Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Report writing

  • Be the first to comment

Report writing

  1. 1. Report WritingReport Writing Preparing you for the summersPreparing you for the summers Dr Sorab SadriDr Sorab Sadri Professor of Political Economy and ManagementProfessor of Political Economy and Management SciencesSciences JECRC University, JaipurJECRC University, Jaipur
  2. 2. WHY THIS PRESENTATION? • Very soon you will be going into the corporate world for a period of 8 weeks in part fulfillment of your MBA requirements and present four copies of your project report. • Since this report will show case you as well as this institute it must be completed in a professional manner. This presentation is to assist you in doing so. It must be read along with the detailed note circulated by JECRC
  3. 3. Relevance • This presentation is valid even for project work undertaken as a part of the JECRC initiative under faculty guidance as well as independent Library Research on selected and approved topics in lieu of industry internship.
  4. 4. Therefore • Lets make our reports more presentable and meaningful. • Let us make our reports more understandable. • Let the report speak for our scholastic achievements at JECRC.
  5. 5. Report Writing • What is a report? • Characteristics of an effective report • Report structure • Procedure for report writing
  6. 6. What is a report? • A report is a structured and formally written presentation directed to interested readers in response to some specific purpose, aim or request. There are many varieties of reports, but generally their function is to give an account of something, to answer a question, or to offer a solution to a problem.
  7. 7. Characteristics of an effective report An effective report is: • appropriate to its purpose and audience • accurate; • logical; • clear and concise; • well organised with clear section heads.
  8. 8. Report structure One important advantage that a report has over other written communication is that it follows a standardised format. This enables readers to find and focus on specific pieces of information. Most reports are modelled on the following structure (modified where necessary).
  9. 9. Report structure 1. Title page 2. Certificates 3. Acknowledgements 4. Table of contents 5. List of Tabs./Figs. 6. Abstract/Summary 7. Company’s Background 8. Introduction 9. Literature Survey 10. Research Objectives 11. Methodology 12. Chapterisation 13. Limitations 14. Conclusions 15. Recommendations 16. Glossary 17. Appendices 18. References
  10. 10. RESEARCH REPORT OUTLINES
  11. 11. Title page Identifies the report with the following information: • Title • Author's name, position and qualifications • Authority for report • Place of origin • Date
  12. 12. Top: The title in block capitals in font size 16 and centered. Next: The full name of the postgraduate student also in block capitals font size 14 Then: A Study Conducted at…………………………………………………….. under the guidance of Prof…………………………………………… From…………………………………To……………………………………………. In part fulfillment of the Masters Degree in Business Management at The School of Management Studies at JECRC University, Jaipur
  13. 13. Certificates  The work done is original and must be so certified by the student in writing.  There must be a sealed and signed certificate from a senior person in the company on the corporate letter head stating that the student has successfully completed the summer project(s). This original letter along with the signed declaration by the student must be attached to the original copy of the dissertation and a copy of the same attached to all copies of the dissertation.  Apart from this the college will also provide a certificate to the student which will be bound to all the copies of the Project Report
  14. 14. Acknowledgement • Acknowledgement must be short and included in the beginning with a declaration that this is an original work of the student.
  15. 15. Table of contents • Shows the section titles and major headings • Listed in order of appearance • Indicates page locations. • Standard page numbering begins with the Introduction. • The Abstract or Executive Summary is usually page numbered with lower case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, etc.)
  16. 16. Table of contents • In the Table of Contents, list only the starting page of each major section. • Have a major section for “Research Questions,” then indent and list each research question separately as subheadings along with start page. • Use a short descriptor for each research question so your readers know what the information is about (not just RQ1, RQ2, etc.).
  17. 17. List of Figures/Tables • It is advisable to include a reference to all tables and figures included in the report in an index format, at the beginning of the report. • This facilitates the reader to quickly link and surf to all pictographic representations.
  18. 18. Abstract / Summary: • [about 1-2 pages] : This is a short overview of your entire report. It should contain a very brief but concise overview of your research purpose and objectives, methods, major findings, and specific conclusions and recommendations.
  19. 19. Company’s Background • [about 1-2 pages] • Page 1 of the report starts here! • Introduce firm, including background /history of the firm, its purpose, mission statement (if any), competitive environment, etc • In short familiarize the reader with the company and its business
  20. 20. Introduction • [about 2 - 3 pages]: • (a) Background of the project; why study is being conducted, for whom; includes a brief summary of the initial client interview. • (b) Statement of the overall project objectives AVOID BILGE AND DO NOT DOWNLOAD INFORMATION FROM COMPANY BROCHURES OR THE INTERNET JUST TO FILL UP PAGES.
  21. 21. Literature Survey • [about 4 - 5 pages]: • includes theory part of the project topic • Remember .. research begins with Literature Survey and does not end there. • Your research question springs from the literature survey • Includes everything a person new to the subject needs to know of your research work...definitions/ jargons/ current scenario/ rules of the game..etc
  22. 22. Research Objectives • [about 1 - 2 pages]: • a list of specific research questions to be answered • you can put the Research Question in bullet form • List the research questions in the order you plan to discuss them in the results section. • Do not discuss or list any research questions you have dropped or ended up not addressing.
  23. 23. Methodology • [about 4 – 5 pgs]: • (a) Type of Research • (b) Method of Research • (c) Data collection method – Describe your procedures and why you chose this particular method, and why it was the best option given your criteria. (secondary/primary)
  24. 24. Methodology • (b) Sample plan. Report all methods and procedures in detail and use appendices as needed for detailed information (i.e., maps, time/area matrix). If you have changed later to other parts of the plan (i.e., locations, times, etc.), only report what you actually ended up doing. • (c) Sample Description. Give your desired and final sample size, report the response rate (number of surveys completed divided by all respondents contacted, not including ineligibles), and describe reasons for non-response, such as refusals. Then, report demographic characteristics of your sample using exhibits as needed. Conclude with an assessment of how well your sample represents the target population.
  25. 25. Methodology • (d) Data Classification • (e) Data Analysis Methods List and discuss the mathematical/statistical or other computational tools employed to analyze the data • Development (including pre-testing) and GENERAL description of questionnaire (i.e., length and major sections). • Put a copy of the final questionnaire in the Appendix and refer to it in this section. • If you are using a schedule then say so and include it in the Appendix.
  26. 26. Findings • Put each research question on a SEPARATE page. • Do NOT discuss any research questions that you did not end up addressing. • For each research question: • (a) Restate the research question (perhaps as the section title). • (b) Identify questions in the questionnaire used to answer the research question and briefly describe the question format. • You need to state the question type (e.g., 5-pt Likert scale anchored by…., 7-pt semantic differential scale anchored by…, checklist with 10 items, 4-item ranking question, open- ended, etc.) but NOT level of measurement (interval, ordinal, nominal—although you could refer to ordinal and nominal as “categorical” questions and interval as “scale or open-ended”—most students who have taken a course in Research Methodology will understand that).
  27. 27. • EXAMPLE: To answer this research question, survey question #3 asked respondents to rate on a 5-point scale where 1 = “very satisfied” and 5 = “very unsatisfied,” a list of 5 different items such as “convenience” and “cleanliness.”. • (c) Report your findings and do not be overly technical in discussing the statistical procedures, although you might footnote inferential test statistics if applicable. • Present your results in a manner your average readers can easily understand! • Summarize your key points and refer to exhibits for detailed findings. Findings
  28. 28. Findings • Be sure to conclude with a summary paragraph that gives your interpretation of findings and your best answer to the research question based on the data. If your findings are “mixed” or inconclusive, say so! • (d) Exhibits should be placed on the same page or the next page as your discussion of the answer to the research question. Do NOT put the exhibits in an appendix!
  29. 29. LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS • [≈ 2 pgs]: • Include a brief discussion of the major project limitations • Limitations include things such as time & money constraints, non- response issues like break offs, non-response to open-ended questions, problems with your research design or questionnaire, cautions about sample representative ness, etc. • Also include • (1) an overall summary of your major conclusions and • (2) a list of recommendations, if appropriate, for your client. The recommendations should be based on your research conclusions. Don’t make recommendations not clearly supported by your findings. A bullet format is often an effective way to list your major conclusions and recommendations if you have them provided you take pains to explain these points somewhere.
  30. 30. Bibliography • The bibliography lists all publications either cited or referred to in preparing the report. • Use the Referencing System recommended either according to the Chicago Manual of Style or the European Style. Both styles have been explained in the Research Methodology Class. • A report without a sufficient bibliography is not acceptable at the postgraduate level.
  31. 31. Glossary (if included) • Take care to see that it is arranged alphabetically • If definitions are taken from a source like the web dictionary or from some published work, then it is appropriate to say so in each case.
  32. 32. • placed at end of a report if included • arranged in the order referred to in the report. • This must include: – A copy of the questionnaire, schedule as well as sample working of data – Any technical or very detailed material (e.g., maps, time sampling grids, instruction sheets for interviewers, etc.). – Any company document that has a direct bearing on the study conducted and which the reader, in your opinion, must be aware of. – A sample of the working in case the data analyzed through SPSS or RATS is extensive e.g. 3000 responses Appendix
  33. 33. EXHIBITS • Do NOT simply cut and paste as that amounts to plagiarism. • Use Excel or SPSS output tables and include it into your project and use these as exhibits. • Make appropriate graphs and professional tables (using either SPSS or Excel). • Each exhibit and appendix item should be referred to in the text (e.g., “as shown in Exhibit 3”) when it is introduced.
  34. 34. EXHIBITS • Each exhibit must be numbered and titled • and should contain labels and other information necessary to interpret it. • Exhibits should be able to suffice as a stand-alone view of results, so make sure they are properly labeled and include legends where needed. • Every table must be numbered, serially, given a title and then inserted in the text to make reference to it easy. All graphs must clearly show what the dependent variable is and what the independent variable is so the axes must be titled.
  35. 35. IN ADDITION: • The report should be written in the third person and in past tense. • Check your early assignments in Research Methodology and class notes for help. • Use headings and subheadings liberally. It makes it easier for the reader to follow along. • The student should use A/4 size white paper and printing should be double-spaced in font size 12 with sub titles in font size 14 and main title in font size 18 (sans serif)
  36. 36. IN ADDITION: • Take care to provide margins: left- 35mm, right -20mm, bottom – 20mm and top -35 mm. • You may wish to begin each separate section on a new page. • It may be easier to produce your report if you keep tables/figures on separate pages from the text. • In any case, the exhibits should be located in the text near the discussion of those figures and not in the appendix.
  37. 37. IN ADDITION: • Check grammar and spelling on your final draft! Part of your grade will be based on grammar, spelling, and proper writing style (which means professional and objective!). At the postgraduate level spelling and grammatical errors are unforgivable so use a good dictionary and the spell check provided on the p.c..
  38. 38. IN ADDITION: • There are times when you may need to explain some things in a few sentences. Use end notes for this purpose. End notes can come at the end of the chapter or at the end of the report. But it must be given chapter wise and numbered appropriately. • Whenever you quote anything more than two sentences or 15 words please indent the same within the text. You may use italics or inverted commas to give the quote but not both.
  39. 39. Grading • The Summer Project is an integral part of the MBA curriculum and every student is expected to treat it seriously and complete an 8 week project in the subject of their specialization i.e. Marketing Finance Information Technology or Human Resources. • When examinations for Semester II end students should start their summer projects immediately thereafter. • Students are expected to maintain regular contact with their project guides @ one conversation a week, and seek guidance after they have put in their individual effort.
  40. 40. Grading • The total marks awarded to Summer Projects in 100 of which 10 marks are for periodic reporting/ correspondence with the internal guide, 30 marks are for the report and 60 marks for its individual oral defense before a panel. This is not only for Finance, Marketing and Human Resources students but all dissertations including all specialization subjects. • The final grade will be given on (one) i.e. the original copy of the dissertation and signed by the panel members taking the oral defense. For this purpose one blank white sheet must be attached at the very beginning of the report and immediately after the replica of the cover. This graded copy will be stored in the examination record room and one copy (unmarked) will go to the JECRC Library for reference.
  41. 41. Grading • One bound copy of the dissertations must be submitted on or before 31st October 2010 to the respective internal guide who will read the same and pass it on to the by Thursday 30th November 2010. The viva voce examinations for oral individual defense before a panel shall commence. Thereafter. Marks for Summer Projects will be reflected in the Mark Sheet issued for Semester III. • The students need to retain one copy with them for future reference and one copy need to be submitted to the company in the format, style and content as desired by their respective company.
  42. 42. Deadlines • Feb 28, Individual Project/ Research Report Proposals should reach guides • April 5, Research objectives decided • Aug 1, Rough draft 2 b submitted to internal guides as a soft copy » can submit earlier thru mail also » be in constant touch with ur guides » @ one conversation a week
  43. 43. FAQ’s • Report Title • Report Length
  44. 44. For your own good take this with the seriousness it merits THANK YOU

×