Unit 25 Vertebrates


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Unit 25 Vertebrates

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPT All vertebrates share common characteristics.<br />
  2. 2. tail<br />hollow nerve cord<br />notochord<br />pharyngeal slits<br />The phylum Chordata contains all vertebrates and some invertebrates. <br />Chordates share four features at some stage of development.<br />notochord<br />hollow nerve cord <br />pharyngeal slits<br />tail <br />
  3. 3. tail<br />hollow nerve cord<br />notochord<br />pharyngeal slits<br /><ul><li>Most chordates lose some or all of these characteristics in adulthood. </li></ul>Tunicates (Sea Squirts) only have these characteristics as larva. Once they settle into their sessile filter-feeding adults, none of these are visible.<br />
  4. 4. All vertebrates share common features. <br />An endoskeleton allows vertebrates to grow to large sizes.<br />internal<br />made of bone or cartilage<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>An endoskeleton can be divided into four parts.
  6. 6. braincase (cranium)</li></ul>braincase<br /><ul><li>vertebrae
  7. 7. bones
  8. 8. gill arches (in fish and some amphibians)</li></ul>vertebrae<br />bones<br />
  9. 9. <ul><li>There are seven classes of vertebrates.
  10. 10. Agnatha are jawless fish, such as hagfish.
  11. 11. Cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) include the sharks and rays
  12. 12. Bony fish (Osteichthyes) obviously have bones.
  13. 13. Amphibians are characterized by the presence of four limbs and water permeable skin.
  14. 14. Reptiles, birds, and mammals are characterized by the presence of an amnion and water-tight skin.
  15. 15. Birds are characterized by the presence of feathers.
  16. 16. Mammals are characterized by the presence of hair.</li></li></ul><li>Agnatha<br />Chondrichthyes<br />Osteichthyes<br />Amphibia<br />Mammalia<br />Aves<br />bony fish<br />birds<br />lamprey<br /> amphibians<br />mammals<br />cartilaginous fish<br />FEATHERS<br />Feathers insulate birds from the cold and allow for flight.<br />FOUR LIMBS<br />Four limbs let animals move from the water to life on land.<br />JAWS<br />Jaws helped vertebrates to become successful predators.<br />HAIR<br />Hair helps mammals to maintain constant body temperatures by roviding insulation from the cold.<br />VERTEBRAE<br />Vertebrates have a segmented backbone.<br />What group seems to be missing from this slide?<br />
  17. 17. Fossil evidence sheds light on the origins of vertebrates. <br />Tunicates may be the closest relatives to vertebrates.<br />The first recognizable vertebrates were jawless fish.<br />Two groups of jawless fish still exist today.<br /><ul><li>lampreys
  18. 18. hagfish</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT The dominant aquatic vertebrates are fish.<br />
  19. 19. water<br />flow<br />Fish are vertebrates with gills and paired fins. <br />Fish use specialized organs called gills to breathe underwater.<br />sheets of thick, frilly tissue filled with capillaries <br />take in dissolved oxygen from water, release carbon dioxide<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>Countercurrent flow is the opposite movement of water against the flow of blood in the fish’s gills.</li></li></ul><li>dorsal fin<br />caudal fin<br />pectoral fin<br />pelvic fin<br />anal fin<br /><ul><li>Fins are surfaces that project from a fish’s body.
  21. 21. keep fish stable
  22. 22. redirect water around fish as it swims
  23. 23. help fish maneuver in water</li></li></ul><li>cranium<br />cranium<br />cranium<br />gill arches<br />mouth<br />mouth<br />mouth<br />Jaws evolved from gill supports. <br />Jaws developed from gill arches located around the pharynx.<br /><ul><li>Jaws gave vertebrates a huge advantage as predators.</li></li></ul><li>Only two groups of jawed fish still exist. <br />Cartilaginous fish such as sharks and rays (970 species).<br /><ul><li>Cartilaginous fish have skeletons made of cartilage.
  24. 24. Bony fish make up the vast majority vertebrates at over 29,000 species!</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cartilaginous fish include the Holocephali and Elasmobranchs.
  25. 25. Holocephali include ratfish, a small group of deep-sea fish.
  26. 26. Elasmobranchs include sharks, rays, and skates.</li></li></ul><li>lateral line<br /><ul><li>All fish have a lateral line system.
  27. 27. sensory system
  28. 28. sensitive to small changes in water movement</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Bony fish have skeletons made of bone.
  29. 29. operculum protects a bony fish’s gills
  30. 30. movements of operculum help bony fish move water over gills</li></li></ul><li>Ray-finned fish have a fan of bones in their fins. <br />Ray-finned fish have fins supported by a fan-shaped array of bones.<br />embedded in a thin layer of skin and connective tissue<br />light, collapsible, and easy to move<br />
  31. 31. <ul><li>Ray-finned fish have a variety of body plans.
  32. 32. long torpedo-shaped bodies (barracuda)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Ray-finned fish have a variety of body plans.
  33. 33. flattened bodies (plaice)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Ray-finned fish have a variety of body plans.
  34. 34. elaborate camouflage (sea dragon)</li></li></ul><li>swim bladder<br /><ul><li>A swim bladder helps a fish float higher or lower in the water.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Some ray-finned fish have both lungs and gills.
  35. 35. can breathe air and survive out of water for several hours at a time
  36. 36. example: bichir found in West Africa</li></li></ul><li>lobe fin<br />Lobe-finned fish have paired rounded fins supported by a single bone. <br />Lobe-fins are paired pectoral and pelvic fins that are round in shape.<br />not as maneuverable as ray-fins<br />able to support weight<br />
  37. 37. <ul><li>Only seven species of lobe-finned fish exist today.
  38. 38. coelacanths
  39. 39. lungfish </li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT Amphibians evolved from lobe-finned fish.<br />
  40. 40. Amphibians were the first animals with four limbs. <br />Tetrapods are vertebrates that have four limbs.<br />The fossilized remains of Tiktaalik roseae indicate it was a transitional species between fish and tetrapods.<br />
  41. 41. <ul><li>A number of adaptations allow amphibians to live on land.
  42. 42. large shoulder and hip bones
  43. 43. mobile, muscular tongue
  44. 44. middle ear
  45. 45. breathe through skin or with gills or lungs</li></li></ul><li>Amphibians return to the water to reproduce. <br />Amphibians use many strategies to keep their eggs wet.<br />lay eggs directly in water<br />lay eggs on moist ground<br />wrap eggs in leaves<br />brood eggs in pocketson the female’s back<br />
  46. 46. adult frog<br />young frog<br />fertilized eggs<br />tadpoles<br /><ul><li>Tadpoles are aquatic larvae of frogs.
  47. 47. During metamorphosis, tadpoles develop into their adult form.
  48. 48. Not all amphibians undergo metamorphosis.</li></li></ul><li>Modern amphibians can be divided into three groups.<br />Salamanders have a long body, four walking limbs, and a tail.<br />There are over 300 species of salamanders.<br />
  49. 49. <ul><li>Frogs are the largest amphibian group and include toads.
  50. 50. There are over 3000 species of frogs.
  51. 51. Glands in the skin of frogs and toads contain poisons that help to protect them from predators.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Caecilians are legless, burrowing, tropical amphibians.
  52. 52. There are 160 species of caecilians.</li></li></ul><li>
  53. 53. Amnion Protectsand surroundsthe embryo<br />Amniotes can retain moisture. <br />An amniote develops inside a thin, tough, membranous sac as an embryo or fetus.<br />
  54. 54. <ul><li>Several characteristics help amniotes prevent water loss.
  55. 55. keratin forms a hydrophobic layer
  56. 56. larger size of kidneys and intestines increases water absorption</li></li></ul><li>Amniotes do not need to return to water to reproduce.<br />The amniotic egg is an almost completely waterproof container.<br />prevents embryo from drying out as it develops<br />each egg represents a large investment of energy<br />
  57. 57. <ul><li>Not all amniotes lay eggs.
  58. 58. reptiles such as garter snakes retain their eggs
  59. 59. most mammals develop inside the mother’s reproductive tract</li></li></ul><li> placenta<br /> umbilical cord<br /> uterus<br /> amniotic sac<br /><ul><li>The placenta is a membranous organ that develops in female mammals during pregnancy.
  60. 60. lines the uterine wall and partially envelops the fetus
  61. 61. carries nutrients from mother to embryo and removes wastes</li>