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Body OrganizationOrgan   System   FunctionMarlowe AltmanBiology 120- WW5<br />MEDICAL TERMINOLOGYA Living Language<br />Fr...
Bones<br /><ul><li>Also called osseous tissue
A type of connective tissue
An organ of the musculoskeletal system
Provide support for the body & sites of muscle attachment
Each has their own blood supply, nerves, & lymphatic vessels
206 connected bones form a human skeleton</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Terminology<br />• ankyl/o stiff joint<br />• arthr/o j...
Bones: Formation<br /><ul><li>The formation of bones by calcium & phosphorus occurs in three stages called ossification:
Cartilage- flexible tissue
Osteoblasts- embryonic bone cells
Osteocytes- mature bone cells</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Bones are categorized by their shape:</li></ul>Bones: Categories<b...
Bones: Structure<br /><ul><li>The majority of bones have a similar structure:
A central shaft called diaphysis, & wide ends called proximal & distal epiphysis
Covered with periosteum, a thin connective tissue membrane
Blood vessels, nerves, & lymphatic vessels are found here
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M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones

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M. Altman Ch. 2 Bones

  1. 1. Body OrganizationOrgan System FunctionMarlowe AltmanBiology 120- WW5<br />MEDICAL TERMINOLOGYA Living Language<br />Fremgen & Frucht<br />
  2. 2. Bones<br /><ul><li>Also called osseous tissue
  3. 3. A type of connective tissue
  4. 4. An organ of the musculoskeletal system
  5. 5. Provide support for the body & sites of muscle attachment
  6. 6. Each has their own blood supply, nerves, & lymphatic vessels
  7. 7. 206 connected bones form a human skeleton</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Terminology<br />• ankyl/o stiff joint<br />• arthr/o joint<br />• articul/o joint<br />• burs/o sac<br />• carp/o wrist<br />• cervic/o neck<br />• chondr/o cartilage<br />• clavicul/o clavicle<br />• coccyg/o coccyx<br />• cost/o rib<br />• crani/o head, skull<br />• femor/o femur<br />• fibul/o fibula<br />• humer/o humerus<br />• ili/o ilium<br />• ischi/o ischium<br />• kyph/o hump<br />• lamin/o lamina<br />• lord/o swayback, curve<br />• lumb/o loin<br />• mandibul/o mandible<br />• maxill/o maxilla<br />• metacarp/o metacarpals<br />• metatars/o metatarsals<br />• myel/o bone marrow<br />• orth/o straight<br />• oste/o bone<br />• patell/o patella<br />• ped/o foot<br />• pelv/o pelvis<br />• phalang/o phalanges<br />• pub/o pubis<br />• radi/o radius<br />• sacr/o sacrum<br />• scapul/o scapula<br />• scoli/o crooked, bent<br />• spondyl/o vertebrae<br />• stern/o sternum<br />• synovi/o synovial membrane<br />• tars/o ankle<br />• thorac/o chest<br />• tibi/o tibia<br />• uln/o ulna<br />• vertebr/o vertebra<br />
  8. 8. Bones: Formation<br /><ul><li>The formation of bones by calcium & phosphorus occurs in three stages called ossification:
  9. 9. Cartilage- flexible tissue
  10. 10. Osteoblasts- embryonic bone cells
  11. 11. Osteocytes- mature bone cells</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Bones are categorized by their shape:</li></ul>Bones: Categories<br />www.ck12.org<br />
  12. 12. Bones: Structure<br /><ul><li>The majority of bones have a similar structure:
  13. 13. A central shaft called diaphysis, & wide ends called proximal & distal epiphysis
  14. 14. Covered with periosteum, a thin connective tissue membrane
  15. 15. Blood vessels, nerves, & lymphatic vessels are found here
  16. 16. A dense hard exterior surface called cortical or compact bone
  17. 17. Cancellous or spongy bone inside containing red bone marrow
  18. 18. Blood cell manufactured here
  19. 19. The medullary cavity for yellow bone marrow
  20. 20. Fat cells</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Projections & Depressions<br />Projections<br />Head- large smooth ball at end<br />Neck- narrow connection between head & shaft<br />Condyle- round smooth end<br />Epicondyle- projection above condyle<br />Trochanter- large rough area forattachment ofmuscle<br />Tubercle- small rough area forattachment oftendons & muscle<br />Tuberosity- large rough area forattachment oftendons & muscle<br />Depressions<br />Sinus- hollow cavity<br />Foramen- smooth round opening for nerves & blood vessels<br />Fossa- shallow cavity on the surface<br />Fissure- slit opening<br />
  21. 21. Bones: Axial Skeleton<br /><ul><li>Bones of the skull
  22. 22. Protect the brain, eyes, ears, nasal cavity, & oral cavity
  23. 23. Area for attachment ofmuscles for chewing & movement
  24. 24. Cranium
  25. 25. Frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, spheroid, & occipital
  26. 26. Facial
  27. 27. Mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, vomer, palatine, nasal, & lacrimal
  28. 28. Bone of the neck
  29. 29. Area forattachment of swallowing & speech muscles
  30. 30. Hyoid- between mandible & larynx</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Axial Skeleton<br /><ul><li>Bones of the trunk
  31. 31. Protect organs in the chest cavity
  32. 32. Provides support for the body
  33. 33. Vertebral column
  34. 34. Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, & coccyx
  35. 35. Sternum
  36. 36. Rib cage
  37. 37. 10 pairs attached to the vertebral column & sternum
  38. 38. 2 pairs attached only to the vertebral column</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Skeleton<br />www.public-action.com<br />
  39. 39. Bones: Appendicular Skeleton<br /><ul><li>Area for muscle attachment & movement
  40. 40. Bones of the pectoral girdle & upper extremities
  41. 41. Pectoral gridle- clavicle,& scapula
  42. 42. Upper extremities- humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, & phalanges
  43. 43. Bones of the pelvic girdle & lower extremities
  44. 44. Pelvic gridle or oscoaxe or innominate bone- ilium, ischium, & pubis
  45. 45. Lower extremities- femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, & phalanges</li></li></ul><li>Bones: Joints<br /><ul><li>Formed between two or more bones for movement or minimal movement
  46. 46. Synovial joints- lubricant called synovial fluid allows free movement
  47. 47. Elbow, knee, & shoulder
  48. 48. Cartilaginous joints- solid piece of cartilage for slight movement
  49. 49. Pubic symphysis
  50. 50. Fibrous joints- fusion of bone by thick tissue for almost no movement
  51. 51. Skull</li></li></ul><li>Dem Bones<br />The toe bone connected to the heel bone.<br />The heel bone connected to the foot bone.<br />The foot bone connected to the ankle bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />The foot bone connected to the leg bone.<br />The leg bone connected to the knee bone.<br />The knee bone connected to the thigh bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />The finger bone connected to the hand bone.<br />The hand bone connected to the wrist bone.<br />The wrist bone connected to the arm bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />The arm bone connected to the shoulder bone.<br />The shoulder bone connected to the collar bone.<br />The collar bone connected to the neck bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />Well, the neck bone connected to the chin bone.<br />The chin bone connected to the nose bone.<br />The nose bone connected to the head bone.<br />It’s easy to connect those dry bones.<br />hover over skeleton & select play<br />www.brownielocks.com<br />
  52. 52. For each organ listed below, identify the name of the system it belongs to and then match it to its function.<br />
  53. 53. Bones: References<br /><ul><li>Medical Terminology: A Living Language 4th edition. Fremgen & Frucht. Pearson Education, Inc.
  54. 54. www.ck12.org/flexr/chapter/2425/
  55. 55. www.public-action.com/SkyWriter/WacoMuseum/library/bones1.html
  56. 56. www.brownielocks.com/dembones.html</li>

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