Fish and Amphibians      CHAPTER 30
FishSECTION 2
What is a Fish?Aquatic vertebratesMost have paired fins for movement, scales for protection, and gills for exchanging ga...
Evolution of FishFirst Fish (510 mya) – jawless with armored bodiesThe Age of Fish (505 – 410 mya) – evolution of jaws a...
Form and Function in FishFeeding    Every mode of feeding is seen in fish    Some fish exhibit more than one type of fe...
Form and Function in FishRespiration    Most exchange gases using gills                                       Gills
Form and Function in FishCirculation    Closed circulatory system that pumps blood in a single loop     around the body
Form and Function in FishExcretion    Fish eliminate nitrogen waste in the form of ammonia    Some wastes diffuse throu...
Form and Function in FishResponse    Well developed nervous systems organized around a brain    Fish that are active du...
Form and Function in FishMovement    Many bony fish have a gas filled swim bladder that allows them     to adjust their ...
Form and Function in FishReproduction    Eggs fertilized either internally or externally, depending on the     species ...
Groups of FishGroups of Fish    Jawless fish    Cartilaginous fish    Bony fish
Jawless FishNo true teeth or jawsSkeletons are made of fibers and cartilageLack vertebrae, keep their notochords as adu...
Sharks and their RelativesClass Chondrichthyes contains sharks, rays, skates, sawfishes, and chimaerasSkeletons built en...
Bony FishClass OsteichthyesSkeletons made of boneAlmost all are ray-  finned fish
Ecology of FishMost fish spend their entire lives in either fresh or salt waterSome migrate to breed     Anadromous – l...
Amphibians  SECTION 3
What is an amphibian?An amphibian is a vertebrate that, with some exceptions:    lives in water as a larva and on land a...
Evolution of AmphibiansThe first amphibians appeared in the late Devonian Period, about 360 million years agoThe transit...
Amphibian Adaptations                        Lungs Pelvic GirdleLeg Bones:The legs of a landvertebrate must be            ...
Form and Function in AmphibiansFeeding                             Mouth     EsophagusTadpoles – filter feeders or herbiv...
Form and Function in AmphibiansRespirationLarval amphibians – gas exchange through skin and gillsAdults – usually gas ex...
Form and Function in Amphibians             To body,   To body,             lungs      lungs      Heart                   ...
Form and Function in AmphibiansExcretionKidneys filter wastes from bloodUrine exits through the cloacaReproductionMost ...
Frog Metamorphosis
Form and Function in AmphibiansMovementLarva wiggle their bodies to moveAdults have 4 limbs to walk, run, or jumpRespons...
A Frog’s Sense Organs
Groups of AmphibiansThree groups:    Salamanders    Frogs and toads    Caecilians
SalamandersLong bodies and tailsMost have four legsAdults and larvae are carnivoresAdults live in moist woods where th...
Frogs and ToadsFrogs and toads have the ability to jumpFrogs tend to have long legs and make lengthy jumpsToads have re...
CaeciliansLegless animals that live in water or burrow in moist soil or sedimentFeed on small invertebrates such as term...
Ecology of AmphibiansThe global amphibian population is decliningIt is possible that amphibians are susceptible to a wid...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Fish and amphibians notes

1,451 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,451
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
21
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
38
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fish and amphibians notes

  1. 1. Fish and Amphibians CHAPTER 30
  2. 2. FishSECTION 2
  3. 3. What is a Fish?Aquatic vertebratesMost have paired fins for movement, scales for protection, and gills for exchanging gases
  4. 4. Evolution of FishFirst Fish (510 mya) – jawless with armored bodiesThe Age of Fish (505 – 410 mya) – evolution of jaws and paired finsThe Rise of Modern Fish  Two major groups that live today  Fish with skeletons made of cartilage  Fish with skeletons made of true bone
  5. 5. Form and Function in FishFeeding  Every mode of feeding is seen in fish  Some fish exhibit more than one type of feeding  Food is digested internally Esophagus Stomach Mouth
  6. 6. Form and Function in FishRespiration  Most exchange gases using gills Gills
  7. 7. Form and Function in FishCirculation  Closed circulatory system that pumps blood in a single loop around the body
  8. 8. Form and Function in FishExcretion  Fish eliminate nitrogen waste in the form of ammonia  Some wastes diffuse through the gills and others through the kidneys Kidney
  9. 9. Form and Function in FishResponse  Well developed nervous systems organized around a brain  Fish that are active during the day have well developed eyes Brain
  10. 10. Form and Function in FishMovement  Many bony fish have a gas filled swim bladder that allows them to adjust their buoyancy  Move by contracting muscles on either side of the backbone Swim bladder
  11. 11. Form and Function in FishReproduction  Eggs fertilized either internally or externally, depending on the species  Oviparous – eggs hatch outside the mother’s body  Oviviparous – eggs stay inside the mother’s body  Viviparous – embryos stay inside the mother’s body
  12. 12. Groups of FishGroups of Fish  Jawless fish  Cartilaginous fish  Bony fish
  13. 13. Jawless FishNo true teeth or jawsSkeletons are made of fibers and cartilageLack vertebrae, keep their notochords as adultsTwo classes: lampreys and hagfish
  14. 14. Sharks and their RelativesClass Chondrichthyes contains sharks, rays, skates, sawfishes, and chimaerasSkeletons built entirely of cartilage
  15. 15. Bony FishClass OsteichthyesSkeletons made of boneAlmost all are ray- finned fish
  16. 16. Ecology of FishMost fish spend their entire lives in either fresh or salt waterSome migrate to breed  Anadromous – live in salt water but migrate to freshwater to breed (Ex: salmon)  Catadromous – live in freshwater but migrate to saltwater to breed (Ex: North American Eels)
  17. 17. Amphibians SECTION 3
  18. 18. What is an amphibian?An amphibian is a vertebrate that, with some exceptions:  lives in water as a larva and on land as an adult  breathes with lungs as an adult  has moist skin that contains mucous glands  lacks scales and claws
  19. 19. Evolution of AmphibiansThe first amphibians appeared in the late Devonian Period, about 360 million years agoThe transition from water to land required that the terrestrial vertebrates had to: • breathe air • protect themselves and their eggs from drying out • support themselves against the pull of gravity
  20. 20. Amphibian Adaptations Lungs Pelvic GirdleLeg Bones:The legs of a landvertebrate must be Skin: The skin and the lining ofstrong enough to hold its the mouth cavity of many adultweight. amphibians are thin and richly supplied with blood vessels. Watery mucus is secreted by glands in the skin.
  21. 21. Form and Function in AmphibiansFeeding Mouth EsophagusTadpoles – filter feeders or herbivores that graze on algaeAdults – almost entirely Stomach carnivorous
  22. 22. Form and Function in AmphibiansRespirationLarval amphibians – gas exchange through skin and gillsAdults – usually gas exchange occurs through lungsCirculationCirculatory system forms a double loop circulating oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood throughout the body
  23. 23. Form and Function in Amphibians To body, To body, lungs lungs Heart and skin From and skin From Lung Body Lung Kidney s Ureter Urinary bladder Left CloacaRight atriuatriu mm Ventricle
  24. 24. Form and Function in AmphibiansExcretionKidneys filter wastes from bloodUrine exits through the cloacaReproductionMost species, male fertilizes egg externally in waterSome fertilize eggs internallyMost abandon their eggs after laying them, but a few take care of their young
  25. 25. Frog Metamorphosis
  26. 26. Form and Function in AmphibiansMovementLarva wiggle their bodies to moveAdults have 4 limbs to walk, run, or jumpResponseWell developed nervous systems  Nictitating membrane helps keep eyes moist  Tympanic membranes allow them to hear  Lateral line helps to sense water movement
  27. 27. A Frog’s Sense Organs
  28. 28. Groups of AmphibiansThree groups:  Salamanders  Frogs and toads  Caecilians
  29. 29. SalamandersLong bodies and tailsMost have four legsAdults and larvae are carnivoresAdults live in moist woods where they tunnel under rocks and rotting logs
  30. 30. Frogs and ToadsFrogs and toads have the ability to jumpFrogs tend to have long legs and make lengthy jumpsToads have relatively short legs and are limited to short hopsFrogs are more closely tied to water
  31. 31. CaeciliansLegless animals that live in water or burrow in moist soil or sedimentFeed on small invertebrates such as termitesMany have fishlike scales embedded in their skin
  32. 32. Ecology of AmphibiansThe global amphibian population is decliningIt is possible that amphibians are susceptible to a wide variety of environmental threats

×