from those poorer regions and ethnic identity versus being a “citizen of Europe.”
  39. 39. Question 19 The reunification of Germany was accomplished under the leadership of a) Willy Brandt. b) Conrad Adenauer. c) Helmut Schmidt. d) Gunter Grass. e) Helmut Kohl.
  40. 40. Question 20 The issue that fatally weakened Margaret Thatcher's government and which eventually brought the Labour Party to power was a) the Falklands War. d) a drastic increase in b) race riots in London. air and water c) the proposal for a pollution. flat-rate poll tax. e) the nationalization of Britain's railroads.
  41. 41. Question 21 The individual who succeeded Tony Blair as Britain's prime minister in 2007 was a) Gordon Brown. b) John Major. c) Clement Attlee. d) Nicolas Sarkozy. e) James Callaghan.
  42. 42. Question 22 The British prime minister who gave support to the United States in the war on terror and in the Iraq War was a) Margaret Thatcher. b) James Callaghan. c) John Major. d) Tony Blair. e) Ramsey McDonald.
  43. 43. Question 23 By 1995, a major issue in French society was a) whether to support c) to leave the Common America's "war on Market in protest to terror." high subsidies to b) to rejoin NATO, agriculture. which France had left d) resentment against in the 1960s. immigrants. e) massive inflation.
  44. 44. Question 24 The new French president elected in 2007 was a) Jacques Chirac. b) Francois Mitterrand. c) Jacques Le Pen. d) Yves Montand. e) Nicolas Sarkozy.
  45. 45. Question 25 The major issue that troubled Italian society in recent decades has been a) Islamic terrorism. d) a significant increase b) Catholic in the birth rate. fundamentalism e) economic collapse, c) political corruption. with high unemployment and bankruptcies.
  46. 46. Question 26 The common currency that was initially adopted by eleven member states of the European Union is the a) continental. b) euro. c) maastricht. d) francmark. e) freipence.
  47. 47. Question 27 Challenges facing the Economic Union in the early twenty-first century include a) the lack of a common d) lack of economic currency. assistance to Europe's b) the lack of any military farming community. force. e) the failure to create a c) many Europeans truly single internal remain committed to a market. national identify and do not see themselves as "Europeans."
  48. 48. Question 28 By 2004, the population of the European Union was a) 455 million. b) 355 million. c) 295 million. d) 245 million. e) 550 million.