Chapter 21 Section 2Revolutions in Eastern Europe
I. Revolutions in Eastern Europe A. Workers’ protests led to demands for change in Poland. 1. In 1980, Lech Walesa (lehk vah.LEHN.suh) organized a national trade union in Poland known as Solidarity. 2. In 1988, the Polish regime agreed to free parliamentary elections—the first free election in E Europe in 40 years. 3. In 1990, Walesa was elected president of Poland. 4. Poland’s rapid free-market reforms led to severe unemployment and discontent. a. Today Poland’s free-market economy is becoming increasingly prosperous.
B. In 1968, Soviet troops crushed the reform movement in Czechoslovakia. 1. In 1988 and 1989, mass demonstrations throughout Czechoslovakia led to the collapse of the Communist government. 2. In December 1989, Vaclav Havel, a dissident against the Communist government, became president. 3. In 1993 ethnic conflicts between Czechs and Slovaks led to the peaceful division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
C. In 1965, Communist leader Nicolae Ceausescu (NEE.koh.lay chow.SHEHS.koo) and his wife Elena led a dictatorial regime in Romania. 1. His actions angered Romanian people. 2. The army refused to support his repressive regime and, in December 1989, Ceausescu and his wife were executed. 3. A new government was formed.
D. In 1988 unrest led many E. Germans to flee their Communist country. 1. In 1989, mass demonstrations against the Communist regime broke out. 2. By November, the Communist government tore down the Berlin Wall and opened its border with the West. 3. Large numbers of E. Germans crossed the border. a. In 1990, East and West Germany were reunited.
II. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia A. At the end of the 1980s, Yugoslavia was caught up in the reform movements of E Europe. 1. By 1990, new political parties had emerged and the Communist Party had collapsed. B. In 1990, the Yugoslav republic of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Macedonia worked for independence. 1. Slobodan Milosevic, leader of Serbia, rejected independence. 2. In June 1991, Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence. a. In September 1991, the Yugoslavian army attacked Croatia.
C. In 1992, the Serbs attacked Bosnia- Herzegovina. 1. Many Bosnians were Muslims. 2. The Serbs followed a policy of ethnic cleansing—killing them or forcibly removing them from their lands. 3. In 1995 air strikes by NATO bombers helped Bosnian and Croatian forces regain territory lost to Serbia. 4. On December 14, the Serbs signed a formal peace treaty splitting Bosnia into a loose union of a Serb republic and a Muslim-Croat Federation.
D. In 1998, a war began over Kosovo. 1. In 1974, Tito had made Kosovo an autonomous, or self-governing, province within Yugoslavia. a. In 1989, Milosevic took away Kosovo’s autonomous status. 2. Albanians fought against Serbian rule in Kosovo. a. Serbian forces massacred ethnic Albanians. b. The U.S. and NATO tried to arrange a settlement. 3. In 2000, Milosevic was removed from power, and tried for war crimes at the International Court of Justice for his role in the massacre of Kosovo civilians. a. In 2003, Serbia and Montenegro formed a republic.