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Standard format of report writing ---11


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Standard format of report writing ---11

  1. 1. ‫الرحيم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫ال‬ ‫بسم‬ ‫اللسليمية‬ ‫دريمان‬ ‫ام‬ ‫جايمعة‬ ‫الصحية‬ ‫العلوم‬ ‫و‬ ‫الطب‬ ‫كلية‬ ‫المجتمع‬ ‫طب‬ ‫قسم‬ ‫الطولىنى‬ ‫العلمى‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫يمساق‬ ‫الدفعة‬22 Standard format of Report Writing
  2. 2. Report writing: • is an essential skill for researchers; • the report requires: • clarity of language, • a logical presentation of facts, • use of easily understood tables and charts, • and an orderly arrangement of the report as a whole.
  3. 3. Report Format : components/sections “skeleton of the format” The format includes the following components/sections:
  4. 4. • I. Title or cover page 2-Table of contents • 3-List of abbreviations and glossary 4-Abstract (max 250 words) • Section (1) :A- Introduction (max 500 words) : • B- Statement of the Research Problem/justification • C- Objectives & Hypothesis • Section (2) :Literature review, Some relevant Background data, • Section (3) :Methodology section (max 1000 words): • Section (4) : A-Results (max 1500): B-Discussion (max 2000 words), • Section (5) :A-Conclusions (max 250 words) , B-Recommendations • C- Bibliography/ references , D-Annexes or appendices • Acknowledgements :
  5. 5. Report Format : content of each components/sections
  6. 6. I. Title or cover page: this includes the followings: • 1-report title : states the purpose of the report . consist of a challenging statement or question, • 2-student's name, • 3-the module name, • 4-the supervisor’s name, • 5-the institution, • 6-the academic year, etc.
  7. 7. 2-Table of contents: • (if the report is longer than10 pages). • It is an essential List of headings given to each section of the report, together with its page number. • Begin numbering the pages at the introduction. • Anything before the introduction is given a Roman numeral. • It provides the reader a quick overview of the major sections of report, with page references
  8. 8. Table of contents (example): • Section...................................................... Page Number • introduction ......................................................1 • Literature review............................................3 • Methodology section......................................................................5 • Results.............................................................................7 • Discussion …………………………………………………..11 • conclusion........................................................................15 • Recommendations................................................................16 • appendices(list tables, figures and appendices separately)..........................17 • bibliography........................................................................20 • List of Figures: Bar Chart, Pie Chart ..... • List of Tables, figures
  9. 9. 3-List of abbreviations and glossary: • glossary: is an alphabetical list of technical terms, with brief explanations of their meanings, • Abbreviations: technical terms should be stated in full when used for the first time in the report. If there are many, they should be listed in alphabetical order.
  10. 10. 4-Abstract: • It is a summary of the report, in which few sentence for the main section are included. • It follows the title page; • it is formatted as one paragraph. • Use complete sentences; be concise, but not telegraphic. • It should not be just a list of the headings. • It helps the reader to make a decision, but not to substitute reading the whole article.
  11. 11. Abstract contains: - • 1- Very brief description of the problem (WHAT has been studied) • 2- brief description of the quality of the literature • 3- the main objectives (WHY this study was needed) • 4- the place of study (WHERE) • 5- the type of study and methods used; subjects, apparatus and procedure used (HOW) • 6- major findings and conclusions • 7- the major recommendations. • It is about 250 words.
  12. 12. Section (1) • A- Introduction (max 500 words) : • B- Statement of the Research Problem/justification • C- Objectives & Hypothesis
  13. 13. Introduction • is extremely important brief description of the research question, topic, focus and the method of its investigation. • It should contain some relevant background data related to the problem, and then the statement of the problem should follow. • It should contain a paragraph on what researcher hoped to achieve with the results of the study.
  14. 14. Introduction • It serves to justify the study; • it is first opportunity to highlight importance of the work. • Introduction establishes the need for research within the current knowledge of the discipline, clarifying how this work will contribute to knowledge in the field.
  15. 15. • 1-Theoretical framework • 3-some relevant Background data about the country (environmental / administrative/ economic/ social), the health status of the population and health service data, related to problem under study. Link between the past and present.
  16. 16. Introduction generally includes:- • 4- Aims of the project, • 5-Brief description of the methodology: This discusses why the particular approach taken in the research has been chosen. • It moves from general information providing background about the research field to specific information about the research itself. • Although review the literature in a separate chapter still, present them in the introduction. • Introduction: (max 500 words)
  17. 17. B- Statement of the Research Problem/justification • Statement of the problem clearly identified in nature and scope in the first paragraph or the gaps in the previous research, the unresolved conflicts in the field that still require investigation, new developments that are required by the current state of knowledge in your field.
  18. 18. C- Objectives & Hypothesis • The general and specific objectives should be included as stated in the proposal. • If necessary, adjust them slightly, but not to change their basic nature. • They determine the methodology and how to structure the reporting of the findings. • If some of the objectives are not met, this should be stated in the methodology section and in the discussion of the findings.
  19. 19. Section (2) Literature review
  20. 20. Literature review: • i.e. what others have written about the topic. • It should lead towards the research question. • Review should be concerned with putting this study in the context of other work, and drawing out aspects which this research should intend to explore further. • Make sure that all the necessary bibliographic details are noted when first reading the books, especially page numbers for direct quotations
  21. 21. Section (3) Methodology section
  22. 22. Methodology section: • it should be described in detail, to enable another researcher to replicate it. • It should include description of: • 1- Study population, Study area • 2-the study type • 3-major study variables on which data was collected • 4-sampling method / sample size • 5-data-collection techniques used, how the data was collected and by whom • 6-procedures used for data analysis, • This section answers three fundamental questions: What is done? Why? How it is done?
  23. 23. Limitations of Methodology: • If deviation from the original study design presented in the research proposal, occurred, it should be explained to what extent it occurred &why. • All methodology section: (max 2000 words),
  24. 24. Section (4) A-Results B-Discussion
  25. 25. A-Results: • The systematic presentation of the findings in relation to the research objectives is the crucial part of the report. • Tables and figures should be titled, captioned and with foot notes. • Results are two types: major findings and minor findings; • Major findings are essential and useful. If there is a reasonable number of interesting minor findings, provide a foot note saying that information on these is available from the author.
  26. 26. A-Results: • result section is data oriented and does NOT include interpretation. • Tables, charts, & graphs are better for presenting findings than text. • Do not construct tables unless there is reasonable amount of data to be presented. • Be consistent in how to present the data and the labels. • Text to briefly summarize a complex chart, table, or graph, can be used, but do not present the same information in various formats. • If there is any sort of a trend, use a graph.
  27. 27. A-Results: • If only numbers sit there, use a table. • Charts & graphs should clarify & not complicate, • they make the report more interesting and grab attention. • But, they must be well-designed and informative. • Results (max 2000 words).
  28. 28. B-Discussion: • discuss the results in the context of previous research, and comment on the degree to which current results match them. • The findings can be discussed by objective or by cluster of related variables, which should lead to conclusions &possible recommendations for further research on the basis of the evidence; to refine the findings . •
  29. 29. B-Discussion: • The point is to add interpretation or "so what" to the major findings. • Briefly comment on deficiencies and relate those to suggestions for further research. • Outline relation of the results to previously published work • Identify problems encountered [how would be done better next time].
  30. 30. B-Discussion: • The discussion may include findings from other related studies that support or contradict result; whether there was general agreement, diverse opinion, no agreement, and no real findings in the literature. • It is important to discuss the limitations of study. • Care should be taken not to introduce new findings, i.e., findings that were not mentioned in the result section. • Discussion : (max 3000 words),
  31. 31. Section (5) A-Conclusions B-Recommendations C- Bibliography/ references D-Annexes or appendices
  32. 32. A-Conclusions: • This should sum up the main points of the report. • It should follow logically from the discussion of the findings. • State them as clearly as possible. • The conclusion should substantiate the points made in the report. Where does this search lead for clinical practice, and future research? • Note that it is not the place to introduce new material.
  33. 33. A-Conclusions: • Summarize what have been achieved in terms of the research and its implications. • Critically evaluate the research: • A-what are its strengths and what are its weaknesses? • B-What to do differently? • C-What have been learnt about the topic, about doing research? • Conclusion (max 250 words) .
  34. 34. B-Recommendations: • should follow logically from the discussion of the findings. They are suggestions for improvements or future actions, based on the conclusions that are drawn earlier. • They may be summarized according to the groups towards which they are directed, for example: 1-policy-makers • 2-health and health-related managers at different levels 3-health and health-related staff who could implement the activities • 4-potential clients(patients)
  35. 35. B-Recommendations: • 5-the community at large • 6- action-oriented groups are the most important in this section. 7- use the findings of this study, with also supportive information from other sources. They should take into consideration the local characteristics of the health system, constraints, feasibility and usefulness of the proposed solutions.
  36. 36. C- Bibliography/ references: • is the list all the publications either cited in the report or referred to during its composition. • The references in the report can be numbered in the sequence in which they appear in the report and then listed in this order in the list of references (Vancouver system).
  37. 37. C- Bibliography/ references: • Another possibility is using Harvard system of listing in brackets the author’s name(s) in the report followed by the date of the publication and page number. • In the list of references, the publications are then arranged in alphabetical order by the principal author’s last name. • Either system can be choosed as long as you use it consistently throughout the report.
  38. 38. D-Annexes or appendices: • This contains material, referred to in the report, but could interrupt the flow, if it was included in the main body of the report. It contains Information that would be useful to special categories of readers but is not of interest to the average reader. I.e. it contains any additional information needed to enable professionals following the research procedures and data analysis. Number each appendix clearly.
  39. 39. D-Annexes or appendices: • Examples of information that can be presented in annexes are: • • Tables referred to in the text but not included in order to keep the report short; • • lists of hospitals, districts, villages etc. that participated in the study; • • Questionnaires or checklists used for data collection. • • A copy of ‘ethics protocol’.
  40. 40. Acknowledgements:• This is a short paragraph thanking any person or organization which gave help in collecting data or preparing the report, including local institutional help and funding agencies.. It is good practice to thank those who supported technically or financially in the design and implementation of the study. Acknowledgements are usually placed right after the title page or at the end of the report, before the references.
  41. 41. ‫لا التوفيق‬‫ل‬‫لا با‬‫و‬
  42. 42. ‫لا التوفيق‬‫ل‬‫لا با‬‫و‬