Identification• HIV stands for Human Immunodeﬁciency Virus.• AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deﬁciency Syndrome.• AIDS is the late stage of HIV infection. It develops once the immune system is seriously damaged. Discoverers of HIV won nobel prize in 2008 Harald zur Hausen, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Luc Montagnier
Demographics• HIV/AIDS is widespread enough to be considered ubiquitous worldwide. It is not associated with any speciﬁc region.• HIV affects about 0.6% of the worlds population, and has killed more than 25 million people since its discovery in 1981• Around 34 million people worldwide currently have HIV/ AIDS.• Over 2.7 million people were infected with HIV in 2010.
HIV• HIV attacks and destroys the human immune system over time. It uses the cells of the immune system for reproduction.• It can be contracted by contact with bodily ﬂuids with an infected person, usually through sharing of needles or unprotected sex.• It is descended from Simian Immunodeﬁciency Virus (SIV), but is speciﬁc to humans.
Natural Resistance• While no one is completely immune to HIV, some people are naturally resistant to the virus.• Resistant people can come from anywhere in Asia and Europe, but most are of Northern European descent• This resistance is attributed to two mutated chromosomes.• Resistance is believed to be related to smallpox or plague.• Those with the highest level of resistance lack a CCR5 receptor, which the virus must attach to in order to infect a cell.
Impact• The Global Fund has been created to ﬁght AIDS, HIV, Malaria, and Tuberculosis, and to help reduce poverty.• Early misconceptions about HIV/AIDS caused the creation of numerous stereotypes. The most proliﬁc stereotype called it the "gay mans disease." People with AIDS would be alienated and shunned by even their closest friends and family.• The AIDS epidemic was responsible for 3.7% of the estimated 57 million deaths worldwide in 2008.
Presentation and Manifestation• HIV has two or three stages depending on the individual: The acute stage, the chronic stage, and AIDS.• HIV does not cause the death of an individual, it makes the body more susceptible to other illnesses.
Acute Stage• Begins two to four weeks after patient is infected.• Caused by a period of extremely fast replication.• During this stage a patient suffers from inﬂuenza-like symptoms (fever, lymphadenopathy, nausea, headache, etc.)• Usually lasts ~ 28 days though it can be longer• During this stage, the HIV infection is usually misdiagnosed as a different illness.
Chronic Stage• The chronic stage is the second stage of the HIV infection.• The beginning of the chronic stage is marked by the disappearance of the acute stage symptoms.• During the chronic stage the virus resides mostly in the lymph nodes, causing them to be constantly swollen ‣ this is because of the large number of viruses trapped in the follicular dendritic cells
AIDS• AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.• AIDS is the third stage of the HIV infection• This stage is marked when the number of T-Cells drops below 200.• HIV patients suffering from AIDS have a high risk of developing other illnesses due to their compromised immune system.• Some patients will never develop AIDS.
Contraction• HIV is contracted through blood to blood contact, unprotected sex, and breast milk• HIV is NOT contracted from saliva, skin contact, or air contamination.
Prevention and Cure• There is currently no cure for HIV/AIDS. The virus reproduces so quickly that a single strain cant be isolated. Because of this no medicine will get rid of all the viruses in a person.• The best hope for HIV patients is to go through highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) which is a combination of at least two antiretroviral medicines.
Prevention and Cure• There is one case in which an HIV positive 40-year-old man was cured of HIV.• The man was given stem cell transplants in order to treat for myeloid leukemia, and then another transplant after it relapsed.• After 20 months doctors reported that HIV levels in the patients blood, bone marrow, and bowel were below the detectable limit.• Some call this a cure while other still think the virus is hidden somewhere else in his body.
Additional Research• Why is HIV’s fast replication rate such a problem? • The fast replication rate of HIV causes there to be more variability in the viruses; this leads to a single individual having multiple strains of HIV at once. Because of this normal viral vaccination, which is done by infecting an individual with non-dangerous form of a virus so that their immune system is able to build an immunity to it, doesn’t work as there are so many different varieties.
Additional Research• Why is it that HIV is so prevalent in Africa? • HIV is extremely prevalent in Africa because many of those those infected with HIV are unable to receive proper medical attention and HIV positive mothers pass the virus on to their children because breast milk is the only way they are able the feed them as infants.