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Michael K. Barbour
Sacred Heart University
http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/virtual-schools-annual-2014
• “based upon the personal experiences of
those involved in the practice of virtual
schooling” (Cavanaugh et al., 2009)
• ...
1. Comparisons of student performance based upon
delivery model (i.e., classroom vs. online)
2. Studies examining the qual...
Literature Finding
Bigbie &
McCarroll (2000)
…over half of students who completed FLVS courses
scored an A in their course...
Ballas & Belyk
(2000)
participation rate in the assessment among
virtual students ranged from 65% to 75%
compared to 90% t...
Literature Finding
Kozma et al.
(1998)
“…vast majority of VHS students in their courses
were planning to attend a four-yea...
Literature Finding
CO (2006) “Online student scores in math, reading, and writing have been
lower than scores for students...
Literature Finding
AZ (2011) “[N]early nine of every 10 students enrolled in at least one statewide
online course, all had...
Virtual Public Education In
California: A Study of
Student Performance,
Management Practices and
Oversight Mechanisms at
C...
Several findings suggest that the virtual
education model advanced by K12 Inc. in
California does not adequately serve man...
• Understanding that K¹²-managed schools are
serving large numbers of students who enter
behind grade level in math and re...
• “K12 Inc. virtual schools enroll approximately the same
percentages of black students but substantially more white
stude...
“AYP is not a reliable measure of school
performance…. There is an emerging
consensus to scrap AYP and replace it with a
b...
http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2015/02/02/is-k12-inc-out-of-the-woods.aspx
Director of Doctoral Studies
Sacred Heart University
mkbarbour@gmail.com
http://www.michaelbarbour.com
http://virtualschoo...
SITE 2015 - The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning
SITE 2015 - The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning
SITE 2015 - The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning
SITE 2015 - The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning
SITE 2015 - The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning
SITE 2015 - The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning
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SITE 2015 - The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning

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Barbour, M. K., (2015, March). The disconnect between policy and research: Examining the research into full-time K-12 online learning. A full paper presentation at annual conference for the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, Las Vegas, NV.

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SITE 2015 - The Disconnect Between Policy and Research: Examining the Research into Full-Time K-12 Online Learning

  1. 1. Michael K. Barbour Sacred Heart University
  2. 2. http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/virtual-schools-annual-2014
  3. 3. • “based upon the personal experiences of those involved in the practice of virtual schooling” (Cavanaugh et al., 2009) • “a paucity of research exists when examining high school students enrolled in virtual schools, and the research base is smaller still when the population of students is further narrowed to the elementary grades” (Rice, 2006)
  4. 4. 1. Comparisons of student performance based upon delivery model (i.e., classroom vs. online) 2. Studies examining the qualities and characteristics of the teaching/learning experience  characteristics of  supports provided to  issues related to isolation of online learners (Rice, 2006) 1 Effectiveness of virtual schooling 2 Student readiness and retention issues (Cavanaugh et al., 2009)
  5. 5. Literature Finding Bigbie & McCarroll (2000) …over half of students who completed FLVS courses scored an A in their course & only 7% received a failing grade. Cavanaugh (2001) …effect size slightly in favor of K-12 distance education. Cavanaught et al. (2004) …negative effect size for K-12 distance education. Cavanaugh et al. (2005) FLVS students performed better on a non-mandatory assessment tool than students from the traditional classroom. McLeod et al. (2005) FLVS students performed better on an algebraic assessment than their classroom counterparts. Means et al. (2009) …small effect size favoring online cohorts over face-to- face cohorts based on limited K-12 studies. Chingos & Schwerdt (2014) FLVS students perform about the same or somewhat better on state tests once their pre-high-school characteristics are taken into account.
  6. 6. Ballas & Belyk (2000) participation rate in the assessment among virtual students ranged from 65% to 75% compared to 90% to 96% for the classroom- based students Bigbie & McCarroll (2000) between 25% and 50% of students had dropped out of their FLVS courses over the previous two- year period Cavanaugh et al. (2005) speculated that the virtual school students who did take the assessment may have been more academically motivated and naturally higher achieving students McLeod et al. (2005) results of the student performance were due to the high dropout rate in virtual school courses
  7. 7. Literature Finding Kozma et al. (1998) “…vast majority of VHS students in their courses were planning to attend a four-year college.” Espinoza et al. (1999) “VHS courses are predominantly designated as ‘honors,’ and students enrolled are mostly college bound.” Roblyer & Elbaum (2000) “…only students with a high need to control and structure their own learning may choose distance formats freely.” Clark et al. (2002) “IVHS students were highly motivated, high achieving, self-directed and/or who liked to work independently.” Mills (2003) “…typical online student was an A or B student.” Watkins (2005) “…45% of the students who participated in e- learning opportunities in Michigan were either advanced placement or academically advanced students.”
  8. 8. Literature Finding CO (2006) “Online student scores in math, reading, and writing have been lower than scores for students statewide over the last three years.” OH (2009) …online charter school students experienced significantly lower achievement gains compared to brick-and-mortar charter schools in the state. OH (2009) Online charter schools “rank higher when looking at their ‘value- added’ progress over one year rather than simply measuring their one-time testing performance.” WI (2010) “Virtual charter school pupils’ median scores on the mathematics section of the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination were almost always lower than statewide medians during the 2005- 06 and 2006-07 school years.” CO (2011) “Half of the online students wind up leaving within a year. When they do, they’re often further behind academically then when they started.” MN (2011) “Compared with all students statewide, full-time online students had significantly lower proficiency rates on the math MCA-II but similar proficiency rates in reading.”
  9. 9. Literature Finding AZ (2011) “[N]early nine of every 10 students enrolled in at least one statewide online course, all had graduation rates and AIMS math passing rates below the state average” OH (2011) “[N]early 97 percent of Ohio's traditional school districts have a higher score than the average score of the seven statewide” online charter schools. Those schools in Ohio also underperformed brick-and-mortar schools in graduation rates. PA (2011) 100% of these online charter schools performed significantly worse than feeder schools in both reading and math. AR (2012) …online students performed at levels comparable to their face-to-face counterparts in six out of eight measures, and on the remaining two measures online students outperformed their face-to-face counterparts at a 0.10 statistically significant level. National (2012) “…students at K12 Inc., the nation’s largest virtual school company, are falling further behind in reading and math scores than students in brick- and-mortar schools.” KS (2015) “Virtual school students perform similarly to traditional school students in reading before and after controlling for student demographics. After controlling for demographic differences, virtual school students’ performance in math was similar to that of traditional school students.”
  10. 10. Virtual Public Education In California: A Study of Student Performance, Management Practices and Oversight Mechanisms at California Virtual Academies, a K12 Inc. Managed School System http://www.inthepublicinterest.org/sites/default/files/Virtual_Public_Education_In_California.pdf
  11. 11. Several findings suggest that the virtual education model advanced by K12 Inc. in California does not adequately serve many of its students. In every year since it began graduating students, except 2013, CAVA has had more dropouts than graduates. Its academic growth was negative for most of its history and it did not keep up with other demographically similar schools after 2005. Its Academic Performance Index scores consistently ranked poorly against other demographically similar schools and the state as a whole.
  12. 12. • Understanding that K¹²-managed schools are serving large numbers of students who enter behind grade level in math and reading K12 Inc. Public Affairs. (2012). Response to NEPC report on K12 Inc.. Herndon, VA: K12, Inc.. Retrieved from http://www.k12.com/response-to-nepc#.VPfKu2TF_Kk
  13. 13. • “K12 Inc. virtual schools enroll approximately the same percentages of black students but substantially more white students and fewer Hispanic students relative to public schools in the states in which the company operates” • “39.9% of K12 students qualify for free or reduced lunch, compared with 47.2% for the same-state comparison group.” • “K12 virtual schools enroll a slightly smaller proportion of students with disabilities than schools in their states and in the nation as a whole (9.4% for K12 schools, 11.5% for same-state comparisons, and 13.1% in the nation).” • “Students classified as English language learners are significantly under-represented in K12 schools; on average the K12 schools enroll 0.3% ELL students compared with 13.8% in the same-state comparison group and 9.6% in the nation.” Miron, G. & Urschel, J. (2012). Understanding and improving full-time virtual schools. Denver, CO: National Education Policy Center.
  14. 14. “AYP is not a reliable measure of school performance…. There is an emerging consensus to scrap AYP and replace it with a better system that measures academic progress and growth. K12 has been measuring student academic growth on behalf of its partner schools, and the results are strong with academic gains above the national average.” Jeff Kwitowski - K12, Inc. Vice President of Public Affairs
  15. 15. http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2015/02/02/is-k12-inc-out-of-the-woods.aspx
  16. 16. Director of Doctoral Studies Sacred Heart University mkbarbour@gmail.com http://www.michaelbarbour.com http://virtualschooling.wordpress.com

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