End of Cold War - Poland's Solidarity, Gorbachev, Fall of USSR


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End of Cold War - Poland's Solidarity, Gorbachev, Fall of USSR

  1. 1. 1964-82
  2. 2. Brezhnev Doctrine • “ When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries.” (1968)
  3. 3. Socialism ‘with a human face’? Dubcek’s belief that socialism did not have to be what Soviet Union had practiced – corrupt, power abuse, deception… Lessened censorship – criticism of the government allowed Less oppressive policies increased democratisation including more open debate and freedom of speech Even set up an alternative party to the Communist Party! *** Dubcek had no intention to give up communism or leave the Warsaw Pact. He only aimed to reform communism.
  4. 4. Why did the Soviet Union feel threatened by the Prague Spring 1968? • - The USSR thought they would lose control as Dubcek launched reforms and modernized communism with “Socialism with a human face”. He introduced free expression and ended rule of terror by secret police. • - Dubcek even planned to set up a Social democratic Party as a rival to the Communists. • - Although Dubcek promised Brezhnev not to leave Warsaw Pact, Brezhnev's Doctrine stated that if control was lessened in one country, others Satellite states would undermine Soviet control, and USSR had the right to intervene. • - Czechoslovakia was too important to the USSR as it had borders with West Germany. • - Brezhnev was the new Soviet leader and he was determined to maintain Soviet control of eastern Europe.
  5. 5. Detente
  6. 6. Improved Sino-American relations! Ping-pong diplomacy (1971)!
  7. 7. Détente with the USSR • 1972 – Nixon flew to Moscow (the first president to do so since Roosevelt in 1944)
  8. 8. SALT: Strategic Arm Limitation Talks •SALT I (1972) •Limited number of ICBMs (missiles) and ABMs •Agreed not to test ICBMs
  9. 9. MIRV – Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle
  10. 10. SALT: Strategic Arm Limitation Talks •SALT II (1979) •President Carter of USA tried to get further deals on arms limitations •Slow progress •1979 – Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan •Diplomatic links broken •Carter withdrew US Olympic team from 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow.
  11. 11. Reagan – The 80s •Aggressive anti-Soviet policy •Both sides developing new weapons •USA developed neutron bomb – could kill many people without much damage to property
  12. 12. 1983 - Star Wars  March 23, Reagan outlinrd his Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars," a space-based defensive shield that would use lasers and other advanced technology to destroy attacking missiles far above the Earth's surface.  Soviets accuse the U.S of violating the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty.  Soviets forced to spend heavily to match the program causing near economic collapse.
  13. 13. Solidarity Movement in Poland
  14. 14. Poland during the Cold War - economic disasters - hunger - Communist government failed to solve any problem - people had lost faith in communism
  15. 15. How It All Began...  In 1970, Stalin’s Shipyard in Gdansk, Poland, was the center of huge and violent demonstrations against the government’s decisions to increase food prices.  Six years later Wałęsa was fired and became an activist  In 1980 the food prices were raised again. >100,000 workers went on strike.  Workers seized control of the yard and Wałęsa scaled the shipyard fence and joined the workers inside. Lech Wałęsa speaking the workers at the shipyard.
  16. 16. What is the Solidarity movement? - A trade union of workers - backed by popular opinion - use of non-violent methods - the 1st non–communist party-controlled trade union in Warsaw Pact. - reached 10 million members before 1981 (1/3 of Poland's work force).
  17. 17. Lech Wałęsa  Leader of the Solidarity movement led Poland out of communism.  Contributed to the end of communism and Europe and an end to the Cold War
  18. 18. PassivePassive resistanceresistance
  19. 19. Helping Solidarity  1982: Reagan met with Pope John Paul II (Polish!)  They decided to secretly help Solidarity, to secretly challenge the communist government.  1982-9, American organizations provided money and advice to help Solidarity!  Meanwhile, the Polish communist party was falling apart. CIA!!!
  20. 20. What's so important about Solidarity? - Solidarity began calling for greater political and religious freedoms. - Government feared to take action! - The banning and imprisonment did not work. Solidarity went from strength to strength. - a symbol for opposition to communism. It set an example to the rest of Eastern Europe ...
  21. 21. Meanwhile in USSR...
  22. 22. USSR in HUGH crisis! - Economy collapsing. Industry & agriculture inefficient - unable to afford military expenses in the arms race - Corruption too deep-rooted - poverty & famine - people lost faith in communism - Military defeat and humiliation at Afghanistan - Rising discontent EVERYWHERE - low social morale (alcoholism)
  23. 23. Warsaw Pact also in HUGH crisis!Warsaw Pact also in HUGH crisis! -Economy failing, clearly behind the West - corruption - poverty & famine -people lost faith in communism - Rising discontent EVERYWHERE - low social morale - Red Army could not no longer suppress all riots
  24. 24. 1979 - Afghanistan  December 25, 100,000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan as communist Babrak Karmal seized control of the government.  U.S.-backed Muslim guerrilla fighters waged a costly war against the Soviets for nearly a decade before Soviet troops withdraw in 1988.  Afghanistan—the Soviet “Vietnam”
  25. 25. 1985 - Gorbachev came to power  started an era of reforms. •Perestroika •Glasnost
  26. 26. Perestroika!!! “Restructuring” the economy - including capitalist practices! Competition and free market economy was encouraged.
  27. 27. Glasnost!!! Open up! - Free speech and political freedom! - to restore faith in government and end corruption. People who criticised would no longer be persecuted!
  28. 28. "Sinatra Doctrine" USSR would allow Eastern Europe Satellites to choose their “own way” of government. USSR would not send in Red Army to crush rebellions any more.
  29. 29. Gorbachev’s ‘Sinatra Doctrine’ http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=6E2hYDIFDIU
  30. 30.  There was more and more support for perestroika and glasnost!
  31. 31. Hungary became the first Soviet Satellite to 'fall' (or be liberated)
  32. 32. Fall of Berlin Wall
  33. 33. 1989 - Berlin Wall falls  Gorbachev loosened Soviet control in Eastern Europe.  On September 10, Hungary opened its border with Austria, allowing East Germans to flee to the West.  After massive public demonstrations in East Germany and Eastern Europe, the Berlin Wall fell on November 9.
  34. 34. Tear down the wall: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TzsklVTlopE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wnYXbJ_bcLc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EcFPPIkdtYQ
  35. 35. 1990 – German unification  At a September 12 meeting in Moscow, the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and the two Germanys agreed to end Allied occupation rights in Germany.  On October 3, East and West Germany united as the Federal Republic of Germany.
  36. 36. Lech Wałęsa: President of Poland  In 1989 he ran for President and won by a landslide.
  37. 37. Bulgaria and Albania also abandoned communism around 1990
  38. 38. Moves to establish friendly relations with the west and signed arms reduction treaties with USA!
  39. 39. 1987 - INF  On December 8, 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty  It was the removal of more than 2,600 nuclear missiles.
  40. 40. (1992) President George Bush and Russian president Boris Yeltsin issue formal statement declaring end to Cold War. Who “won” the Cold War?
  41. 41. Vladimir Putin and George Bush, Jr.
  42. 42. How far – 8 mark questions 1. How important was Solidarity in the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe? 2. How far can decline of Soviet power in Eastern Europe be blamed on the Solidarity Movement? 3. Gorbachev was responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe. How far?
  43. 43. How far was it due to Solidarity? Very important as it brought change and it set an example to others. It challenged the USSR by showing that if people stood together against oppression, it would force the government to give way through popular opinion and non-violent methods. The government in Poland had lost the confidence of the people and Solidarity showed that a Communist government could not solve Poland’s economic problems. Solidarity began calling for greater political and religious freedoms. As it was strong, the government feared to take action, as did the Soviet Union. The USSR did not use force to ensure this unlike in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The movement showed that tough moves of threats, banning and imprisonment did not work. Solidarity only grew stronger. In the free elections of 1989, Solidarity won massive support and Walesa became first non-communist President. This set an example to communist control for the rest of eastern Europe.
  44. 44. Was it Gorbachev’s leadership? Gorbachev created a more open atmosphere and no longer used armed forces to enforce Soviet rule over Satellite states. This helped to reduce spending on the military. He proposed that the Soviet economy should be improved by “perestroika” – restructuring, including capitalist practices. More competition in industry was encouraged. Free market capitalism and trade with the West increased. This also increased Soviet awareness of better standards of living in the West. He introduced “glasnost” – openness to restoring faith in government and end corruption. People who criticised the government should no longer be persecuted. This allowed discontent to grow. He proposed a cut back in money spent on the arms race and signed arms limitation treaty with the USA. He sought to establish more friendly relations with the west and signed arms reduction treaties. In 1989, communist regimes of eastern Europe toppled one by one as Gorbachev's reforms signalled that the Soviet Union could no longer intervene. (Sinatra Doctrine)
  45. 45. How far was it because of communism’s own weaknesses? Communism was seen by many as corrupt and Soviet industry and agriculture inefficient. The USSR was in economic crisis. Food shortages were everywhere. Large sums of money were being spent on military at the expense of citizens living in poverty. There was much corruption with Party members living in luxury whilst the workers were living in poverty. People had lost faith in the system. Corruption ran too deeply for the changes to happen. Large sums of money were being spent on defence and the 1979 Afghanistan war. Warsaw Pact countries were clearly behind western countries both economically and socially. Gorbachev’s withdrawal of Red Army from Satellite countries resulted in one by one the communist governments coming to an end.
  46. 46. So your conclusion?
  47. 47. Losing Soviet Control Over Eastern Europe 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akGjJcl3GDw End of Soviet Control http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ielyVJUgXK8
  48. 48. Gorbachev became both the hero and the devil http://youtu.be/fgm14D1jHUw?t=8s
  49. 49. Breaking up of USSR... 15 republics declared independence one by one under the “union treaty”
  50. 50. 1991 coup d'etat by hardliners to overthrow Gorbachev
  51. 51. EU
  52. 52. NATO
  53. 53. Yugoslavia since WWII Marshal Josip Tito
  54. 54.  Fall of USSR http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0g6arFbKZ60&t=9m30s End of communism in E Europe http://youtu.be/akGjJcl3GDw?t=2m22s  ‘My Way’  http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=6E2hYDIFDIU