Chapter 30 Power Point[1]


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Chapter 30 Power Point[1]

  1. 1. Chapter 30 Power Point By: Adam Goetsch Period 3 4/8/09
  2. 2. Chapter 30 section 1
  3. 3. What are Chordates? <ul><li>Chordates are members of the phylum Chordata. A chordate is an animal that has, for at least some part of its life a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal pouches; and a tail that extends beyond the anus. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are Chordates? (continued) <ul><li>The hollow nerve cord runs along the dorsal part of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Notochord- a long supporting rod that runs through the body just below the nerve chord. </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal pouches- are paired structures in the throat (pharynx) region. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Chordates <ul><li>Vertebrates- </li></ul><ul><li>Non- vertebrates- the two groups of non-vertebrates chordates are the tunicates and lancelets. </li></ul><ul><li>Tunicates- filter- feeders that are in the subphylum Urochordata that look anything like us. </li></ul><ul><li>Lancelets- small fishlike creatures of the subphylum Cephalochordate </li></ul>
  6. 7. Chapter 30 section 2: Fishes
  7. 8. What is a Fish? <ul><li>Fish are aquatic vertebrates most fishes have paired fins, scales, and gills. </li></ul><ul><li>Fins are used for movement, scales for protection, and gills for exchanging gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Some fish, such as catfish, do not have scales. </li></ul><ul><li>Many fish, such as sharks, lampreys, and perch are no more similar to one another than humans are to frogs. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Evolution <ul><li>The evolution of jaws and the evolution of paired fins were important developments during the rise of fish. </li></ul><ul><li>First fish- fossil records were odd- looking, jawless creatures whose bodies were armored with bony plates </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Fish- during the Ordovician and Silurian periods about 505 to 410 million years ago, fish underwent a major adaptive radiation </li></ul>
  9. 10. Evolution (continued) <ul><li>Still other ancient fish kept their bony armor and possessed a feeding adaptation that would revolutionize vertebrates evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws connected in early fish accompanied the evolution of paired pectoral (anterior) and pelvic (posterior) fins. Fins were attached to girdles- structures of cartilage or bone the support the fins. </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage- is a strong tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone </li></ul>
  10. 11. Form and Functions in Fish <ul><li>Feeding- herbivores, carnivores, parasites, filter feeders, and detritus feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration- most use gills located on either side of the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation- Atrium- a large muscular chamber that serves as a one-way compartments for blood that is about to enter the ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles- a thick- walled, muscular chamber, is the actual pumping portion of the heart </li></ul>
  11. 12. Form and Functions in Fish (continued) <ul><li>Excretion- like many aquatic animals, most fishes rid themselves of nitrogenous wastes in the form of ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>Response- cerebrum- is responsible for all voluntary activities of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum- coordinates body movements </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla Oblongata- controls the functioning of many internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral line system- sensitive receptors detects gentle currents and vibrations in the water </li></ul>
  12. 13. Form and Functions in Fish (continued) <ul><li>Movements- most move by alternately contracting paired sets of muscles on either side of the back bone </li></ul><ul><li>Swim Bladder- an internal, gas- filled organ that adjusts their buoyancy </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction- Oviparous- fish whose eggs hatch outside the mother’s body </li></ul><ul><li>Ovoviviparous- the eggs stay in the mother’s body after the internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Viviparous- the embryos stay in the mother’s body after internal fertilization </li></ul>
  13. 14. Groups of Fish <ul><li>When you consider their basic internal structures, all living fish can be classified into three groups: jawless fish, cartilaginous fish, and bony fish </li></ul><ul><li>Jawless fish- lamprey and hagfish </li></ul><ul><li>Sharks and relatives- in the class Chondrichthyes. Sharks, rays, skates, and a few uncommon fish such as Sawfish and Chimaeras </li></ul><ul><li>Bony fish- class Osteichthyes </li></ul><ul><li>There are still seven living species of bone fish that are still not classified. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Chapter 30 section 3: Amphibians
  15. 17. What are Amphibians? <ul><li>An amphibian is a vertebrates that, with some exceptions, lives in water as a larva and on land as an adult, breathes with lungs as an adult, has moist skin that contains mucous glands, and lacks scales and claws </li></ul>
  16. 18. Evolution <ul><li>Early amphibians evolved several adaptations that helped them live at least part of their lives out of water. Bones and limbs and limb girdles of amphibians became stronger, permitting more efficient movements. Lungs and breathing tubes enabled amphibians to breathe air. The sternum, or breastbone, formed a bony shield to support and protect internal organs especially the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>First amphibian, Eogyrinus, is thought to have been about 5 meters long </li></ul>
  17. 19. Form and Function <ul><li>Feeding: </li></ul><ul><li>Adult amphibians are almost entirely carnivorous. </li></ul><ul><li>Tadpoles are filter feeders or herbivores. </li></ul><ul><li>at the end of the large intestine is a muscular cavity called the cloaca , through which digestive wastes, urine, and eggs/ sperm leave the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration: </li></ul><ul><li>Larval stage gas exchange happens through skin and gills. </li></ul><ul><li>Gills are replaced when they change into adults </li></ul>
  18. 20. Form and Functions (continued) <ul><li>Circulation: </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory system is known as two loops. First loop carries oxygen- poor blood from the heart to the lungs and skin, and takes oxygen- rich blood from the lungs and skin back to the heart. The second loop transports oxygen rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body and then carries oxygen- poor blood from the body back to the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians use kidney to filter wastes from the blood-urine </li></ul>
  19. 21. Form and Functions (continued) <ul><li>Reproduction: </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians eggs do not have shells but do dry out if not kept moist. When two amphibians reproduce the male jumps on the females back and squeezes. This makes the female release up to 200 eggs that the male then fertilizes. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement: </li></ul><ul><li>babies- move like fish </li></ul><ul><li>adults- walk or run and jumping </li></ul>
  20. 22. Form and Functions (continued) <ul><li>Response: </li></ul><ul><li>brain has same basic parts of a fish with well developed nervous and sensory systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Sight- </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent nictitating membrane- the surface of the eye that protects it from damage under water and kept moist on land </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing- </li></ul><ul><li>Tympanic membrane- located on each side of the head </li></ul>
  21. 23. Group of Amphibians <ul><li>The three groups of amphibians alive today are salamanders, frogs and toads, and caecilians. </li></ul><ul><li>Salamanders - </li></ul><ul><li>Class- Urodela </li></ul><ul><li>Description- four legs, long bodies and tails, and both larval and adult stages are carnivores. Live mostly in moist woods under rotting logs and rocks </li></ul>
  22. 24. Group of Amphibians (continued) <ul><li>Frogs and Toads: </li></ul><ul><li>class- Anura </li></ul><ul><li>Description- frogs have long legs making them have lengthy jumps as to the toad has short legs with small hops. Frogs live close to water. Toads live in moist woods and even deserts. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Group of Amphibians (continued) <ul><li>Caecilians- </li></ul><ul><li>class- Apoda </li></ul><ul><li>Description- legless animals that live in water and burrow in moist soil or sediment. Feed on small invertebrates such as termites. Many have fishlike scales imbedded in their skin. </li></ul>