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Locomotion and support


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Locomotion and support

  1. 1. The Skeleton System What would happen if humans didn't have bones? You'd be floppy like a beanbag. Could you stand up? Forget it. Could you walk? No way. Without bones you'd be just a puddle of skin and guts on the floor.
  2. 2. The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. We are actually born with more bones (about 300), but many fuse together as a child grows up. These bones support your body and allow you to move. Bones contain a lot of calcium (an element found in milk, broccoli, and other foods). Bones manufacture blood cells and store important minerals. The longest bone in our bodies is the femur (thigh bone). The smallest bone is the stirrup bone inside the ear. Each hand has 26 bones in it. Your nose and ears are not made of bone; they are made of cartilage, a flexible substance that is not as hard as bone.
  3. 3. Joints: Bones are connected to other bones at joints. There are many different types of joints, including: fixed joints (such as in the skull, which consists of many bones), hinged joints (such as in the fingers and toes), and ball-and-socket joints (such as the shoulders and hips). Differences in males and females: Males and females have slightly different skeletons, including a different elbow angle. Males have slightly thicker and longer legs and arms; females have a wider pelvis and a larger space within the pelvis, through which babies travel when they are born.
  4. 4. LOCOMOTION AND SUPPORT Human and animals need to move from one place to another to: 1. Find food 2. Shelter 3. Mates 4. Avoid predators/dangers The ability to move in particular direction in its environment is called locomotion To allow movement and locomotion , animals need support System. Support in human and animals is provided by a Framework called a skeleton.
  5. 5. The skeletel System is composed of Bones and cartilages. The function of Skeletal system are: 1. It support and gives a definite shape of the body. 2. It acts as a lever system , allowing movement to take place. 3. It protect delicate organs: i. The cranium protect brain ii. The vertebral column protect the spinal cord iii. The rib cage protects the heart and the lungs 4. The bone marrow produces blood cells 5. It stores calcium and phosphorous in the form of calcium phosphate
  6. 6. The Skeleton is divided into two main parts: 1. The Axial skeleton – The skull - The vertebral column - The sternum and the ribs 2. The Appendicular skeleton- The pectoral girdle - The pelvic girdle
  7. 7. The skull : 22 bones The cranial bones-protect the Brain .The facial bones –support the entrance Of digestive system and resporatory system. Suture is the immovable joints that held the skull together Axial skeleton – THE SKULL
  8. 8. Axial Skeleton- STERNUM AND RIBS Thoracic cage – consists of 12 pairs of ribs and a Sternum(breastbone) -encloses and protect the Organ in the thoracic cavity And upper abdominal Cavity.
  9. 9. Rib sternum vertebra A pair of ribs articulates with each vertebra.The tuberculum articulates with the facet on the tranverse process and the capitulum articulates with the capitular facet.
  10. 10. The vertebral column or backbone/spine. Composed of a series of bones called vertebrae. 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae,5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 sacral vertebrae and 4 caudal vertebrae. *Functions: Permit movement of the vertebral column and absorbvertical shock Vertebrae Intervertebral disc* Axial skeleton- VERTEBRAL COLUMN
  11. 11. The ATLAS – the first cervical vertebra ( centrum is absent, neural spine is short, the tranverse process is long, broad and flat and the present of vertebrarterial canal (This attachment allows the nodding Movement of the head.
  12. 12. The AXIS – the second cervical vertebra (The tranverse process are small, the neural spine is large. The centrum is small and projects upwards to form the odontoid process which articulates with the atlas . This allows the head to move from side to side
  13. 13. Pivot joints allow rotation of one bone on another . Example : The joint between the atlas and the axis
  14. 14. A typical Cervical Vertebra
  15. 15. The thoracic Vertebra – has a long, thick neural spine. The centrum is short and thick. It has a facets for articulate with ribs
  16. 16. The LUMBAR vertebra are larger and stronger than the other vertebrae. They give support to the abdomen and provide for attachment of the back muscles.
  17. 17. The appendicular skeleton consist of pectoral girdle , humerus ,ulna , radius , pelvic girdle , femur , tibia and fibula. clavicle scapula humerus radius Ulna carpus metacarpus phalanges
  18. 18. The PELVIC GIRDLE consists of 2 hip bones that provide strong and stable support for the vertebral column.The hips bones are joined to each other at a joint called pubic symphysis. coccyx Obturator foramen femur Patella tibia fibula tarsus metatarsus phalanges
  19. 19. Trabeculae of spongy bone contain red marrow
  20. 20. THE STRUCTURE OF A JOINT A JOINT is a place where two or more bones meet. The bones are held together by though and elastic fibres called LIGAMENTS Ligaments allow movement of the bones at the joint prevent dislocation of the joint during movement Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid into the synovial cavity Synovial fluid acts as a lubricant to reduces friction between the end of the bones. Cartilage that cover the end surfaces of the bone , cushions the joints, absorbs shocks and reduces friction . It also protects the bones from wearing away.
  21. 21. A typical synovial joint
  22. 22. Allows movement of bone in one plane i.e . In either of two opposing direction. - elbows, finger bones , toe bones
  23. 23. Gliding joints( sliding or plane joints )
  24. 24. The most flexible joints. The moveable bone has a rounded end which fits into sockets in a fixed bone. The moveable bone can swivel , or move in many direction.
  25. 25. The face contains 12 skeletal muscle which are attached to the skin. Any movement by these muscles causes changes in facial expression.
  26. 26. When the biceps contracts, the tendons transmit the pulling force produced by the contraction to the forearm. At the same time the triceps relaxes,As a result , the elbow joint flexes or bends and the forearm moves upwards. When the triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes , the forearm extends or straightens
  27. 27. A Grasshopper The flexor muscle in the upper part of a grasshopper’s leg contracts , the lower leg is pulled towards the body. This is sitting position and the hind leg is folded in Z shape
  28. 28. A grasshopper uses three legs to support the body to the ground, while the other three legs move together to make successive steps while walking.
  29. 29. Hydrostatic skeleton in earthworm When circular muscle contract , the longitudinal muscle relax and the animal Becomes thinner and longer . During locomotion , the circular and longitudinal Muscles contract rhythmically to produce peristaltic waves along the body.
  30. 30. Movements in an earthworm
  31. 31. The arrangement of muscles and bones of a birds
  32. 32. The Functions of the fins
  33. 33. SUPPORT IN AQUATIC PLANTS - natural bouyancy of the water - the stem have plenty of air sacs to keep them light and reduce their density. The tissues are spongy and with large air space known as aerenchyma tissues. Cross section of stem to show the air sacs of aerenchyma tissue
  34. 34. Water hyacinth Cross section of stem of water hyacinth Floating plants – have broad leaves , firm but flexible. enough to resist tearing by wave action . Stem and leaves have aerenchyma tissues.
  35. 35. Submerged plants – Hydrilla sp. Have thin , narrow and flexible leaves to provide little resistance – the plant can be tugged at and pulled by water currents without being damaged. No woody tissue. Hydrilla sp
  36. 36. Support in terrestrial plants -woody plants – cellulose wall tissue which have deposits of lignin for added strength. Eg: schlerenchyma tissue , xylem vessels and tracheids Buttress roots -non-woody plants such as herbaceous plant and climbers depend on the turgidity of their cells and other supportive tissues for give support. Parenchyma tissues – store starch , sugar and water Collenchyma tissues – thickened cellulose wall. Gloriosa sp Cross section of woody terrestrial plants
  37. 37. Xylem vessels with different types of thickening by lignin. pitted spiral annular
  38. 38. Summary Aquatic plants are supported by the : Buoyancy of water Aerenchyma tissues Air sacs on the stems Woody plants are supported by the: Xylem Tracheids Sclerenchyma tissues Buttress root Herbaceous plants are supported by the : Turgidity of cells Collenchyma tissues ,parenchyma tissues